Pythian Odes

The victory commemorated in this poem was gained Pyth. 29, i. e. Ol. 76, 3 (474 B.C.). Hieron had himself proclaimed as a citizen of Aitna in order to please the city founded by him, Ol. 76, 1 (476 B.C.), to take the place of Katana. In the same year he had gained a victory over the Etruscans off Cumae, thus crowning the glory of the battle of Himera. The great eruption of Aitna, which began Ol. 75, 2 (479 B.C.), and continued several years, figures largely in this poem, which has been much admired and often imitated, notably by Gray in his “Progress of Poesy.”

Pindar's poems are constellations. There are figures as in the heavens, a belt, a plough, a chair, a serpent, a flight of doves, but around them clusters much else. The Phorminx is the name of the constellation called the first Pythian. In the first part of the poem the lyre is the organ of harmony, in the second the organ of praise. In the first part everything is plain. Apollo and the Muses are to the Greek the authors of all harmony, artistic, political, social, spiritual. The lyre, as the instrument of Apollo, is the symbol of the reign of harmony over the wide domain of Zeus. Everything that owes allegiance to Zeus obeys his son Apollo, obeys the quivering of the lyre's strings. So the footstep of the dancer, the voice of the singer. Even the thunderbolt, the weapon of Zeus, is quenched, the bird of Zeus slumbers, the wild son of Zeus, violent Ares, sleeps a deep sleep. This is the art of the son of Leto and the deep-bosomed Muses (vv. 1-12).

All those that Zeus hath claimed as his own are ruled by harmony. Not so those that he loves not. When they hear the sound of the Pierides, they strive to flee along the solid earth and the restless main. So he who now lies in dread Tartaros, enemy of the gods, Typhon, reared in the famed Kilikian cave. His hairy breasts are pinched by the high sea-shores of Kymé and Sicily, and Aitna's heaven-mounting column pinions him — Aitna, nurse of keen snow, from whose inmost recesses belch purest streams of unapproachable fire, rivers that roll sparkling smoke by day, while purple flame by night bears in its whirl masses of stone down to the surface of the deep, plashing. These jets of fire are upflung by yon monster. Terrible are they — a marvel to behold, a marvel even to hear from those that have beheld. Such a creature is that which lies bound by peak and plain, while his back is goaded by his craggy couch (vv. 13-28).

May we not be of those thou lovest not, may we find favor in thy sight, O Zeus, lord of Aitna's mount — the forehead of this fruitful land, whose namesake neighbor city the famed founder glorified when the herald proclaimed her in the Pythian course by reason of Hieron's noble victory with the chariot. As men who go on shipboard count as the first blessing a favoring wind, an omen of a happy return, so we count from this concurrence that the city will henceforth be renowned for wreaths of victory and chariots, her name be named mid banquet-songs. Lykian and Delian lord, thou that lovest the Kastalian fount of Parnasos, make this purpose good, make the land a land of men (vv. 2940).

So far Apollo and the Muses dominate — dominate as the interpreters of Zeus. Now Zeus himself comes forward. Apollo is mentioned no more, but the prayer to him, v. 40, is matched by a prayer to the Muse in v. 58.

Zeus, Apollo, the Muses, have now led us up to the praise of Hieron. The achievements of mortals are all due to the gods. Men are bards; are valiant and eloquent through them (v. 41); and so, through them, Hieron has the virtues of his high position, and all the so-called counsels addressed to him are merely indications of what he is, or thinks he is, or tries to be. In praising his hero Pindar picks out first the quality that had recently distinguished him, and this success was won θεῶν παλάμαις (v. 48). The future lacks nothing but forgetfulness of toils and pains. Greater prosperity, greater wealth, it cannot give. It can only administer (οὕτω, v. 46). When the forgetfulness of the bitter past comes, then the memory of all the glorious achievements of war, with all its proud wealth, will return. May our hero, like Philoktetes of old (v. 50), have a god to be his friend and benefactor. But the song is not for Hieron alone. His son, Deinomenes (v. 58), shares the joy in the victory of his sire; his son is king of the city Aitna, which Hieron built for him, founding it with god-sent freedom in the laws of Doric stock, after the principles of Doric harmony (v. 65). May this harmony between people and princes abide, and may father pass to son the keynote of concordant peace (v. 79) — peace within and peace from barbaric foes without. Zeus keep the Phoenician and the Tyrrhenian battle-shouts at home, now that they have seen the fell destruction of their ships, the punishment of their insolence, before Kymé — that weight that rests upon Typhon's breast. For what Salamis to Athens, what Plataia to Sparta, that to the sons of Deinomenes is the day of Himera (v. 80).

But brevity is best. Twist the strands tight. Less, then, will be the blame, for surfeit dulleth the edge of expectation. Others' blessings and advantages are a hateful hearing; yet envy is better than pity. Hold, Hieron, to thy high career. Still guide the people with a just helm. Still be thy word forged on the anvil of truth. No sparkle of dross that flieth past is without its weight, coming from thee. Steward of many things thou art. Faithful witnesses there are many for right and wrong. Firm abide in generous temper. Wax not weary in expenditure. Let thy sail belly to the wind. Let no juggling gains lure thee. After mortals liveth fame alone as it revealeth the lives of the departed to speakers and to singers. Kroisos' generous kindliness perisheth not. The cruel soul of Phalaris — brazen-bull-burner — is whelmed by hating bruit; no harps beneath the roof-tree receive him to soft fellowship with warbling boys. Good fortune is first; then good fame. Whoso hath chanced on both and made both his own hath received the highest crown (vv. 81-100).

The mood is Dorian, the rhythms dactylo-epitrite.

Of the five triads, the first two deal with harmony; the third and the fourth have to do with Hieron's work as a founder, his work as a warrior, with the sweet music of a concordant state, the sweet silence from the barbaric cry, have to do with Aitna and Himera. The last triad avoids the weariness of praise by disguising it under sage counsel, with the intimation that Hieron has not only been prosperous, but has gained the fair voices of the world.

Strophe 1

χρυσέα φόρμιγξ: Cf. Hes. Scut. Hercl. 202: ἱμερόεν κιθάριζε Διὸς καὶ Δητοῦς υἱὸς χρυσείῃ φόρμιγγι, N. 5.24: φόρμιγγ᾽ Ἀπόλλων ἑπτάγλωσσον χρυσέῳ πλάκτρῳ διώκων.

ἰοπλοκάμων: Cf. O. 6.30: παῖδα ϝιόπλοκον. Our violet is the ἴον μέλαν of the Greeks, and “black” is the nearest translation of ιο-.

σύνδικον ... κτέανον: “Joint possession.”

βάσις: The dancer's foot listens and obeys the throb of the cithern.

ἀοιδοί: The singers of the chorus.

προοιμίων: “Preludes.”

ἀμβολὰς τεύχῃς = ἀναβολὰς ποιῇ, ἀναβάλλῃ. Cf. Od. 1. 155: τοι φορμίζων ἀνεβάλλετο καλὸν ἀείδειν.

ἐλελιζομένα: “Quivering.” O. 9.14: φόρμιγγ᾽ ἐλελίζων.

αἰχματὰν κεραυνόν : αἰ. better as a subst. than as an adjective. κ. is personified, “spearwielder Thunderbolt.”

ἀενάου πυρός: So ἄνθεμα χρυσοῦ (O. 2.79).

ἀνὰ σκάπτῳ Διός: The eagle on the sceptre of Zeus is a familiar figure. Compare So. fr. 766: σκηπτοβάμων αἰετὸς κύων Διός.

ὠκεῖαν: Of the inherent quality. See note on O. 12.3. Contrasting epithet to heighten χαλάξαις.

Antistrophe 1

ἀρχὸς οἰωνῶν: Cf. O. 13.21: οἰωνῶν βασιλέα.

ἀγκύλῳ κρατί: Od. 19. 538: αἰετὸς ἀγκυλοχείλης.

κνώσσων: This is a deep sleep with fair visions. See O. 13.71.

ὑγρὸν νῶτον: The feathers rise and fall like waves on the back of the sleeping bird in response to his breathing.

ῥιπαῖσι : . often of winds and waves. So P. 4.195: κυμάτων ῥιπὰς ἀνέμων τε.

κατασχόμενος = κατεχόμενος. There is no aor. feeling. Cf. Od. 11. 334: κηληθμῷ δ᾽ ἔσχοντο, and Thompson's notes on Plat. Phaidr. 238 D, 244 E.

βιατὰς Ἄρης: To match αἰχματὰν κεραυνόν above.

ἰαίνει: With θυμόν, O. 7.43. “Lets his heart (himself) dissolve in deep repose.”

κῆλα: Compare O. 1.112; 2, 91; 9, 5-12; I. 4 (5), 46 for the same metaphor.

ἀμφί: With the peculiar poetic use, rather adverbial than prepositional. “With the environment of art,” “by virtue of.” So P. 8.34: ἐμᾷ ἀμφὶ μαχανᾷ.

βαθυκόλπων: Like βαθύζωνος, of stately and modest beauty. The deep girdle and the deep folds might be due to amplitude or to dignity, or both. βαθύκολπος of Mother Earth, P. 9.101.

Epode 1

πεφίληκε: Emotional perfect = pres., though on the theory that φίλος means “own,” π. = “hath made his own.”

ἀτύζονται: On the concord, see O. 2.92; O. 10 (11), 93. The neuter ὅσσα conjures up strange shapes.

βοάν: Of music. O. 3.8; P. 10.39; N. 5.38.

γᾶν: ἀμαιμάκετον with πόντον throws up as a complementary color στερεάν, “solid,” with γᾶν. For ἀμαιμάκετον, “furious,” “restless,” see Il. 6. 179, where it is used of the Chimaira. The sea is the favorite haunt of monsters.

κατά: On κ. with the second member, see O. 9.94.

αἰνᾴ Ταρτάρῳ: So Ἰσθμός is fem. in P. O. 8.48; N. 5.37; I. 1, 32.

Τυφώς: See Il. 2. 782, where his bed is said to be εἰν Ἀρίμοις, which is in Kilikia. Cf. Aisch. P. V. 351:τὸν γηγενῆ τε Κιλικίων οἰκήτορα ... ἑκατογκάρανον ... Τυφῶνα” . In this passage, too long to quote entire, Prometheus prophesies the eruption in language that seems to be a reflex of Pindar's description.

Κιλίκιον ... ἄντρον: P. 8.16: Τυφὼς Κίλιξ.

πολυώνυμον = πολυθρύλητον.

ὑπὲρ Κύμας: Behind and above — not immediately over. The whole region is volcanic. Ischia, the ancient Pithekussa, where Hieron established a colony, was rudely shaken by an earthquake in 1880, almost destroyed in 1883.

κίων ... οὐρανία: Aisch. P. V. 349: κίον᾽ οὐρανοῦ τε καὶ χθονὸς ὤμοιν ἐρείδων.

πάνετες ... τιθήνα: τ. is adjective enough to take an adverb.

τιθήνα: Kithairon is χιονοτρόφος, Eur. Phoen. 803.

Strophe 2

ἐρεύγονται μὲν ... ποταμοὶ δέ: Aisch. P. V. 367: ἐκραγήσονταί ποτε ποταμοὶ πυρός.

ἁγνόταται: The commentators see in this epithet Pythagorean reverence of fire. The reverence of fire is Indo-European. For μὲν ... δέ, see O. 11 (10), 8.

παγαί: ποταμοί ... κρουνούς: All carefully used. παγαί, “well up,” ποταμοί, “roll,” κρουνοί are “shot up” in jets.

ἁμέραισιν ... ἐν ὄρφναισιν: Cf. O. 1.2: νυκτὶ ... ἐν ἁμέρᾳ.

βαθεῖαν: Measured from the top of the mountain. “Far below.”

σὺν πατάγῳ: Effective position.

Ἁφαίστοιο: This personification was not so vivid to the Greek as it is to us. See note on P. 3.39.

τέρας ... θαυμάσιον προσιδέσθαι: For the inf., compare I. 3 (4), 68: ὀνοτὸς μὲν ἰδέσθαι. θαῦμα ἰδέσθαι is a common Homeric phrase.

θαῦμα δὲ καὶ παρεόντων ἀκοῦσαι: καί is naturally “even,” and goes with ἀκοῦσαι. “It is a marvel of marvels to see, a marvel even to hear.” This makes προσιδέσθαι refer to the φλόξ, the ἀκοῦσαι to the σὺν πατάγῳ. So Schneidewin. παρεόντων (for which we have the variant παριόντων) is genitive absolute without a subject, “when men are present.” P. uses the construction somewhat charily (see note on O. 13.15), and Cobet's παρ᾽ ἰδόντων, “to hear of from those who have seen,” would be seductive in prose. P. does not happen to use παρά thus.

Antistrophe 2

οἷον: Exclamatory, O. 1.16.

στρωμνά: The bed of the monster is αἰνὰ Τάρταρος, v. 15.

εἴη, Ζεῦ, τὶν εἴη: Asyndeton is common and natural in prayers (see O. 1.115), and so is the suppression of the dative (ἡμῖν).

μέτωπον: The mountain rises from the plain as the forehead from the face. The transfer of the designations of parts of the body to objects in nature is so common as not to need illustration. Whatever original personifying power this transfer may have had seems to have faded out in Greek poetry (Hense, Adolf Gerber).

τοῦ ... ἐπωνυμίαν: Cf. O. 10 (11), 86: ἐπωνυμίαν χάριν νίκας ἀγερώχου.

Πυθιάδος δ᾽ ἐν δρόμῳ: Dissen compares O. 1.94: τᾶν Ὀλυμπιάδων ἐν δρόμοις, but there τᾶν . depends on κλέος.

ἀνέειπε: “Proclaimed.”

ὑπέρ: “By reason of.”

καλλινίκου ἅρμασι: P. 11.46: ἐν ἅρμασι καλλίνικοι.

Epode 2

ναυσιφορήτοις: “Seafaring.” P. refers to a belief of the craft. In this case a good beginning makes a good ending.

ἐς πλόον ... οὖρον: Connected by the rhythm.

ἐοικότα: “Likelihoods” for “likelihood” Cf. O. 1.52: ἄπορα, P. 2.81: ἀδύνατα, P. 4.247: μακρά.

τυχεῖν: In Thukyd. also the regular construction of εἰκός is the aor. inf., never the fut. 1, 81, 6:εἰκὸς Ἀθηναίους ... μήτε ... δουλεῦσαι μήτε καταπλαγῆναι” . So 1, 121, 2; 2, 11, 8; 3, 10, 6, al.

δὲ λόγος: “This (faithful) saying.”

ταύταις ἐπὶ ξυντυχίαις: “With this good fortune to rest on.”

δόξαν: “Belief.”

λοιπόν: So λοιπὸν αἰεί, P. 4.256. — νιν = πόλιν.

σὺν εὐφώνοις θ.: “'Mid tuneful revels.”

Λύκιε: So Hor. Od. 3, 4, 61:Delius et Patareus Apollo” , Patara being in Lykia. In solemn invocations the gods are appealed to by names which remind them of their favorite abodes.

Δάλοι᾽ ἀνάσσων: The participle here and in φιλέων is almost substantive. For the elision of Δάλοι᾽, see O. 13.35.

ἐθελήσαις: “Deign.” P. uses βούλομαι but once (fr. VIII. 1). Attic distinctions do not always apply to the earlier period, but be it noted that ἐθέλω or θέλω is the higher word; hence regularly θεοῦ θέλοντος.

ταῦτα: The implied wishes and hopes.

νόῳ: Local dative, the range of which is narrower even in poetry than is commonly supposed.

εὔανδρον: τιθέμεν must be understood with this as well as with νόῳ. A slight zeugma, τ. being there “put” or “take,” and here “make.” Herm. reads εὐανδροῦν.

Strophe 3

μαχαναί: Sc. εἰσι, “ways and means.”

ἀρεταῖς: “Achievements.”

σοφοί: Specifically of poets. Cf. O. 1.9; P. 1.12; N. 7.23. P. is thinking of his class in σοφοί, the βιαταὶ and περίγλωσσοι being put in another by the force of τε.

περίγλωσσοι: Supposed to refer to the rhetorical school of Korax, who began his career under Hieron. See O. 2.96.

ἔφυ^ν: Gnomic aorist. P. identifies φύσις with θεός. See O. 9.107. 111.

μὴ ... βαλεῖν: ἔλπομαι takes μή as involving wish; βαλεῖν may be fut. (cf. P. 10.55) or aor. (N. 4.92). The negative favors the aor. (μὴ βάλοιμι). P. 4.243 the neg. οὐκέτι indicates the reading πράξεσθαι.

χαλκοπάρᾳον: N. 7.71: ἀπομνύω μὴ τέρμα προβὰς ἄκονθ᾽ ὧτε χαλκοπάρᾳον ὄρσαι θοὰν γλῶσσαν. The tongue, which P. handles boldly, is the missile here also. Being a javelin, it is forged, v. 86. See O. 6.82.

ὡσείτε: The ellipsis (ὡσεί τις βάλοι) is hardly felt. Cf. O. 6.2: ὡς ὅτε.

ἀγῶνος ... ἔξω: “Outside of the lists,” so as not to count.

παλάμᾳ: See P. 3.57.

ἀμεύσασθαι): “Surpass.” Cf. P. 6, end.

ἀντίους: Supposed to refer to Simonides and Bakchylides. It is conjectured that there was to be a contest of poets.

εἰ γὰρ ... εὐθύνοι: A wish that runs over into a condition. See O. 1.108.

πᾶς χρόνος: All time to come, O. 6.56; N. 1.69.

οὕτω: “As heretofore.”

εὐθύνοι: Cf. N. 2.7: εὐθυπομπὸς αἰών. The nautical image was still in the poet's eye. Cf. v. 34 and O. 13.28: Ξενοφῶντος εὔθυνε δαίμονος οὖρον.

καμάτων δ᾽ ἐπίλασιν: Victory brings serenity (O. 1.98); breathing space (O. 8.7); tranquillity (N. 9.44). Hieron suffered with the stone.

παράσχοι: See O. 1.39.

Antistrophe 3

ἁνίχ᾽: “What time.” P.'s usage does not militate against the rule, ἡνίκα: ὅτε :: καιρός: χρόνος. See O. 7.35; 9, 33.

εὑρίσκοντο: “Gained” in the usu. sense of the middle of this verb. So P. 3.111. The active “find” can be used in similar connections (so P. 2.64, and elsewhere), and, in fact, the active being the general, is often used where the particular middl might be expected. The plural of Hieron and his brothers.

τιμάν: τιμή is something practical, and does not correspond to “honor” pure and simple.

δρέπει: Active, O. 1.13; P. 1.49; P. 4.130; P. 6.48; fr. XI. 72, Middle, N. 2.9; fr. IX. 1, 6; fr. IX. 2, 1. The active is colder.

ἀγέρωχον: O. 10 (11), 87: νίκας ἀγερώχον. . only of persons in Homer, who does not use it in the same sense acc. to the lexicographers. To P. the word must have carried with it the γέρας notion denied to it by modern etymologists. The booty gained at Himera was immense.

νῦν γε μάν: A statement that defies contradiction. Cf. v. 63.

Φιλοκτήταο: The type of a suffering hero. See the Philoktetes of Sophokles. “At that very time Syracuse contained the famous statue of the limping Philoktetes by Pythagoras of Rhegion, of which Pliny says that those who looked at it seemed to feel the pain (xxxiv. 59). Even if we hesitate to believe that the sculptor intended an allusion to Hieron, we may well suppose that Pindar's comparison was suggested by the work of Pythagoras” (Jebb).

τὰν ... δίκαν: Notice the rare article with δίκαν, “wise.”

ἐστρατεύθη: An aor. pass., where the middle would seem more natural. Cf. ἐπορεύθη. We can understand the passive of Philoktetes “who was won to the war,” not so well of Hieron.

σὺν δ᾽ ἀνάγκᾳ: “Under the pressure of necessity.” The comitative, personal character of σύν makes it a favorite preposition in poetry, keeps it out of model prose.

φίλον: Predicate, “fawned him into a friend.” Rauchenstein's μὴ φίλον is not Pindaric.

καί τις ἐὼν μεγαλάνωρ: τις is referred to the proud citizens of Kymé (Cumae), who were forced to beg help from the tyrant. According to Euripides, Odysseus and Diomed, according to Sophokles, Odysseus and Neoptolemos, were sent for Philoktetes. Odysseus was evidently not a favorite with P. (N. 7.21; 8, 26), and μεγαλάνωρ may be a sneer.

μεταβάσοντας: So Kayser for the MS. μεταλάσοντας or μεταλλάσσοντας. Compare O. 1.42: μεταβᾶσαι. Böckh gives μεταμείβοντας (Hesych., Suid., Zonaras); but while the present is admissible on general grounds (O. 13.59; P. 4.106), we should not emend it into a text. μεταμεύσοντας would be nearer, but it has even less warrant than Wakefield's μετανάσσοντας, a future formed on the aorist of ναίω (P. 5.70: ἐν Ἄργει ἔνασσεν Ἡρακλέος ἐκγόνους).

Epode 3

τοξόταν: The bow of Philoktetes, being the chief thing, could not be left out. We are not to look for any correspondence to this in the history of Hieron.

Πριάμοιο πόλιν ... πόνους Δαναοῖς: Chiastic not only in position, but also in sense. For the shifting stress on Πριάμοιο and πόνους, see O. 6.5.

ἀσθενεῖ μὲν χρωτὶ βαίνων, ἀλλὰ μοιρίδιον ἦν: On the shift from participle to finite verb, see O. 1.13.

θεός: As one short syllable, possibly as θές. Compare Θέμναστος, Θέδωρος in Megaric inscriptions (Cauer ^{2} 104, and G. Meyer, Gr. Gr. § 119). Schneidewin suggests θεὸς σωτήρ. ὀρθωτήρ does not occur elsewhere. Compare N. 1.14: Ζεὺς ... κατένευσεν ... Σικελίαν ... ὀρθώσειν.

χρόνον ... καιρόν: With the usu. differentiation of “time” and “season.” “To give the season” is “to give in season.”

Δεινομένει: Hieron had appointed his son, Deinomenes, regent of Aitna (v. 60).

κελαδῆσαι: O. 1.9.

ποινάν: “Reward.” So in a good sense N. 1.70; Aisch. Suppl. 626. The reward is the κέλαδος.

Αἴτνας βασιλεῖ: In Greek one is king of the Aitnaians, rather than king of Aitna. The genitive of the place has something of the iure divino stamp. So of the old house of the Battiads, P. 4.2: βασιλῆι Κυράνας. Cf. N. 8.7.

Strophe 4

τῷ: “For whom.” Deinomenes was succeeded by Chromios. See N. 9.

πόλιν κείναν: κ. seems to prove that the ode was sung, not at Aitna, but at Syracuse.

θεοδμάτῳ σὺν ἐλευθερίᾳ: See O. 3.7.

Ὑλλίδος στάθμας: There were three Doric tribes Ὑλλεῖς, Πάμφυλοι, and Δυμᾶνες. The Πάμφυλοι and Δυμᾶνες were the descendants of Pamphylos and Dyman, sons of Aigimios. The Herakleidai did not belong to the Doric stock proper, and so are distinguished from the descendants of Aigimios, P. 5.72: Ἡρακλέος ἔκγονοι Αἰγιμιοῦ τε. Compare also fr. I. 1, 3: Γ̔́λλου τε καὶ Αἰγιμιοῦ. So Ὑλλὶς στάθμα and Αἰγιμιοῦ τεθμοί cover the ground of the Dorians, official and actual.

ἐν νόμοις: Cf. O. 2.83: βουλαῖς ἐν ὀρθαῖσι Π̔αδαμάνθυος.

καὶ μάν: “Ay, and I dare swear.” A clear intimation, if such were needed, that the Herakleidai were not real Dorians. This does not make it necessary to change the MS. Δωριεῖς, v. 65, to Δωρίοις. They all belonged to the Δωριεὺς στρατός, fr. I. 1, 4.

ναίοντες: Though they dwell far from the old home of Aigimios, they are still a Δωρὶς ἀποικία, I. 6 (7), 12.

τεθμοῖσιν: See O. 6.69.

ἔσχον: “They gat” (O. 2.10). The occupation of Amyklai was a memorable event in Doric annals. I. 6 (7), 14: ἕλον δ᾽ Ἀμύκλας Αἰγεῖδαι. We must not forget nor yet exaggerate Pindar's personal interest in all this as an Aigeid.

λευκοπώλων: The Dioskuroi were buried at Therapnai, on the left bank of the Eurotas. The white color of the steeds of the Dioskuroi is fixed by the myth. So Cic. N. D. 3, 5, 11:Tyndaridas ... cantheriis albis ... obviam venisse existimas?” White horses belonged to royalty, P. 4.117. White was not a favorite color for horses in Vergil's time (Georg. 3, 82), but that does not concern us here. Even in the Apocalypse (19, 11) the KING OF KINGS is mounted on a white horse.

Antistrophe 4

Ζεῦ τέλειε: Zeus, God of the Accomplishment, in whose hands are the issues of things. Compare O. 13.115.

αἰεὶ δέ: On δέ, after the vocative, see O. 1.36. The infinitive may be used in wish and entreaty, but δίδοι τοίαν for δὲ τοιαύταν would be more natural. Mommsen's δὸς τοίαν for τοιαύταν is based on the Scholiast's παράσχου. τοιαύταν αἶσαν refers to the first line of the strophe, θεοδμάτῳ σὺν ἐλευθερίᾳ. “Grant that the judgment of the world may with truth assign such a lot to citizens and kings.”

Ἀμένα: Amenas, or Amenanos, “the unsteady” (mod. Giudicello), a stream of varying volume, which flowed through the city of Aitna.

διακρίνειν: Is used of legal decision, O. 8.24; of marking off by metes and bounds, O. 10 (11), 51.

λόγον: See O. 1.28, where ἀλαθὴς λόγος is kept apart from βροτῶν φάτις and δεδαιδαλμένοι μῦθοι.

σύν τοι τίν: “With thy blessing.”

υἱῷ τ᾽ ἐπιτελλόμενος: The position favors the close connection with σὺν τίν, “and with a son to whom he gives commands.” The regent who receives Hieron's behests, being a son, may be expected to carry them out in his spirit.

γεραίρων: A significant concession to the new city, which at once becomes something heroic and divine; “by paying honor due.”

λίσσομαι νεῦσον: Asyndeton in prayer.

ἅμερον: Proleptic. “In peace and quiet.”

ὄφρα ... ἔχῃ, instead of ἔχειν, the temporal final sense of ὄφρα being hardly felt. ἔχῃ is intr.

κατ᾽ οἶκον: Hdt. 6, 39:εἶχε κατ᾽ οἴκους.

Φοῖνιξ = Poenus, Carthaginian.

Τυρσανῶν τ᾽ ἀλαλατός: This forcible form of expression, which is built on the same lines as βία Ἡρακλέος, σθένος ἡμιόνων, is made still bolder by the participle ἰδών, as if ἀλαλάζων Τυρσανός had been written.

ναυσίστονον ... πρὸ Κύμας: Best explained ὅτι ὕβρις πρὸ Κύμης ναυσίστονος ἐγένετο. There is no Pindaric warrant for the use of ὕβρις as “loss,” “damage.” The reflection that their overweening insolence off Cumae had brought groans and lamentations to the ships (cf. P. 2.28) would silence their savage yell and keep them quiet at home. The Etruscans must have been especially prominent in this famous engagement: Diodoros does not mention the Phoenicians (Carthaginians) in his account (11, 51).

πρὸ Κύμας: Brings up the image of the ὑβριστής already depicted (v. 18). Typhon symbolizes every form of violence, domestic (Σικελία) or foreign (Κύμη).

Epode 4

οἷα: See O. 1.16.

ἀρχῷ: Hieron. The dat. with the aor. partic. is easy, as the aor. is the shorthand of the perf.

βάλεθ᾽: The middle is peculiar, as if the ἁλικία were an ἄγκυρα, as I. 5 (6), 13: βάλλετ᾽ ἄγκυραν.

Ἑλλάδ᾽: Where Greek was spoken there was Ἑλλάς. Here Magna Graecia is specially meant.

ἐξέλκων: The image of the sea-fight is half kept up.

ἀρέομαι, κτἑ.: “From Salamis I shall try to get for my reward the favor of the Athenians,” i. e., when I desire reward from the Athenians I shall seek it by praising Salamis. P. climbs up to Himera by parallels, as is his wont. See O. 1, init.

ἐρέω: For the shift, see v. 55. Böckh's ἐρέων lightens the construction if we take it as a present, denied for classic times; but compare Theogn. 492; Soph. O. C. 596.

πρὸ Κιθαιρῶνος μάχαν: Knit together. πρό, “in front of,” “at the foot of.” The battle of Plataia is meant, where the Lacedaemonians distinguished themselves especially.

ταῖσι: Refers to Σαλαμῖνος (= τῆς ἐν Σαλαμῖνι μάχης) and πρὸ Κιθαιρῶνος μάχαν. Not simply “where,” but “in and by which.”

εὔυδρον ἀκτάν: Cf. O. 12.19. παρὰ δὲ σὰν εὔυδρον ἀκτάν, Ἱμέρα, would not be unpoetic nor un-Pindaric.

Ἱμέρα: Genitive of Ἱμέρας, the river.

τελέσαις: Participle; ἀρέομαι must be recalled.

ἀμφ᾽ ἀρετᾷ: v. 12.

καμόντων: Rather strange, so soon after κάμον, in view of P.'s ποικιλία, though the Greeks have not our dread of repetition. See P. 9.123.

Strophe 5

καιρόν: Adverbial. “If thy utterance prove in season.”

φθέγξαιο: The poet to himself with a wish (O. 1.108).

πείρατα συντανύσαις: “Twisting the strands of many things into a brief compass.” The contrast is ἐκτείνειν λόγον, τείνειν, ἀποτείνειν, ἐκτείνειν, μακράν. See Intr. Ess. p. xliii (note).

ἕπεται: “Is sure to follow.” Indic. apodosis, as I. 2, 33; 4 (5), 14.

μῶμος: O. 6.74. In moralizing passages the metaphors follow in rapid succession — not so much mixing as overlapping. A defence of P. in this regard that should flatten his language out so as to make the metaphor disappear would be worse than a confession of the worst.

ἀπὸ ... ἐλπίδας: “Satiety with its gruesomeness dulls quick hopes.” αἰανής, of doubtful etymology, is used of κόρος again Ι. 3 (4), 2. The hopes speed to the end; the poet, by lingering, wearies, and not only so, but rouses resentment at the blessings of those whom he praises. This prepares the return to the praise of Hieron, which is couched in imperatives, a rhetorical form strangely misunderstood to convey a real sermon.

ἀστῶν δ᾽ ἀκοά: “What citizens hear.” Citizens are naturally envious (O. 6.7), and the good fortune of others is an ill-hearing, and oppresses their soul in secret. “What is heard from citizens” has in its favor P. 11.28: κακολόγοι δὲ πολῖται.

κρέσσων ... οἰκτιρμοῦ φθόνος: Proverbial. Hdt. 3, 52:φθονέεσθαι κρέσσον ἐστὶ οἰκτίρεσθαι.

μὴ παρίει καλά: “Hold to thy noble course.” παρίει possibly suggested the following metaphor. Notice the large number of present imperatives, as in the παραίνεσις of Isokrates ad Demonicum (1).

νώμα ... στρατόν: P. 8.98: ἐλευθέρῳ στόλῳ πόλιν τάνδε κόμιζε. On στρ. see O. 11 (10), 17.

ἀψευδεῖ δὲ πρὸς ἄκμονι χάλκευε γλῶσσαν: This is counted as one of P.'s harsher metaphors, in spite of Cic. de Orat. 3, 30, 121:non enim solum acuenda nobis neque procudenda lingua est.” P. might have continued the figure just given, for the tongue may be considered a rudder (compare P. 11.42 with James 3, 4), but the vibrating tongue is to Pindar a javelin (compare κῆλα, v. 12), and in N. 7.71 he has ἄκονθ᾽ ὧτε χαλκοπάρᾳον ὄρσαι θοὰν γλῶσσαν. χάλκευε grows out of νώμα. The “true anvil” refers in all likelihood to the shaping of the arrow or javelin on a part of the anvil designed for that purpose. The figure is reflected in the next sentence.

Antistrophe 5

εἴ τι καὶ φ.: καί, “never so.”

παραιθύσσει: P. is thinking of the sparks that fly from the anvil, sheer dross it may be (φλαῦρον), but “surely you must know, coming from you, it rushes as a mighty mass.” If the figure is pressed, the moral is “Hammer as little as possible,” but the figure is not to be pressed. φέρεται, “is reported,” the common rendering, is too faint after παραιθύσσει.

ταμίας: A higher word than “steward,” in Engl. Compare O. 14.9.

ἀμφοτέροις: Is “good and bad,” as θάτερον is “worse.”

εὐανθεῖ ... παρμένων: “Abide in the full flower of thy spirit.” Contrast to Phalaris.

εἴπερ τι φιλεῖς, κτἑ.: Arguing on a basis of conceded facts.

ἁκοὰν ἁδεῖαν ... κλύειν: A good explanation of the idiom εὖ ἀκούειν.

μὴ κάμνε λίαν δαπάναις: The Christian exhortation, “Be not weary in welldoing,” is addressed to well-doers, and Hieron's expenditure was doubtless liberal enough. It does not follow that he hoarded because he was φιλάργυρος. Of the virtue of generosity Kroisos was the model soon to be adduced.

ἱστίον ἀνεμόεν: The sail (so as to be) breezeful, (so as) to belly with the breeze. Cf. I. 2, 39: οὐδέ ποτε ξενίαν οὖρος ἐμπνεύσαις ὑπέστειλ᾽ ἱστίον ἀμφὶ τράπεζαν.

μὴ δολωθῇς ... κέρδεσςιν): Referred by some to “courtier arts,” but it is better to keep the generosity side uppermost until we come to Kroisos. Tr. “juggling gains.” No mean saving on the one hand, no grasping at unworthy gains on the other. The positive exhortation stands between the two negatives.

φίλος: The commentators note P.'s familiarity. What other word was possible for a Greek gentleman?

ὀπιθόμβροτον: Sensitive as Hieron is to the voice of the world about him, he is far from deaf to the acclaim of posterity.

Epode 5

ἀποιχομένων ... ἀοιδοῖς: Cf. N. 6.33: ἀποιχομένων γὰρ ἀνέρων ἀοιδαὶ καὶ λόγοι τὰ καλά σφιν ἔργ᾽ ἐκόμισαν.

δίαιταν = βίοτον, which is the parallel, O. 2.69.

μανύει = ἀπαγγέλλει.

λογίοις: Usually interpreted of prose-writers, the early logographers; but it may refer to panegyrists. Compare not only N. 6.33, just quoted, but the same ode, v. 51: πλατεῖαι πάντοθεν λογίοισιν ἐντὶ πρόσοδοι νᾶσον εὐκλέα τάνδε κοσμεῖν.

Κροίσου: A romantic figure, if one may say so, in Greek history, though, perhaps, Lydian influence has not been sufficiently emphasized. That a Greek with such close relations to Delphi as Pindar bore should have given a niche to Kroisos is not strange.

ἀρετά: “Generosity,” as often.

τὸν δὲ ταύρῳ χαλκέῳ καυτῆρα: κ. takes the dative of instrument by virtue of its transparently verbal nature.

νόον: Acc. of specification to νηλέα. The prose laws of position are not to be pressed. τὸν δέ may well be “the other,” and the rest in apposition.

ταύρῳ χαλκέῳ: A survival or revival of Moloch worship.

Φάλαριν: See Introd. O. 2.

κατέχει: Evil report weighs upon the memory of Phalaris as Aitna upon the body of Typhon, though κατέχει may be used of a weight of glory, O. 7.10; δ᾽ ὄλβιος ὃν φᾶμαι κατέχοντ᾽ ἀγαθαί.

νιν ... κοινωνίαν ... δέκονται: κ. is construed after the analogy of δέξιν δέχονται, which we have

ἐφ᾽ [σξ. προφάσει] σ᾽ ἐγὼ καὶ παῖδες αἱ λελειμμέναι
δεξόμεθα δέξιν ἥν σε δέξασθαι χρεών.

ὀάροισι: Depends on κοινωνίαν.

τὸ δὲ παθεῖν εὖ: We might expect the present, but the notion of achievement will serve. N. 1.32: εὖ τε παθεῖν καὶ ἀκοῦσαι.

δευτέρα μοῖρα: So So. O. C. 145 speaks of πρώτης μοίρας. With the sentiment compare I. 4, 12: δύο δέ τοι ζωᾶς ἄωτον μοῦνα ποιμαίνοντι τὸν ἄλπνιστον εὐανθεῖ σὺν ὄλβῳ εἴ τις εὖ πάσχων λόγον ἐσλὸν ἀκούσῃ.

ἐγκύρσῃ καὶ ἕλῃ (ἀμφότερα). The two verbs show a combination of luck and will.

This victory, gained not at the Pythian games, but at the Theban Iolaia or Herakleia, is probably to be assigned to Ol. 75, 4 (477 B.C.), in which year Hieron had, by his interposition, saved the Epizephyrian Lokrians from a bloody war with Anaxilas, tyrant of Rhegion. The poem, with its dissonances, echoes the discord of the times. Hieron was just then at enmity with his brother, Polyzelos, who had taken refuge with his connection, Theron, the friend of Pindar, and a war was impending. The strain makes itself felt amid all the congratulation.

It is a strange poem, one in which divination and sympathy can accomplish little. Only we must hold fast to the commonsense view that Pindar did not undertake to lecture Hieron.

“Great Syracuse,” the poet says, “rearer of men and horses, I bring this lay from Thebes in honor of Hieron's victory with the four-horse chariot, gained not without the favor of Artemis, goddess of Ortygia, thus wreathed with glory. For Artemis and Hermes, god of games, aid Hieron when he yokes his horses and calls on the God of the Trident. Other lords have other minstrels, other praises. Let Kinyras be praised by Kyprian voices, Kinyras beloved of Apollo, and minion of Aphrodite. Thou, Hieron, beloved of Hermes and minion of Artemis, art praised by the voice of the virgin of Epizephyrian Lokris, to whose eye thy power hath given confidence. Grateful is she. Well hath she learned the lesson of Ixion, whose punishment, as he revolves on the winged wheel, says: Reward thy benefactor with kind requitals.”

So far the opening (vv. 1-24).

In P. 1 we had one form of ὕβρις, sheer rebellion, typified by Typhon. Here we have another typified by Ixion, base ingratitude. Typhon belonged from the beginning to those ὅσα μὴ πεφίληκε Ζεύς (P. 1.13). Ixion was one of those who εὐμενέσσι πὰρ Κρονίδαις γλυκὺν εἷλον βίοτον (v. 25). Ixion was another, but a worse, Tantalos. Tantalos sinned by making the celestial meat and drink common (O. 1.61). Ixion sinned by trying to pollute the celestial bed (v. 34). Each was punished in the way in which he had sinned. Tantalos was reft of food and drink (note on O. 1.60). Ixion was whirled on his own wheel, became his own iynx (compare v. 40 with P. 4.214). Ixion's sin was of a deeper dye, and so, while the son of Tantalos came to great honor (O. 1.90), the son of Ixion became the parent of a monstrous brood.

This is the myth (vv. 25-48).

It is, indeed, not a little remarkable that in every Hieronic ode there is a dark background — a Tantalos (O. 1), a Typhon (P. 1), an Ixion (P. 2), a Koronis (P. 3) — and the commentators are not wrong in the Fight-with-the-Dragon attitude in which they have put Hieron. Who is aimed at under the figure of Ixion no one can tell. The guesses and the combinations of the commentators are all idle. Hieron is a manner of Zeus. He was the Olympian of Sicily as Perikles was afterwards the Olympian of Athens, and the doom of Tantalos, the wheel of Ixion, the crushing load of Typhon, the swift destruction of Koronis, the lightning death of Asklepios were in store for his enemies. The Hieronic odes are Rembrandts, and we shall never know more.

Passing over to the praise of Hieron, the poet emphasizes with unmistakable reduplication the power of God. “God decides the fate of hopes, God overtakes winged eagle and swift dolphin, humbles the proud, to others gives glory that waxes not old (v. 52). This be my lay instead of the evil tales that Archilochos told of the Ixions of his time. Wealth paired with wisdom, under the blessing of Fortune — this is the highest theme of song” (v. 56). The key of the poem lies in this double θεός. God is all-powerful to punish and to bless, and Hieron is his vicegerent.

The praise of Hieron follows, his wealth, his honor. His champion, Pindar, denies that he has ever had his superior in Greece, and boards the herald-ship all dight with flowers to proclaim his achievements — now in war, now in council; now on horse, and now afoot (vv. 57-66). But as we gaze, the herald-ship becomes a merchant-ship (v. 67), and the song is the freight — a new song, which forms the stranger afterpiece of a poem already strange enough. This afterpiece is an exhortation to straightforwardness. The Archilochian vein, against which Pindar protested semi-humorously before (v. 55), stands out. The ape (v. 72), the fox (v. 78), the wolf (v. 84), are contrasts dramatically introduced, dramatically dismissed. “Let there be no pretentiousness, no slyness, no roundabout hate. Straight-tonguedness is best in the rule of the one man, of the many, of the wise. Follow God's leading, bear his yoke. Kick not against the pricks. There lies the only safety. May such men admit me to their friendship” (v. 96).

The difficulty of the last part lies in the dramatic shiftings — the same difficulty that we encounter in comedy, and especially in satire. If there are not two persons, there are two voices. The poet pits the Δίκαιος Λόγος and the Ἄδικος Λόγος against each other in the forum of his own conscience. The Δίκαιος Λόγος speaks last and wins.

A. Show thyself as thou art (v. 72).

B. But the monkey, which is ever playing different parts, is a fair creature, ever a fair creature, in the eyes of children (v. 72).

A. Yes, in the eyes of children, but not in the judgment of a Rhadamanthys, whose soul hath no delight in tricks (vv. 73-75).

B. If the monkey finds no acceptance, what of foxy slanderers? They are an evil, but an evil that cannot be mastered (vv. 76, 77).

A. But what good comes of it to Mistress Vixen? (v. 78).

B. “Why,” says Mistress Vixen, “I swim like a cork, I always fall on my feet” (vv. 79, 80).

A. But the citizen that hath the craft of a fox can have no weight in the state. He is as light as his cork. He cannot utter a word of power among the noble (vv. 81, 82).

B. Ay, but he wheedles and worms his way through. Flattery works on all (v. 82).

A. I don't share the confidence of your crafty models (v. 82).

B. My own creed is: Love your friends. An enemy circumvent on crooked paths, like a wolf (vv. 83, 84).

A. Nay, nay. No monkey, no fox, no wolf. Straight speech is best in monarchy, democracy, or aristocracy. A straight course is best because it is in harmony with God, and there is no contending against God. Success does not come from cunning or overreaching, from envious cabals. Bear God's yoke. Kick not against the pricks. Men who are good, men with views like these, such are they whom I desire to live withal as friend with friend (vv. 86-96).

The rhythms are Aiolian (logaoedic). The introduction occupies one triad, the myth one, the praise of Hieron one, the afterplay one.

Strophe 1

μεγαλοπόλιες Συράκοσαι: A similar position, O. 8.1: μᾶτερ χρυσοστεφάνων ἀέθλων Ὀλυμπία, P. 8.2: Δίκας μεγιστόπολι θύγατερ. Athens is called αἱ μεγαλοπόλιες Ἀθᾶναι (P. 7.1). The epithet is especially appropriate in the case of Syracuse, which, even in Hieron's time, had a vast extent.

βαθυπολέμου: “That haunteth the thick of war.” The martial character of Syracuse is emphasized on account of the military movements then on foot.

ἀνδρῶν ἵππων τε: See O. 1.62.

σιδαροχαρμᾶν: “Fighting in iron-mail.” Here we seem to have χάρμη in the Homeric sense. So I. 5 (6), 27: χαλκοχάρμαν ἐς πόλεμον, where the notion of rejoicing would not be so tolerable as in P. 5.82: χαλκοχάρμαι ξένοι. ἱπποχάρμας (O. 1.23) is doubtful. See O. 9.92.

λιπαρᾶν: Orig. “gleaming,” then vaguely “bright,” “brilliant,” “famous.” P. uses it of Thebes (fr. XI. 58), Athens (N. 4.18; I. 2, 20; fr. IV. 4), Orchomenos (O. 14.4), Egypt (fr. IV. 9), Marathon (O. 13.110). The wideness of its application takes away its force.

φέρων: Figuratively, as elsewhere μόλον, P. 3.68; ἔβαν, N. 4.74; 6, 65. Compare v. 68.

ἐλελίχθονος: Used P. 6.50 of Poseidon; in Sophokles of Bakchos (Antig. 153).

ἐν κρατέων: Compare P. 11.46: ἐν ἅρμασι καλλίνικοι.

τηλαυγέσιν: The wreaths send their light afar, like the πρόσωπον τηλαυγές of O. 6.4. Only the light is figurative, as the gold is figurative, O. 8.1. Compare O. 1.23 and 94.

Ὀρτυγίαν: See O. 6.92.

ποταμίας ... Ἀρτέμιδος: Artemis, among her numerous functions, is a river-goddess, and in the Peloponnesos her worship is connected especially with the Kladeos and the Alpheios (Ἄρτεμις Ἀλφειῴα). She has charge of rivers not only as a huntress, but as the representative of the Oriental Artemis. Pursued by Alpheios, she fled under the waters of the Ionian sea, and found rest by the fountain of Arethusa in Ortygia, where a temple was raised in her honor. Of course, Arethusa and Artemis are one (compare Telesilla, fr. 1: ἅδ᾽ Ἄρτεμις, κόραι, φεύγοισα τὸν Ἀλφεόν), but when Alpheios and Arethusa were united, Artemis, the virgin, and Arethusa were separated. Similar is the case of Kallisto. Compare with this whole passage N. 1.1: ἄμπνευμα σεμνὸν Ἀλφεοῦ, κλεινᾶν Συρακοσσᾶν θάλος Ὀρτυγία, δέμνιον Ἀρτέμιδος, Δάλου κασιγνήτα. Note also that the brother of Artemis appears in the corresponding sweep of the antistrophe.

ἇς οὐκ ἄτερ: O. 3.26: Λατοῦς ἱπποσόα θυγάτηρ, fr. V. 2, 2: ἵππων ἐλάτειραν. Hieron has a trinity of helpers, Ἄρτεμις ποταμία, Ἑρμῆς ἐναγώνιος, and κλυτόπωλος Ποσειδάων (fr. XI. 33, 2), whose enmity was so fatal to Hippolytos, favorite though he was of Artemis.

κείνας: The preference for mares comes out distinctly in the famous description, So. El. 702. 734.

ἐν χερσί: Plastic. N. 1.52: ἐν χερὶ ... τινάσσων, instead of χερὶ τινάσσων (instrum.).

ποικιλανίους: “With broidered reins.”

Antistrophe 1

ἐπί: With τίθησι. For sing. compare O. 9.16.

ι^οχέαιρα: In Homer ι_οχέαιρα. The word occurs only here in Pindar.

χερὶ διδύμᾳ: Variously interpreted. As we say, “with both hands,” to show readiness. According to others the reference is to Artemis and Hermes, χ. δ. being an anticipation, like the plural in the schema Alcmanicum.

ἐναγώνιος Ἑρμῆς: Familiar function of Hermes.

qui feros cultus hominum recentum
voce formasti catus et decorae
more palaestrae.

See O. 6.78: ἐδώρησαν θεῶν κάρυκα λιταῖς θυσίαις πολλὰ δὴ πολλαῖσιν Ἑρμᾶν εὐσεβέως, ὃς ἀγῶνας ἔχει μοῖράν τ᾽ ἀέθλων.

αἰγλάεντα ... κόσμον: κ. “reins and trappings.” Compare ἡνία σιγαλόεντα.

ἐν: So for ἐς in the Aeolic poems. Cf. v. 86; P. 5.38; N. 7.31. ἐν, like Lat. in, originally took the acc., as well as the locative-dative. *ἐνς (εἰς) was formed after the analogy of ἐξ, with which it was constantly associated in contrasts. By that time the -ς of ἐξ had lost its abl. force. Compare uls like cis, κάτω like ἄνω, ὄπισθεν like πρόσθεν, ἐμποδών like ἐκποδών (Brugmann). On the preposition with the second member, see O. 9.94.

πεισιχάλινα: “Obedient to the bit.” Only here, as if the chariot were the horses. In the few other compounds πεισι- is active.

καταξευγνυῃ: Hieron.

σθένος ἵππειον: Cf. O. 6.22: σθένος ἡμιόνων.

ὀρσοτρίαιναν: Poseidon is so called, O. 8.48; N. 4.86.

εὐρυβίαν: O. 6.58.

καλέων θεόν: Compare the story of Pelops, O. 1.72: ἄπυεν βαρύκτυπον Εὐτρίαιναν.

ἄλλοις δέ τις, κτἑ.: Pindar now passes to the praise of Hieron's services to the Lokrians. As is his manner, Kinyras is introduced to balance. “I have praised Hieron, favorite of Artemis and of Hermes, for his victory with the chariot. The Kyprians praise Kinyras, the favorite of Apollo and Aphrodite, for his royal and priestly work. The Lokrian virgin praises Hieron for his successful championship.”

ἐτέλεσσεν: Gnomic aorist. “Pays,” as a tribute.

εὐαχέα ... ὕμνον: “The meed of a melodious song.”

ἄποιν᾽ ἀρετᾶς: Contrast this clear accus. with the fading χάριν, the faded δίκην, which needs the article to vivify it (P. 1.50). See O. 7.16.

κελαδέοντι: O. 1.9.

ἀμφὶ Κινύραν: Kinyras was a fabulous king of Kypros, priest and favorite of Aphrodite. He was a great inventor, a kind of Jubal and Tubal Cain in one — a Semitic figure, it would seem — the man of the harp, with whom we may compare Anchises, another favorite of Aphrodite, of whom it is said, Hymn. in Ven. 80: πωλεῖτ᾽ ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα διαπρύσιον κιθαρίζων. The introduction of Kinyras, lord of the eastern island of Kypros, as a balance to Hieron, lord of the western island of Sicily, leads the poet to mention Apollo in this non-Pythian ode (see Introd.) as a balance to Artemis. A genealogical connection is the merest fancy.

χρυσοχαῖτα: Vocative used as nominative. Elsewhere χρυσοκόμας, O. 6.41; 7, 32.

ἐφίλησε: If φίλος is “own,” “made his own,” “marked him for his own.” See P. 1.13.

Ἀπόλλων: Aphrodite and Apollo are often associated. So esp. in P. 9.10, where Aphrodite receives the spouse of Apollo.

Epode 1

κτίλον: Lit. “Tame pet.” “Minion,” “favorite,” “cherished.”

ἄγει: Without an object. “Is in the van,” “leads,” or neg. “cannot be kept back.” So N. 7.23: σοφία δὲ κλέπτει παράγοισα μύθοις. Compare also O. 1.108.

ποίνιμος: ἀμειπτική (Schol.). Echo of ἄποιν᾽ ἀρετᾶς. For ποινή, in a good sense, see P. 1.59.

ὀπιζομένα: “In reverential regard.” Cf. O. 2.6: ὄπιν.

Δεινομένειε παῖ: Cf. O. 2.13: Κρόνιε παῖ, P. 8.19: Ξενάρκειον υἱόν. Hieron was the son of Deinomenes, and his son, after the Greek fashion, was also called Deinomenes. See P. 1.58.

Ζεφυρία ... παρθένος: The Lokrian women held an exceptional position in Greece. Lokrian nobility followed the distaff side (compare O. 9.60) and Lokrian poetesses were famous. But here we have simply an expression of popular joy, such as virgins especially would feel, and Lokrian virgins would freely express

πρὸ δόμων: Why πρὸ δόμων? Why “haven under the hill?” Why anything that gives a picture? P. 3.78: Ματρί, τὰν κοῦραι παρ᾽ ἐμὸν πρόθυρον σὺν Πανὶ μέλπονται θαμά.

δρακεῖσ᾽ ἀσφαλές: We might expect the pres., but the aor. of attainment is here the aor. of recovery, “having gained the right to fearless glance.” For fear as expressed by the eye, compare So. Ai. 139: πεφόβημαι πτηνῆς ὡς ὄμμα πελείας, O. R. 1221: ἀνέπνευσά τ᾽ ἐκ σέθεν καὶ κατεκοίμησα τοὐμὸν ὄμμα. The inner obj., with verbs of seeing, is familiar. So δριμὺ βλέπειν, δεινὸν δέρκεσθαι. Pindar has ὁρῶντ᾽ ἀλκάν (O. 9.119).

ἐφετμαῖς: “Behests,” usu. of exalted personages.

Ἰξίονα: The story of Ixion and his wheel has often been told. So in a famous (corrupt) passage of So. Phil. 676: λόγῳ μὲν ἐξήκουσ᾽ ὄπωπα δ᾽ οὐ μάλα τὸν πελάταν λέκτρων ποτὲ τῶν Διὸς Ἰξίονα (?) κατ᾽ ἄμπυκα (ἄντυγα?) δὴ δρομάδα δέσμιον ὡς ἔλαβεν (others ἔβαλεν) παγκρατὴς Κρόνου παῖς. The only important points that Pindar's narrative suppresses are the purification of Ixion from bloodguiltiness by Ζεὺς καθάρσιος himself, and the intimacy of Zeus with the wife of Ixion. The former would not have been altogether consistent with v. 31, and the latter would have given a sinister meaning to ἀγαναῖς ἀμοιβαῖς (v. 24).

ταῦτα: Namely, τὸν εὐεργέταν ... τίνεσθαι.

λέγειν: “Teaches.”

παντᾷ: Here “round and round.”

κυλινδόμενον: Instead of the more prosaic inf. See O. 3.6.

ἀμοιβαῖς ἐποιχομένους τίνεσθαι: Notice the fulness of the injunction. ἐποιχομένους, “visiting,” “frequenting.” “To requite the benefactor with ever-recurring tokens of warm gratitude.”

Strophe 2

παρὰ Κρονίδαις: Zeus and Hera.

μακρόν: “Great,” as P. 11.52: μακροτέρῳ (?) .. ὄλγβῳ.

ἐράσσατο: P., like Homer, has no ἠράσθη.

τὰν ... λάχον: Compare O. 1.53.

εὐναί: The pl. of the joys of love. Cf. P. 9.13: ἐπὶ γλυκεραῖς εὐναῖς, fr. IX. 1, 7: ἐρατειναῖς ἐν εὐναῖς, P. 11.25: ἔννυχοι πάραγον κοῖται.

α̈́ϝα̈́ταν = ἄταν. See P. 3.24.

ἀνήρ: He had presumed as if he were a god.

ἐξαίρετον: Elsewhere in a good sense. There is a bitterness in the position, and in ἕλε also, as it recalls v. 26: γλυκὺν ἑλὼν βίοτον.

τελέθοντι: Not historical pres. He is still in hell.

τὸ μὲν ... ὅτι .., ὅτι τε: A double shift. On μέν ... τε, see O. 4.13.

ἐμφύλιον αἷμα: He slew his father-inlaw, Deïoneus.

πρώτιστος: Aisch. Eum. 718: πρωτοκτόνοισι προστροπαῖς Ἰξίονος.

οὐκ ἄτερ τέχνας: He filled a trench with live coals, covered it slightly, and enticed Deïoneus into it when he came after the ἕδνα.

ἐπέμιξε θνατοῖς: . = intulit (ignem fraude mala gentibus intulit), but livelier, “Brought the stain of kindred blood upon mortals,” “imbrued them with kindred blood.”

Antistrophe 2

μεγαλοκευθέεσσιν ... θαλάμοις: Stately plural. So O. 7.29; P. 4.160.

ἐπειρᾶτο: Active more usual in this sense (N. 5.30).

κατ᾽ αὐτόν, κτἑ.: Not καθ᾽ αὑτόν. P. does not use the compound reflexive. See O. 13.53; P. 4.250. “To measure everything by one's self,” i. e. “to take one's own measure in every plan of life.” This is only another form of the homely advice of Pittakos to one about to wed above his rank: τὰν κατὰ σαυτὸν ἔλα. P., like many other poets, has a genius for glorifying the commonplace. Compare Aisch. Prom. 892 on unequal matches.

εὐναὶ δὲ παράτροποι ... ποτε καὶ τὸν ἑλόντα: The MSS. have ποτε καὶ τὸν ἵκοντ᾽. The quantity of ἵ_κοντ᾽ will not fit, an aorist ἱ^κόντ᾽ rests on Il. 9. 414, the sense of ἱκέτην is marred by καί. Böckh's ποτὶ κοῖτον ἰόντ᾽ is ingenious, but coarse; ἑκόντ᾽ is feeble. Schneidewin's ἑλόντ᾽ is not bad, in view of P.'s harping on the word (vv. 26 and 30). The aor. is gnomic, and ἐπεί gives the special application. “Unlawful couchings have many a time plunged into whelming trouble even him that had won them.” Compare the case of Koronis and Ischys (P. 3.25).

πρέπεν: “Was like unto.” Only here in P. with this sense.

ἅντε: The reinforcing relative, “her, whom.” P.'s use of ὅστε does not give ground for any supersubtle distinctions.

Ζηνὸς παλάμαι: More delicate than the other story that Hera played the trick on him. Schol. Eur. Phoen. 1185.

καλὸν πῆμα: P. perhaps had in mind Hes. Theog. 585: καλὸν κακόν (of Pandora).

τετράκναμον ... δεσμόν: “The four-spoked bond” is the “four-spoked wheel.” The magic iynx (“wry-neck”), used in love-incantations, was bound to just such a wheel. Cf. P. 4.214: ποικίλαν ἴυγγα τετράκναμον Οὐλυμπόθεν ἐν ἀλύτῳ ζεύξαισα κύκλῳ μαινάδ᾽ ὄρνιν Κυπρογένεια φέρεν πρῶτον ἀνθρώποισι. It was poetic justice to bind Ixion to his own iynx wheel. Endless are the references to this symbol of mad love. See Theokritos' Pharmakeutriai.

ἔπραξε: “Effected,” “brought about,” and not ἐπράξατο, I. 4 (5), 8. See note on δρέπων, O. 1.13.

Epode 2

ἑὸν ὄλεθρον ὅγ᾽: A renewal of the close of the last line of the antistrophe with effective position. The breath is naturally held at δεσμόν. On the position of ὅγ᾽, see P. 11.22.

ἀνδέξατ᾽: He received the message and delivered it, not in words, but by whirling on the wheel (v. 23). Mitscherlich's ἀνδείξατ᾽ has found much favor.

ἄνευ . . . Χαρίτων=ἄχαριν, “Unblessed by the Graces.” Cf. ἄνευ θεοῦ, O. 9.111.

μόνα καὶ μόνον : καί unusual in such juxtapositions, and hence impressive. No mother like her; so, too, no offspring like this.


γερασφόρον=τίμιον. Without part or lot among men or gods.

νόμοις=τοῖς νομιζομένοις.

τράφοισα: Dor. for τρέφοισα. So P. 4.115; I. 1, 48; 7 (8), 41.

Κένταυρον: This name, of obscure origin, was applied to his descendants, properly Ἱπποκένταυροι.

Μαγνητίδεσσιν: P. 3.45: Μάγνητι . . . Κενταύρῳ.

σφυροῖς: With a like figure we say “spurs.” See P. 1.30.

στρατός: Is in apposition to the subject of ἐγένοντο. “Out they came — a host marvellous to behold.”

τὰ ματρόθεν μὲν κάτω, τὰ δ᾽ ὕπερθε πατρός: “The dam's side down, the upper side the sire's.” Chiasm is as natural to the Greek as mother's milk; not so to us. ματρόθεν is often used parallel with μητρός.

Strophe 3

θεὸς . . . ἀνύεται: “God accomplishes for himself every aim according to his desires.” ϝελπίς, “pleasure,” “wish,” shows here its kinship to volup. ἐπί as in ἐπ᾽ εὐχᾷ, P. 9.96. The wish is crowned by fulfilment. The middle ἀνύεται is rare.

θεός: The emphatic repetition gives the key to the poem. See introd.

= ὅς.

κίχε . . . παραμείβεται . . . ἔκαμψε . . . παρέδωκε: The gnomic aorist often varies with the present. Many examples in Solon, fr. XIII. (Bergk). See also Tyrtaios, fr. XII. (Bergk). In the absence of an aoristic present, the Greek often uses an aor. for concentrated action in the present with a conscious contrast to the durative. See Plat. Phaidr. 247 B. So here κίχε, ἔκαμψε, παρέδωκε) are finalities, παραμείβεται is process.

πτερόεντα = τανύπτερον. Cf. P. 5.111: τανύπτερος αἰετός.

αἰετόν: N. 3.80: αἰετὸς ὠκὺς ἐν ποτανοῖς.

δελφῖνα: Also proverbial. N. 6.72: δελφῖνί κεν | τάχος δι᾽ ἅλμας | εἰκάζοιμι Μελησίαν.

τινα: “Many a one,” tel. So P. 4.86.

ἐμὲ δὲ χρεών: For the connection, see introduction.

δάκος=δῆγμα (Etym. Mag.).

ἀδινόν: “Excessive,” “I must avoid the reputation of a biting calumniator.”

ἑκὰς ἐών: P. was two hundred years later than Archilochos.

ψογερὸν Ἀρχίλοχον: A. is a synonym for a virulent and ill-starred satirist. From such casual mention we should not imagine that the ancients placed A. only lower than Homer.

πιαινόμενον: Not to be taken ironically. There is nothing unhealthier than unhealthy fat, and there is no necessity of an oxymoron. Compare Shakesp. M. of V. i. 3, 48: I will feed fat the ancient grudge I bear him. Archilochos is a fat and venomous toad that lives upon the vapor of a dungeon. A reference to Bakchylides is suspected, but the name does not fit the metre here.

τὸ πλουτεῖν . . . ἄριστον: The Schol. interprets τὸ δὲ ἐπιτυγχάνειν πλούτου μετὰ σοφίας ἄριστον, and so Aristarchos: εὐποτμότατός ἐστιν πλουτῶν καὶ σοφίας ἅμα τυγχάνων, so that we combine τύχᾳ with σοφίας and πότμου with ἄριστον. “Wealth, with the attainment of wisdom, is Fortune's best.” The position is bold, but not incredible. Others, with a disagreeable cumulation, σὺν τύχᾳ πότμου σοφίας, “with the attainment of the lot of wisdom.” But the two genitives cited from P. 9.43: σοφᾶς Πειθοῦς ἱερᾶν φιλοτάτων, are not at all parallel, the relation there being that of a simple possessive. If Archilochos were alone involved, σοφίας ἅριστον might well mean is “the best part of the poetic art,” as “discretion is the better part of valor,” but σοφίας here must be applicable to Hieron as well.

Antistrophe 3

νιν ἔχεις: Sc. τὸ πλουτεῖν μετὰ σοφίας, νιν may be neut. sing. Aisch. Choeph. 542, or pl. P. V. 55; So. El. 436. 624.

πεπαρεῖν=ἐνδεῖξαι, σημῆναι (Hesych.), “for showing them with free soul,” “so that thou canst freely show them.” Others read πεπορεῖν = δοῦναι, which would make νιν refer to τὸ πλουτεῖν alone.

πρύτανι: “Prince.” Used of Zeus P. 6.24: κεραυνῶν . . . πρύτανιν.

εὐστεφάνων: “Battlemented.” This is an early use of στέφανος. Compare O. 8.32.

στρατοῦ: Sc. πολλοῦ στρατοῦ.

περὶ τιμᾷ: π. with the dat. of the stake, as, to some extent, even in prose, “when wealth and honor are at stake.” So with δηρίομαι, O. 13.45; μάρναται, N. 5.47; ἁμιλλᾶται, N. 10.31; μοχθίζει, fr. IX. 2, 6. On the preposition with the second member, see O. 9.94.

χαύνᾳ πραπίδι παλαιμονεῖ κενεά: “(With) flabby soul, his wrestlings are all in vain.”

εὐανͅθέα: The ship of the victor is wreathed with flowers.

στόλον: Cogn. acc. to ἀναβάσομαι (Dissen). στ. as “prow” is more poetical.

ἀμφ᾽ ἀρετᾷ: O. 9.14: ἀμφὶ παλαίσμασιν φόρμιγγ᾽ ἐλελίζων.

κελαδέων: O. 2.2.

νεότατι μὲν, κτἑ.: Contrast chiastic, v. 65: βουλαὶ δὲ πρεσβύτεραι.

θράσος . . . πολέμων: “Boldness in.” Cf. N. 7.59: τόλμαν καλῶν.

εὑρεῖν: See O. 7.89, and compare P. 1.49.

Epode 3

ἱπποσόαισιν ἄνδρεσσι: ., O. 3.26, of Artemis, I. 4 (5), 32, of Iolaos. These achievements refer mainly to Himera.

βουλαὶ δὲ πρεσβύτεραι: Sc. κατὰ τὴν νεότητα, or, as the Schol. says, ὑπὲρ τὴν νεότητα βουλεύη. “Elder than thy years.” P. 4.282: κεῖνος γὰρ ἐν παισὶν νέος, ἐν δὲ βουλαῖς πρέσβυς ἐγκύρσαις ἑκατονταετεῖ βιοτᾷ, P. 5.109. 110: κρέσσονα μὲν ἁλικίας | νόον φέρβεται.

ἀκίνδυνον ἐμοὶ ϝέπος: “Thy counsels, riper than thy age, furnish me with an utterance that runs no risk of challenge to praise thee in full view of the whole account,” through the whole count. The two exhaustive excellences are θράσος and εὐβουλία. If he is wise as well as brave, he has all the virtues. Compare I. 4 (5), 12: δύο δέ τοι ζωᾶς ἄωτον μοῦνα ποιμαίνοντι τὸν ἄλπνιστον εὐανθεῖ σὺν ὄλβῳ, | εἴ τις εὖ πάσχων λόγον ἐσλὸν ἀκούσῃ . . . πάντ᾽ ἔχεις, | εἴ σε τούτων μοῖρ᾽ ἐφίκοιτο καλῶν.

χαῖρε: So N. 3.76: χαῖρε, φίλος, where we have, as here, praise of the victor, farewell, and commendation of the poet's song.

τόδε μέν: This would seem to indicate that the μέλος here sent was different from the Καστόρειον, but P.'s handling of μέν and δέ is so peculiar, not to say tricky, that Böckh has a right to set up the antithesis πέμπεται μὲν τόδε μέλος, ἄθρησον δὲ τὸ Καστόρειον.

κατὰ Φοίνισσαν ἐμπολάν: κ., “like.” Phoenician ware was costly, being brought from afar.

τὸ Καστόρειον: Compare I. 1, 16: Καστορείῳ Ἰολάοἰ ἐναρμόξαι νιν ὕμνῳ. The Καστόρειον was an old Spartan battle-song, the rhythm anapaestic, like the ἐμβατήρια, the mood Doric, the accompaniment the flute. P. uses it as a ἵππειος νόμος, in honor of victory with horse and chariot (Castor gaudet equis); the mood is Aiolian, and the accompaniment the φόρμιγξ. Some suppose that the K. was another poem to be sent at a later time, hence ἄθρησον, as if the prince were bidden descry it coming in the distance: others that the K. is the last part of the poem, which P. made a present of to Hieron, together with a batch of good advice. The figure of the Phoenician cargo runs into the antithesis. The Doric king might have expected a Doric lay, but this Kastoreion, with its Aiolian mood, is to be viewed kindly (θέλων ἄθρησον) for the sake of the Doric φόρμιγξ — Apollo's own instrument. Compare O. 1.100: ἐμὲ δὲ στεφανῶσαι | κεῖνον ἱππείῳ νόμῳ | Αἰολἡΐδι μολπᾷ, and yet 1, 17: Δωρίαν ἀπὸ φόρμιγγα πασσάλου λάμβανε).

χάριν: Before its genitive only here in P.

ἑπτακτύπου: The old Terpandrian heptachord. N. 5.24: φόρμιγγ᾽ Ἀπόλλων ἑπτάγλωσσον χρυσέῳ πλάκτρῳ διώκων.

ἀντόμενος: Absolute. “Coming to meet it, receive it” — the Phoenician ware again. Pindar's power of parenthesis is great. The farewell (v. 67) suggested the commendation, or, if need be, the justification of his poem, and he now returns to the characteristic of his hero. An unprepared break at v. 72 is not likely.

γένοι᾽ οἷος ἐσσὶ μαθών: The necessity of connection makes μαθών refer to the praise of the victor. “Show thyself who thou art, for I have taught it thee.” Some take μαθών as part of the wish or command. γένοιο . . . μαθών=μάθοις has no satisfactory analogy in Pindaric grammar, nor does it give any satisfactory transition. P.'s contempt of mere mechanical learning, as shown O. 2.95: μαθόντες δὲ λάβροι . . . ἄκραντα γαρύετον has suggested a combination with πίθων (Bergk), in which the learned ape is contrasted with Rhadamanthys, who is doubtless πολλὰ εἰδὼς φυᾷ (O. 2.94), but the position of τοι in μαθὼν καλός τοι is hardly credible, to say nothing of the quotation by Galen below.

πίθων. A young ape.

παρὰ παισίν: “In the judgment of children.” The ape was a favorite in the nursery then as he is now. Galen, de Usu Part. 1, 22: καλός τοι πίθηκος παρὰ παισὶν αἰεί, φησί τις τῶν παλαιῶν, ἀναμιμνήσκων ὑμᾶς ὡς ἔστιν ἄθυρμα γελοῖον παιζόντων παίδων τοῦτο τὸ ζῷον. Instead of παρὰ δὲ Ῥαδαμάνθυι, P. changes the form of the antithesis.

Strophe 4

καλός: Child-like and lover-like repetition. The ape is said to have been introduced into Greek fable by Archilochos, and the mention of the ape here may have called up the image of the fox below without any inner nexus. An allusion to the Archilochian fable of “the Ape and the Fox” seems to be out of the question. “Show thyself thyself. Care naught for the judgment of those that be mere children in understanding. Thy judge is Rhadamanthys.”

εὖ πέπραγεν: Rhadamanthys owes his good fortune to his judicial temper. Compare O. 2.83: βουλαῖς ἐν ὀρθαῖσι Ῥαδαμάνθυος | ὃν πατὴρ ἔχει [Κρόνος] ἑτοῖμον αὐτῷ πάρεδρον. Of the three judges in Hades, Aiakos — usually the first met by the new-comer — is in P. only the great Aeginetan hero, except in I. 7 (8), 24, where he is represented as a judge over the δαίμονες. Minos does not appear.

φρενῶν . . . καρπόν: So N. 10.12. Famous in Aischylos' description of Amphiaraos is the line S. c. Th. 593:βαθεῖαν ἄλοκα διὰ φρενὸς καρπούμενος” .

ἔνδοθεν: The wiles of the deceivers do not penetrate the deep soil.

οἷα: See O. 1.16. Half exclamatory. If with the MSS., βροτῶν, “Such things (ἀπάται) always sort with the acts of whisperers!” So ἕπεται, O. 2.24. If with Heindorf, βροτῷ, “Such things always haunt a man by the devices of whisperers!”

βροτῶν: Used like ἀνδρῶν, so that ψίθυροι βροτοί = ψιθυρισταί, but β. is hardly so colorless in P.

ἀμφοτέροις: “To both parties,” the prince and his slandered friends, τῷ διαβαλλομένῳ καὶ τῷ πρὸς ὃν διαβάλλεται (Schol.).

ὑποφάτιες: Böckh has ὑποφαύτιες, Bothe ὑποφάτορες. “Secret speakings of calumnies” for “secret calumniators” does not satisfy. We want a masc. subst. Some MSS. have ὑποφάντιες from φαίνω.

ὀργαῖς: See P. 1.89.

ἀτενές=παντελῶς. P. has proudly compared himself to the Διὸς ὄρνις θεῖος, O. 2.97, and it may be well to remember that the eagle and the fox were not friends, acc. to the fabulist Archilochos, and that the eagle was the “totem” of the Aiakidai and of Aias, Pindar's favorite, a straightforward hero (N. 8.23 foll.).

The usual interpretation gives the whole passage to one voice. “But what good does this do to the fox (the whisperer). I, Pindar, am a cork not to be sunk by his arts. I know it is impossible for a crafty citizen to utter a word of power among the good, and, though by his fawning he makes his way, I do not share his confidence. My plan is: love thy friend and cheat thine enemy — the enemy alone is fair game. The man of straightforward speech hath the vantage-ground everywhere, under every form of government.” In the introduction I have suggested two voices.

κερδοῖ: To me convincing emendation of Huschke for κέρδει. κερδώ is a popular name for fox, Ar. Eq. 1068. First Voice: “But what doth Master Reynard gain by his game?” The pun in κερδοῖ . . . κέρδεσσι is obvious. The proverb ἀλώπηξ δωροδοκεῖται is taken from Kratinos' parody (2, 87 Mein.) of Solon's celebrated characteristic of the Athenians, fr. 11, 5 (Bergk): ὑμέων εἷς μὲν ἕκαστος ἀλώπεκος ἴχνεσι βαίνελ.

ἅτε γὰρ . . . ἅλμας: Second Voice: “His gain is to be an ἄμαχον κακόν (v. 76). He can say: I am a cork that is always atop, though all the rest be under water. I am a cat, and always fall on my feet.” Fennell, who, like the others, understands the poet to speak of himself, allegorizes thus: “The net is the band of contemporary poets; the heavy parts are those of poor and precarious repute, who try to drag down the cork, Pindar.”

εἰνάλιον πόνον: Toil of the sea. So Theokr. 21, 39: δειλινὸν ὡς κατέδαρθον ἐν εἰναλίοισι πόνοισι.

σκευᾶς ἑτέρας: The ἀμφότεροι above mentioned — the whole world outside of the slanderer.

φελλὸς ὥς: The comparison is not so homely in Greek as in English. “Cork” could hardly be used with us in elevated poetry, but

παῖδες γὰρ ἀνδρὶ κλῃδόνες σωτήριοι
θανόντι: φελλοὶ δ᾽ ὣς ἄγουσι δίκτυον
τὸν ἐκ βυθοῦ κλωστῆρα σῴζοντες λίνου.

“Our withers are unwrung” might be as impossible for an un-English poet.

ἅλμας: With ἀβάπτιστος.

Antistrophe 4

First Voice: “But you are, after all, a mere cork. You have no weight. A deceitful man cannot utter a word of power among the good (the conservatives).”

ἀδύνατα: So O. 1.52: ἄπορα, P. 1.34: ἐοικότα.

ἀστόν: . is much more frequently used by P. than πολίτης, as he prefers στρατός to δᾶμος. See O. 6.7. — Second Voice: “Well, what of that? The deceitful man fawns and makes his way thus.”

μάν: Often used to meet objections. Cf. P. 1.63.

σαίνων: Specifically of the dog. See P. 1.52.

ἀ_γάν. The MS. ἄγαν has the first syllable short. ἀγή, “bend,” is not the doubling of the fox, but the peculiar fawning way in which the dog makes an arc of himself. J. H. H. Schmidt reads αὐδάν and compare for διαπλέκει P. 12.8: οὔλιον θρῆνον διαπλέκει.

διαπλέκει: Commentators compare Aischin. 3, 28: ἀντιδιαπλέκει πρὸς τοῦτο εὐθύς, but there the metaphor is from the twists and turns of wrestlers. Here we are still with the dog.

οὔ ϝοι μετέχω θράσεος: First Voice: “I do not share his confidence.” θράσος in a good sense, v. 63.

φίλον εἴη φιλεῖν, κτἑ.: Second Voice: “I do not deny the claims of friendship; it is only mine adversary that I seek to circumvent.” Others think this perfectly consistent with the antique morality of a man like Pindar. Compare I. 3 (4), 66: χρὴ δὲ πᾶν ἔρδοντα μαυρῶσαι τὸν ἐχθρόν, Archiloch. fr. 65 (Bergk): ἓν δ᾽ ἐπίσταμαι μέγα | τὸν κακῶς με δρῶντα δεινοῖς ἀνταμείβεσθαι κακοῖς. P. is supposed to say: “Let my adversary play the monkey, the fox, the dog; I can play the wolf.” Requital in full is antique; crooked ways of requital are not Pindaric.

ὑποθεύσομαι: Incursionem faciam, Dissen. It is more than that; it involves overtaking. The persistency and surprise of the wolf's pursuit are the points of comparison.

ἄλλα: Adverbial.

ἐν=ἐς: See v. 11. The First Voice closing the debate.

νόμον: “Constitution,” “form of the state.”

εὐθύγλωσσος: In opposition to the ὁδοὶ σκολιαί, σκολιαὶ ἀπάται (fr. XI. 76, 2).

προφέρει: “Comes to the front.”

παρὰ τυραννίδι: As if παρὰ τυράννοις.

λάβρος στρατός: Milton's “fierce democratie.”

οἱ σοφοί: The aristocracy.

χρὴ δὲ πρὸς θεὸν οὐκ ἐρίζειν: The neg. οὐκ, as if he were about to say ἀλλὰ φέρειν ἐλαφρῶς ἐπαυχένιον ζυγόν. As it stands, it looks like a licentious οὐκ with the inf., of which there are very few. The connection is shown in the introduction. Though the straightforward man has the lead in every form of state, yet his enemies have sometimes the upper hand, and we must not quarrel with God for this. But the envious do not wish him to have anything at all, and so they overreach themselves, and come to harm.

Epode 4

ἀνέχει: As in So. O. C. 680:κισσὸν ἀνέχουσα” , “upholding,” “holding high.”

τὰ κείνων: The fortunes of the whisperers.

ἔδωκεν: As there is no metrical reason for not using δίδωσιν, we may accept a contrast between continued and concentrated action. See v. 50.

ἰαίνει: O. 2.15; 7, 43; P. 1.11.

στάθμας: στάθμη is γραμμή, N. 6.8. The Schol. thinks of a measuring-line. The measuring-line has two sharp pegs. The measurer fastens one in the ground and pulls the cord tight, in order to stretch it over more space than it ought to cover (περισσᾶς). In so doing he runs the peg into his own heart. Hermann finds an allusion to the play διελκυστίνδα, still played everywhere. This would make ἑλκόμενοι reciprocal, “one another,” and στάθμας a whence-case, but for περισσᾶς we should have to read περισσῶς. On the other interpretation, στάθμας is the genitive of the hold, as in P. 9.132: παρθένον κεδνὰν χερὶ χειρὸς ἑλών. Schneidewin has noticed the play on ἑλκόμενοι and ἕλκος.

ἑᾷ . . . καρδίᾳ: As if “one's heart” for “their heart.”

ὅσα . . . τυχεῖν: τυγχάνω often takes a pronominal neut. acc.

φροντίδι μητίονται: “Are planning with anxious thought.”

φέρειν . . . ζυγόν: Yet another animal. This whole fabulistic passage seems to point to court pasquinades. A reference to Hieron's secret police of ὠτακουσταί, “eavesdroppers,” and ποταγωγίδες (-δαι), “tale-bearers,” Aristot. Pol. 5, 11, is to me incredible.

ποτὶ κέντρον . . . λακτιζέμεν: A homely proverb familiar to us from Acts [9, 5] 26, 14. Doubtless of immemorial antiquity in Greece, Aisch. P.V. 323; Ag. 1624; Eur. Bacch. 795.

ἀδόντα = ἁδόντα. Cf. O. 3.1; 7, 17.

This poem, which is not so much an ἐπινίκιον as a Consolatio ad Hieronem, is classed with the ἐπινίκια because it celebrates the victories that Hieron gained with his race-horse Φερένικος (v. 74) at Delphi, Pyth. 26 and 27 (Ol. 73, 3, and 74, 3, 486 and 482 B.C.). According to Böckh, the composition of the poem belongs to a much later period, Ol. 76, 3 (474 B.C.). Earlier than Ol. 76, 1 (476 B.C.) it cannot be, for Hieron is called Αἰτναῖος (v. 69), and Aitna was founded in that year. Later than Ol. 76, 3 it cannot well be, for in that year Hieron won a chariot-race at Delphi, of which no mention is made in this poem. Böckh thinks that the ode was composed shortly before P. 1, probably to celebrate the recurrent date of the previous victories. Hieron was suffering (compare P. 1.50), and hence the blending of congratulation and consolation. The “historical” allusions to scandals in Hieron's family and to the quarrels of the court physicians are all due to the fancy of the commentators.

The drift of P. 3 seems to be plain enough. Hieron is victorious, but suffering, and he must learn that the gods give two pains for one pleasure, and be content to have only one against one. To expect more is to reach out to what is not and cannot be. To this lesson the poet leads up step by step. So in the very beginning of this ode he himself sets an example of the impatient yearning he condemns. “Would that the old Centaur, the master of Asklepios, the great healer, were alive!” A poet, Pindar longs for the control of leechcraft, and does not recognize his own ambition until other examples of disappointment pass before his eyes. Such an example is Koronis, mother of Asklepios. This was her sin: she had one love, she wanted yet another (v. 25). Asklepios himself comes next. He was a leech of wide renown — a benefactor to his kind — but he was a slave to gain (v. 54). This was his sin, and, like his mother, he perished (v. 57). And now the poet draws the moral. “Mortals must seek what is meet for mortals, and recognize where they stand, what is their fate.” The wish is renewed, but this time with a sigh. The poet is not satisfied with paying Hieron his homage in music, he yearns to bring him the master of healing and gain a double share of favor. It must not be; he cannot cross the water with this double joy (v. 72). He must be content to stay at home and make vows to the goddess at his door (v. 77). This lesson Hieron and Hieron's poet must divide: ἓν παρ᾽ ἐσλὸν πήματα σύνδυο δαίονται βροτοῖς | ἀθάνατοι (v. 81). That is the rule. Make the best of it. Look at Peleus. Look at Kadmos (vv. 87, 88). They heard the Muses, as Hieron heard Pindar's songs. One married Harmonia, one Thetis (vv. 91, 92). Both saw the sons of Kronos banqueting with them, both received bridal gifts of the gods. But three daughters brought threefold sorrow to Kadmos. True, one daughter's couch was shared by Zeus (v. 99), yet this is only one joy to three sorrows. Against the bridal of Thetis set the death of Achilles (v. 100), an only son, and so more than a double sorrow. “Enjoy, then, what thou mayest while thou mayest in the changing breezes of fortune, in the ticklish balance of prosperity. This be our creed. Fit thy will to God's will. Pray for wealth. Hope for fame. Fame rests on song. Nestor and Sarpedon — the one who lost his noble son, the other lost to a divine sire — live on in lays. Few achieve this” (vv. 102115). And so the poem ends with the tacit pledge that Hieron shall live on in P.'s song as they in Homer's.

The rhythms are dactylo-epitrite (Dorian).

The distribution of the elements is different from that of an ordinary ἐπινίκιον. The myth, with a slight introduction, takes up nearly half the poem. Indeed, the whole ode is a picturegallery of mythic troubles. We have at full length Koronis and Asklepios, who were guilty; with less detail Kadmos and Peleus, who were innocent; and, in mere outline, Nestor and Sarpedon — Nestor, who was lord among the third generation but to see Antilochos die; Sarpedon, who was mourned by Zeus himself. But all this sorrow is lost in the light of poetry.

Strophe 1

Χείρωνα: Cheiron was the great mythical healer and teacher; he gave Machaon healing drugs (Il. 4. 219), and taught Achilles medicine (Il. 11. 832). The Χείρωνες of Kratinos was a plea for a return to the old training, of which Achilles was the mythical example. See N. 3.43, foll.

Φιλυρίδαν: So the Centaur is called, P. 9.32. Compare N. 3.43: Φιλύρας ἐν δόμοις.

ἁμετέρας ἀπὸ γλώσσας: Contrast to κοινὸν ϝέπος. Something more was expected of the poet than such an every-day utterance. P. apologizes, as it were, on the ground of the naturalness of the wish. It was on everybody's tongue then. P. 5.107: ἄνδρα κεῖνον ἐπαινέοντι συνετοί: λεγόμενον ἐρέω.

γόνον . . . κρόνου: Cf. N. 3.47: Κρονίδαν Κένταυρον.

Παλίου: His cave was on Pelion (P. 9.30), a mountain full of medicinal herbs.

Φῆρα = θῆρα): “Centaur.” So called Il. 1. 268; 2, 743; as well as P. 4.119.

ἀγρότερον: “Upland,” as in Chapman's Homer, with the same note of ruggedness

ἀνδρῶν φίλον=φιλάνθρωπον: A contrast to his name, Φήρ. Cheiron was δικαιότατος Κενταύρων (Il. 11. 832).

θρέψεν . . . τέκτονα: θρ. like ἐδίδαξεν, “bred.”

γυιαρκέο_ς: The ο must be lengthened to save the metre. Compare O. 6.103: ποντόμεδο_ν, P. 4.184: πόθο_ν, 11, 38: τριοδο_ν.

ἥρω^α: So ἥρω^ας, P. 1.53.

Antistrophe 1

Φλεγύα: The myth was taken from the Ἠοῖαι of Hesiod, a κατάλογος γυναικῶν, or list of heroines to whom the gods had condescended. The story of Koronis is an especially good exemplification of the difference between epic and lyric narrative. Epic narrative is developed step by step. “The lyric poet gives the main result briefly in advance, and follows it up by a series of pictures, each of which throws light on the preceding” (Mezger).

πρὶν τελέσσαι: “Before having brought to term,” “before she had borne him the full time.”

ἔτεκεν δ᾽ ἁνίκα Μοῖραι
τέλεσαν ταυρόκερων θεόν.

χρυσέοις: P. 1.1.

Ἀρτέμιδος: A. kills women, Apollo men.

ἐν θαλάμῳ: With δαμεῖσα, an additional touch of color. The MSS. have εἰς Ἀίδαοδόμον ἐν θαλάμῳ κατέβα, which would give a quibbling tone, “went to Hades without leaving her chamber;” nor is a lingering death implied by ἐν θαλάμῳ. Artemis is expected to kill queens ἐν μεγάροισι (Od. 11. 198); Artemis smites Aribas' daughter, who stole Eumaios, by hurling her into the hold of the pirate vessel (Od. 15. 479); and it was meet that the wanton Koronis should be slain ἐν θαλάμῳ — not in her chamber, but in the bed of Ischys.

γίνεται: “Proves.”

ἀποφλαυρίξαισά νιν: Sc. τὸν χόλον.

ἀμπλακίαισι: Homeric plural, not common in Pindar. ἀνορέαις (P. 8.91; N. 3.20; I. 3 [4], 29) is not exactly parallel.

αἴνησεν γάμον: Cf. Eur. Or. 1092:ἧς λέχος γ᾽ ἐπῄνεσα” (Dind. ποτ᾽ ᾔνεσα), and 1672:καὶ λέκτρ᾽ ἐπῄνεσα.

ἀκειρεκόμᾳ: So the best MS., and not ἀκερσεκόμᾳ. Compare Ov. Trist. 3, 1, 60:intonsi candida templa dei” , and the description of Iason, P. 4.82. A. is ever young.

Epode 1

σπέρμα . . . καθαρόν: κ., because divine.

ἔμειν᾽ ἐλθεῖν: Subj. of ἐλθεῖν is τράπεζαν.

τράπεζαν νυμφίαν: Koronis should have waited until the birth of the son of Apollo, and then have married. The gods were tolerant of human successors.

παμφώνων ἰαχὰν ὑμεναίων: P. 12.19: αὐλῶν πάμφωνον μέλος. On the shield of Achilles, Il. 18. 493: πολὺς δ᾽ ὑμέναιος ὀρώρει: | κοῦροι δ᾽ ὀρχηστῆρες ἐδίνεον, ἐν δ᾽ ἄρα τοῖσιν | αὐλοὶ φόρμιγγές τε βοὴν ἔχον.

οἷα: Loose reference to ὑμεναίων. Cf. P. 1.73.

ὑποκουρίζεσθαι): “Such petting, playful strains as girlmates love to utter in even-songs.” In the even-songs of the bridal the maids were wont to use the pet name, “baby name” (ὑποκόρισμα), of the bride, while they indulged in playful allusions to her new life.

ἤρατο τῶν ἀπεόντων: Nikias warns the Athenians against this “δυσέρωτας εἶναι τῶν ἀπόντων(Thuk. 6, 13) . Lys. 12, 78:τῶν ἀπόντων ἐπιθυμῶν” . Theokr. 10, 8: οὐδαμά τοι συνέβα ποθέσαι τινὰ τῶν ἀπεόντων.

οἷα καὶ πολλοὶ πάθον, κτἑ.: Pindar unfolds a moral as Homer unfolds a comparison. A reference to Hieron and foreign physicians (ἀπεόντων), which Hermann suggests, is altogether unlikely, not to say absurd.

φῦλον . . . ὅστις: A common shift, as in “kind who;” only we follow with the plural.

αἰσχύνων: “Putting shame on.”

παπταίνει τὰ πόρσω: O. 1.114: μηκέτι πάπταινε πόρσιον.

μεταμώνια: P. multiplies synonyms to show the bootlessness of the quest. The seekers are “futile,” the object is “unsubstantial,” the hopes “unachievable.” Cf. O. 1.82, and 14, 6.

θηρεύων. Cf. N. 11.47: κερδέων δὲ χρὴ μέτρον θηρευέμεν.

Strophe 2

ἔσχε: “Caught.” On the ingressiveness, see O. 2.10.

τοιαύταν μεγάλαν: Keep the words separate.

α̈́ϝα̈́ταν = ἄταν. P. 2.28. Note the quantity.

λῆμα Κορωνίδος: “Wilful Koronis.” Cf. O. 6.22: σθένος ἡμιόνων, 1, 88: Οἰνομάου βίαν, and note on 8, 68. It may be of some significance that she was the sister of the wilful hero Ixion, who came to his bad end by εὐναὶ παράτροποι (P. 2.35).

ξένου: Ischys, as we are told below (v. 31).

σκοπόν: Used of the gods (O. 1.54), but esp. of Apollo. O. 6.59: τοξοφόρον Δάλου θεοδμάτας σκοπόν.

μηλοδόκῳ: See

ἐπὶ δ᾽ ἀσφάκτοισι
μήλοισι μὴ πάριτ᾽ ἐς μυχόν.

τόσσαις (Aeolic) = τυχών. Compare τόξον.

Αοξίας: There is, perhaps, a play on λοξός and εὐθύτατος, “crooked” and “straight.”

κοινᾶνι (Dor.) = κοινῶνι = μηνυτῇ. Hesiod says (fr. 90) that a raven told it to Apollo. Pindar delights to depart from the popular version in little points that affect the honor of the gods; hence the emphasis laid on the πάντα ϝίσαντι νόῳ.

παρὰ ... νόῳ: As it were “in the courts of.” He did not go out of himself. The Schol. dulls the expression by παρὰ τοῦ νόου πυθόμενον.

γνώμαν πιθών: For the MS. γνώμᾳ πεπιθών. πιθών= πείσας. The acc. γνώμαν gives the finer sense. Apollo forced conviction on his will, his heart. So also Mezger, who cites for this use of γν. O. 3.41; 4, 16; P. 4.84. Fennell prefers “judgment” to “heart.”

ϝίσαντι = εἰδότι. Cf. P. 4.248: οἶμον ἴσαμι βραχύν.

ψευδέων δ᾽ οὐχ ἅπτεται: Neither deceiving nor deceived. Cf. P. 9.46: σέ, τὸν οὐ θεμιτὸν ψεύδει θιγεῖν.

ἔργοις οὔτε βουλαῖς: On the omission of the former negative, compare P. 10.29. 41.

Antistrophe 2

Εἰλατίδα: Ischys, son of Elatos, seems to have been a brother of Aipytos (O. 6.36), who was an Arkadian lord.

ξεινίαν κοίταν = κοίταν ξένου. “Couching with a stranger.”

ἀμαιμακέτῳ: Homer's ἀμαιμάκετος suits all the Pindaric passages. See P. 1.14.

Λακέρειαν: In Thessaly. Van Herwerden has called attention to the resemblance between Koronis of Lakereia and Hesiod's λακέρυζα κορώνη (O. et D. 745).

κρημνοῖσιν: Specifically of “bluffs.” O. 3.22: κρημνοῖς Ἀλφεοῦ.

δαίμων: Where we should blame her mad passion, her λῆμα.

ἕτερος= κακοποιός (Schol.). N. 8.3: τὸν μὲν ἁμέροις ἀνάγκας χερσὶ βαστάζεις, ἕτερον δ᾽ ἑτέραις. So often after P., πλέον θάτερον ποιεῖν, ἀγαθὰ θάτερα. “The δαίμων ἕτερος is one of the notes by which Bentley detected the false Phalaris. See ‘Letters of Phalaris,’ p. 247 (Bohn and Wagner),” C. D. Morris.

ἁμᾶ: See O. 3.21.

πολλὰν . . . ὕλαν: Inevitable expansion of the moral. See v. 20. The sentence is proverbial, as in James 3, 5: ἰδού, ὀλίγον πῦρ ἡλίκην ὕλην ἀνάπτει.

σπέρματος: O. 7.48: σπέρμα . . . φλογός, Od. 5. 490: σπέρμα πυρὸς σῴζων.

Epode 2

τείχει . . . ἐν ξυλίνῳ: On the pyre.

σέλας . . . Ἁφαίστου: P. 1.25: Ἁφαίστοιο κρουνούς. The person of Hephaistos is little felt, but it can always be brought back as in Ἡφαίστου κύνες, “sparks,” Alexis, fr. 146 (3, 452 Mein.).

οὐκέτι: Apollo has been struggling with himself. Cf. O. 1.5.

α̈́μόν = ἡμέτερον, but ἡμέτερον = ἐμόν, and does not refer to Koronis. “Our” would be a human touch. Here it is the selfish “my.” P. 4.27: ἀμοῖς = ἐμοῖς.

ὀλέσσαι: The MSS. ὀλέσαι. ὀλέσθαι would not be so good. He had killed the mother, and so was about to kill the child.

ματρὸς βαρείᾳ σὺν πάθᾳ: The same principle as λῆμα Κορωνίδος (v. 25). The ill-fate of the mother = the ill-fated mother.

βάματι δ᾽ ἐν πρώτῳ: An exaggeration of τριτάτῳ, which Aristarchos preferred, after Il. 13. 20: τρὶς μὲν ὀρέξατ᾽ ἰὼν (Ποσειδῶν), τὸ δὲ τέτρατον ἵκετο τέκμωρ (Schol.). Bergk suggests τέρτῳ (Aeol.) = τρίτῳ. See note on O. 8.46.

νεκροῦ: There is no good fem.

διέφαινε: Imperfect of vision, in an intercalated clause. So the best MS. διέφανε would be an unusual intransitive, “flamed apart,” literally “shone apart,” “opened a path of light.” The flames were harmless to him.

διδάξαι: The old final infinitive.

ἀνθρώποισιν: More sympathetic than ἀνθρώπων.

Strophe 3

αὐτοφύτων: In contradistinction to wounds.

ξυνάονες: The sphere of partnership and companionship is wider in Greek than in English. We usu. make the disease, not the sufferer, the companion. See Lexx. under σύνειμι, συνοικῶ, συνναίω.

θερινῷ πυρί: Sunstroke. Perh. “Summer fever.”

ἔξαγεν: “Brought out,” still used by the profession.

τοὺς μέν: Resumes the division indicated, v. 47.

μαλακαῖς ἐπαοιδαῖς: Incantations were a regular part of physic among the Greek medicine-men. The order is the order of severity.

οὐ πρὸς ἰατροῦ σοφοῦ
θροεῖν ἐπῳδὰς πρὸς τομῶντι πήματι.

ἀμφέπων . . . πίνοντας . . . περάπτων: P. breaks what seems to him the hateful uniformity by putting πίνοντας instead of a causative, such as πιπίσκων, or an abstract, such as ποτοῖς.

προσανέα: “Soothing potions.”

περάπτων . . . φάρμακα: “Swathing with simples.” Plasters and poultices are conspicuous in early leechcraft. περάπτων (Aeolic) = περιάπτων. So N. 11.40: περόδοις.

τομαῖς ἔστασεν ὀρθούς: τομή is the regular surgical word for our “knife,” and the pl. gives the temporal effect of τέμνων. P. makes in ἔστασεν a sudden and effective change to the finite verb, so as to be done with it. Compare O. 1.14; P. 1.55. ἱστάς would be feeble. To punctuate at ἔξαγεν: and make τοὺς μὲν ... τοὺς δὲ προσανέα depend on ἔστασεν is to efface the growth of the sentence and the rhythm. The methods are in the durative tenses, the results in the complexive (aorist).

Antistrophe 3

δέδεται: “Is a thrall,” “is in bondage.” δεῖται would mean “lets itself be enthralled by.” The instr. dative is the regular construction.

ἔτραπεν . . . κομίσαι: P. 9.47: ἔτραπε . . . παρφάμεν. The prose προτρέπειν has lost its color.

ἀγάνορι: Cf. P. 10.18: ἀγάνορα πλοῦτον, and O. 1.2: μεγάνορος . . . πλούτου. One cannot help thinking of χρήματα χρήματ᾽ ἀνήρ (I. 2, 11). See Plato's criticism of this passage, Resp. 3, 408 B. C.

ἄνδρα: Hippolytos, son of Theseus, acc. to the Schol. Compare Verg. Aen. 7, 765-774.

κομίσαι: N. 8.44: τεὰν ψυχὰν κομίξαι | οὔ μοι δυνατόν.

ἁλωκότα: Sc. θανάτῳ.

χερσί: O. 9.32: σκύταλον τίναξε χερσίν. The addition of “hand” does not give the same vigor in English.

ἀμφοῖν: The Hesiodic fragment tells only of the death of Asklepios (Athenag. Leg. p. 134).

ἐνέσκιμψεν: “Brought crashing down.”

θναταῖς φρασίν: Depends on ἐοικότα, and is not dat. of manner (Dissen) to μαστευέμεν, modesta mente. Cf. I. 4 (5), 16: θνατὰ θνατοῖσι πρέπει.

τὸ πὰρ ποδός: P. 10.62: φροντίδα τὰν πὰρ ποδός (I. 7, 13: τὸ . . . πρὸ ποδός), “that which stretches from the place of the foot,” “our nearest business.”

οἵας εἰμὲν αἴσας: As Archilochos says: γίγνωσκε δ᾽ οἷος ῥυσμὸς ἀνθρώπους ἔχει. αἴσας: Genitive of the owner.

Epode 3

φίλα ψυχά: P. is addressing himself and swinging back to his theme. “Asklepios sought to rescue a man fordone. We must seek only what is meet, see what is before us, what are the limits of our fate. Seek not the life of the immortals, my soul; do the work of the day, play thy humble part to the end. And yet, would that I could bring the double delight of health and poesy; would that my song had power to charm Cheiron! Then the unreal would be achieved by the real, health which I cannot bring by poesy which I do.” φίλα ψυχά of Hieron would be too sweet. It is more likely that P. is taking a lesson to himself.

βίον ἀθάνατον = τὸ ἐξομοιοῦσθαι τοῖς θεοῖς (Schol.).

τὰν δ᾽ ἔμπρακτον ἄντλει μαχανάν: “Exhaust all practicable means,” “drain each resource.”

εἰ δὲ . . . ἔναιε: Wish felt in the condition.

μελιγάρυες ὕμνοι: So O. 11 (10), 4; N. 3.4.

ἀνδράσιν: The plural is part of the shyness with which the poet alludes to Hieron's disorder.

θερμᾶν νόσων: “Fevers.”

τινα Λατοΐδα , κτἑ.: “Some one called (the son) of Latoides, or son of the Sire;” Asklepios or Apollo, son of the great Sire Zeus. Bergk suggests πατέρα=Ἀπόλλω.

καί κεν . . . μόλον: This shows that the poem was composed in Greece, and not in Sicily.

Ἰονίαν . . . θάλασσαν: Elsewhere (N. 4.53) called Ἰόνιον πόρον.

Ἀρέθουσαν: The famous fountain of Ortygia (P. 2.6), called N. 1.1: ἄμπνευμα σεμνὸν Ἀλφεοῦ.

Αἰτναῖον ξένον: See P. 1.

Strophe 4

νέμει: “Rules” without an object.

ἀστοῖς: Seems to mean here the rank and file of the citizens (O. 13.2).

ἀγαθοῖς: The optimates, doubtless, for they are “the good” to a Dorian.

χάριτας = χάρματα.

ὑγίειαν . . . χρυσέαν: See P. 1.1; and for the praise of health, compare Lucian's De lapsu inter salutandum.

κῶμόν τε: On the effect of τε in twinning the two χάριτες, see O. 1.62.

ἀέθλων Πυθίων: Depends on στεφάνοις. So N. 5.5: παγκρατίου στέφανον.

αἴγλαν στεφάνοις: Cf. O. 1.14: ἀγλαΐξεται δὲ καὶ μουσικᾶς ἐν ἀώτῳ, and O. 11 (10), 13: κόσμον ἐπὶ στεφάνῳ . . . ἁδυμελῆ κελαδήσω. The song lends additional lustre to the lustrous crowns. The plur. on account of the victories of Pherenikos.

Φερένικος: O. 1.18.

ἐν Κίρρᾳ ποτέ: Kirrha was the Delphian hippodrome. The victory was won at least eight years before.

φαμί: Out of construction. Elsewhere in P. with acc. and inf.

φάος: Acc. to J. H. H. Schmidt, φάος is the light of joy (O. 10 [11], 25; I. 2, 17), φέγγος, for which we here have αἴγλαν, is the light of glory (O. 2.62; P. 9.98; N. 3.64; 9, 42).

Antistrophe 4

ἀλλά: “Well,” since that may not be.

ἐπεύξασθαι: “Offer a vow to,” not simply “pray.”

ἐθέλω: See P. 1.62.

Ματρί: Magna Mater or Rhea (Kybele is not mentioned in Pindar). The worship of this Phrygian goddess was hereditary in the flute-playing family of P. (see P. 12), and he had a chapel in front of his house dedicated to the joint service of Rhea and Pan. Among the κοῦραι, who sang παρθένια by night to the two deities, are said to have been P.'s daughters, Eumetis and Protomache. The Scholiasts tell us that Magna Mater was τῶν νόσων αὐξητικὴ καὶ μειωτική. Welcker takes κοῦραι with Πανί, and considers them to be nymphs. But there is an evident connection between the μολπή and the ἐπευχή.

σὺν Πανί: Cf. fr. VI. 1: Πάν, . . . σεμνῶν ἀδύτων φύλαξ, Ματρὸς μεγάλας ὀπαδέ.

λόγων . . . κορυφάν: “The right point (the lesson) of sayings.”

μανθάνων: “Learning.” The lesson is ever before him. It is a proverb.

ἓν παρ᾽ ἐσλὸν, κτἑ.: One and two are typical. So we have not to do with avoirdupois or apothecaries' weight in Spenser's “a dram of sweete is worth a pound of soure” (F. Q. III. 30).

κόσμῳ =κοσμίως.

τὰ καλὰ τρέψαντες ἔξω: Another proverbial locution; “turning the fair part outward” (of clothes), as we might say, “putting the best foot foremost” (of shoes).

Epode 4

τὶν δὲ . . . ἕπεται: Thy ἓν ἐσλόν is great.

δέρκεται: As the Biblical “look upon” (with favor). Compare O. 7.11: ἄλλοτε δ᾽ ἄλλον ἐποπτεύει Χάρις. “The eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous.”

εἴ τιν᾽ ἀνθρ.: Compare O. 1.54.

μέγας πότμος: N. 4.42: πότμος ἄναξ.


ἔγεντο = ἐγένετο: Aor. with neg.

Πηλεῖ . . . Κάδμῳ: Proverbial examples of high fortune and noble character, O. 2.86.

οἵ = οὗτοι.

σχεῖν: O. 2.10.

χρυσαμπύκων . . . Μοισᾶν: The Muses so styled again, I. 2, 1.

ἐν ὄρει: Pelion. Cf. N. 5.22: πρόφρων δὲ καὶ κεῖνος ἄειδ᾽ ἐν Παλίῳ | Μοισᾶν κάλλιστος χορός. The marriage of Peleus and Thetis was a favorite theme with the poets. See N. 4.65, quoted below. Catullus makes the Fates sing at the wedding (64, 322).

ὁπόθ᾽: The indic. of a single occasion. With the indic. ὁπότε has very much the sense of ἡνίκα. Compare O. 1.37; 9, 104; P. 8.41; 11, 19; I. 6 (7), 6; fr. V. 1, 6.

Νηρέος: The sea-gods were oracular. So Poseidon (O. 6.58). So Proteus and Glaukos. For Nereus as a prophet, the commentators. cite Hesiod, Theog. 233, Eur. Hel. 15, Hor. Od. 1, 15, 5. See also P. 9.102.

Strophe 5

Κρόνου παῖδας . . . ἴδον , κτἑ.: N. 4.66: εἶδεν δ᾽ εὔκυκλον ἕδραν, τᾶς οὐρανοῦ βασιλῆες πόντου τ᾽ ἐφεζόμενοι, κτἑ.

Διὸς . . . χάριν: Here “thanks to Zeus.”

ἔστασαν ὀρθὰν καρδίαν: “Raised their hearts again,” “raised their sunken hearts,” ὀρθάν being proleptic, “erect.”

μέρος: ἐρήμωσαν, with two acc., as ἀφαιρεῖσθαι in prose.

αἱ τρεῖς: Ino, Agaue, Autonoë. Cf. O. 2.25.

Θυώνᾳ = Σεμέλᾳ.

Antistrophe 5

τίκτεν: P. uses the imperf. seven times (nearly all in dactylo-epitrites), the aorist nine times. See note on O. 6.41.

τόξοις: Il. 22. 359: ἤματι τῷ ὅτε κέν σε Πάρις καὶ Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων | ἐσθλὸν ἐόντ᾽ ὀλέσωσιν ἐνὶ Σκαιῇσι πύλῃσι.

καιόμενος: See O. 3.6.

τυγχάνοντ᾽ εὖ πασχέμεν = εὐτυχοῦντ᾽ εὖ πασχέμεν. Compare O. 2.56: τὸ δὲ τυχεῖν, “success,” and N. 1.32: ἀλλ᾽ ἐόντων εὖ παθεῖν, κτἑ.

ἄλλοτε δ᾽ ἀλλοῖαι , κτἑ.: O. 7.95: ἄλλοτ᾽ ἀλλοῖαι διαιθύσσοισιν αὖραι.

πάμπολυς: So Dissen for ὃς πολύς. Others ἄπλετος. π. with ἐπιβρίσαις, “in all its fulness.”

ἐπιβρίσαις: “Coming down with weight.”

Epode 5

σμικρὸς ἐν σμικροῖς , κτἑ.: σμικροῖς is neut. “I will be small when my fortunes are small, great when they are great.” P. puts himself in Hieron's place. See O. 3.45.

τὸν ἀμφέποντ᾽ αἰεὶ . . . δαίμονα: “My shifting fortune.” Though prosperity is a πολύφιλος ἑπέτας, excessive prosperity is dangerous, and the wise man must be prepared to do homage to the fortunes that attend him from time to time.

φρασίν: “Heartily.”

ἀσκήσω: So ἀσκεῖται Θέμις, O. 8.22; N. 11.8. . of honor and homage, while θεραπεύων is used of service.

κατ᾽ ἐμὰν . . . μαχανάν: “To the extent of my power,” “with all my might.” Cf. v. 62: τὰν ἔμπρακτον ἄντλει μαχανάν.

εἰ δέ μοι . . . ὀρέξαι: Hieron might be expected to say ὤρεξεν. P. looks upon such fortune as a dream. See note on O. 6.4.

εὑρέσθαι: “Gain.” P. 1.48.

πρόσω: With a solemn indefiniteness, that is yet made sufficiently plain by the mention of Nestor and Sarpedon. The πρόσω is “among them that shall call this time ancient” (Dante), where songs shall make thee what N. and S. are to us.

Νέστορα: A model prince, though mentioned by P. only here and P. 6.35, Μεσσανίου γέροντος.

Σαρπηδόνα: Lykian Sarpedon balances (Pylian) Nestor. One shining light is taken out of each camp. Sarpedon, we are reminded, was the grandson of Bellerophon, B. was from Corinth, and Corinth was the metropolis of Syracuse. But P. is thinking of Homer and the looming figures of Nestor on the Greek, Sarpedon on the Trojan side. Some quiet mischief in this, perhaps (N. 7.21).

ἀνθρώπων φάτις: φάτι_ς = φάτιας, hominum fabulas, compare “the talk of the town” — “whose names are in every mouth.”

τέκτονες: So Kratinos (Schol., Ar. Eq. 527): τέκτονες εὐπαλάμων ὕμνων.

ἅρμοσαν: “Framed.” So Lat. pangere.

χρονία τελέθει: Cf. N. 4.6: ῥῆμα δ᾽ ἑργμάτων χρονιώτερον βιοτεύει.

πράξασθαι) = εὑρέσθαι (v. 111).

Arkesilas1 IV., son of Battos IV., king of Kyrene, won a Pythian victory with the chariot, P. 3.1 (Ol. 78, 3 = 466 B.C.). This victory is commemorated in the fourth and fifth Pythian odes. P. 5 was composed to celebrate the return of the victorious πομπή, which took place, as has been conjectured, at the time of the Κάρνεια, a festival which fell about the same time as the Pythian. The fourth ode was doubtless composed to be sung at a banquet in the royal palace, and seems to have been prepared at the urgent request of one Damophilos, who had been exiled by Arkesilas for participating in an aristocratic rebellion. That he was related to Arkesilas, that he was akin to Pindar, is little more than conjecture. “Urgent request” means in Pindar's case a lordly recompense. The poem was a grand peace-offering, and the reconciliation had doubtless been quietly arranged in advance.

Not only in size, but also in many other respects, the fourth Pythian is Pindar's greatest poem — a prime favorite with all Pindaric scholars. The obscurities are few in proportion to the bulk, the diction is noble and brilliant. The aesthetic value is great, for in this poem we have a whole incorporated theory of the lyric treatment of epic themes, the Argonautic expedition in points of light.

After a brief invocation of the Muse, Pindar tells how the priestess of Apollo bade Battos leave his sacred island, Thera, and found a city on a shimmering hill in Libya, and thus bring to honor the prophecy of Medeia (vv. 1-9).

In the Prophecy of Medeia, we learn the story of the wonderful clod that a deity delivered to the Argonaut Euphamos where the Libyan lake Tritonis empties into the sea. Washed overboard, this symbol of sovereignty followed the wet main to Thera, whence the descendants of Euphamos should, at the bidding of Apollo, go forth and possess the land promised to their ancestor (vv. 10-56).

Such is the prophecy that was fulfilled by Battos, the founder of Kyrene, and it is to the descendant of this Battos in the eighth generation that Apollo has given the glory of the victory in the chariot-race, the theme of Pindar's song (vv. 57-69).

So far the overture. Then follows the Quest of the Golden Fleece, or the Voyage of the Argonauts, which constitutes the bulk of the poem (vv. 70-256).

On their return voyage the Argonauts had shared the couches of Lemnian heroines. From such a union came the stock of Euphamos, which went first to Lakedaimon, thence to Thera, and from Thera to Kyrene (v. 261).

Here the poem seems to pause. A stop at Κυράνας (v. 261) would satisfy mind and ear. But P. continues with an afterthought participle, which emphasizes the importance of right counsel, and prepares the message that he has to deliver. The message is one that needs delicate handling, and, like the wise woman of Tekoah, P. clothes it in a parable — the Apologue of the Lopped Oak (vv. 263-268).

The answer is not given at once. The king is a healer that knows well the art of the soothing hand. The king is one that, under the guidance of God, can put the shaken city on its true foundation. He has only to will and it is done. Let him then take counsel, and consider what Homer said, that a fair messenger makes fair tidings. Such a fair messenger is the poet's Muse (vv. 270-279).

The way being thus prepared, the name of Damophilos is mentioned for the first time, and the praise of the banished nobleman is blended with an appeal for such forgiveness as Zeus accorded the Titans. “Let him see his home again; let him take his delight in banquets by Apollo's fountain. Let him make melody on the harp. Let his days be days of quietness, himself all harmless, by the world unharmed. Then he can tell what a wellspring of song he found for Arkesilas at Thebes” (vv. 281-299).

As the fourth Pythian is thrown out of line with the other odes by its size, and as this characteristic determines the handling of the poem, the distribution of the masses becomes a matter of leading importance and cannot be relegated, as has been done elsewhere, to a mere summary. Pindar nowhere else goes beyond five triads. Here he has the relatively vast structure of thirteen. If the introduction bore any proportion to the myth, or to the introductions of the other poems, we should have a large porch of song. What do we find? The poet seems to enter upon the theme at once, as if he were composing an epic and not a lyric. The ringing relative that so often introduces the myth makes itself heard almost immediately after the invocation of the Muse (v. 4). We slip out of port in a moment, and find ourselves in the midst of the returning Argonauts. But the introduction is longer than it seems. The first three triads constitute an introductory epyllion — the Prophecy of Medeia — which bears a just proportion to the rest. Only if the usual measure were observed the myth would occupy seven triads and the conclusion three (3+7+3), but the story runs over into the eleventh triad, when the poet chides himself as having lingered too long (v. 247), and the slow imperfects give way to the rapid aorists. He calls on Arkesilas (v. 250) in order to show that he is hasting to Kyrene, and the emphasis laid on the guidance of Apollo prepares the conclusion. Notice that the story of the Argonauts makes the same returning sweep to Arkesilas and Apollo as the Prophecy of Medeia (vv. 65, 66). Apollo is an oracular god, and speaks in riddles. “So read me,” the poet says, “the riddle of Oidipus” (v. 263). After this riddle is given, “fulfil the word of Homer” (v. 277). Both Oidipus and Homer, be it noted, are Apollinic. The answer to the riddle is — Damophilos (v. 281); but it is not until the poet has claimed the good messenger's credit, according to the word of Homer, that he brings forth the name. The poem closes with a commendation of the banished nobleman, and with the evident intimation that this song was made at his desire (v. 299).

The myth itself (vv. 70-256) is natural enough. It is natural enough that in celebrating the victory of Arkesilas, Pindar should sing of the founding of Kyrene; and the introduction of the Argonautic expedition may be justified on general grounds; but this is not the only time that Pindar has sung Kyrene. In P. 5 Battos and the Aigeidai come to honor, in P. 9, the heroine Kyrene, but there is no such overwhelming excess of the myth. In the length of the myth nothing more is to be seen than the costliness of the offering. If the poem was to be long, the myth must needs be long.

There are those who see in Pindar's Argonautic expedition a parable. Damophilos is Iason. Then Arkesilas must be Pelias — which is incredible. Damophilos is anybody else, anything else. Sooner the soul of Phrixos (v. 159), sooner the mystic clod that Euphamos received (v. 21). The tarrying of the soul of Phrixos, the drifting of the clod, the long voyage of the Argonauts, may be symbolical of the banishment of Damophilos. He could not rest save in Kyrene (v. 294). The true keynote, then, is the sweetness of return, the sweetness of the fulfilment of prophecy and of the fruition of hope long deferred. The ancient prophecy came to pass, and Battos founded Kyrene (vv. 6, 260). The word of Medeia was brought to honor in the seventeenth generation (v. 10). The ships should one day be exchanged for chariots (v. 18). The clod, following the watery main, was borne to Thera, not to Tainaros (v. 42), and yet the pledge failed not. Iason came back to his native land (v. 78). Everybody comes back, not Iason alone, else the moral were too pointed. Let Damophilos come back. Let there be one Kyrenaian more.

The measures are dactylo-epitrite (Dorian), and the grave, oracular tone is heard in rhythm as well as in diction.

“As this poem, among all the Pindaric odes, approaches the epos most closely, so the rhythmical composition reminds one of the simplicity of an hexametrical hymn. Four times in succession we have precisely the same pentapody, “ 3 u | - - | - u u | - u u | - ^
” the close of which reminds us of the hexameter, which, like it, prefers the trisyllabic bar towards the close. Another example of this will be sought in vain throughout Pindar. These five pentapodies are followed by nine tetrapodies, interrupted only by a dipody in the middle of the strophe, where there is usually most movement” (J. H. H. Schmidt).

Strophe 1

σάμερον . . . στᾶμεν: So N. 1.19:ἔσταν δ᾽ ἐπ᾽ αὐλείαις θύραις” . P. “floats double.” The Muse is his shadow. στᾶμεν =στῆναι. So βᾶμεν (v. 39)=βῆναι.

ἀνδρὶ φίλῳ: See on P. 1.92.

εὐίππου: Compare v. 17.

Κυράνας: See on P. 1.60.

Ἀρκεσίλᾳ: The position gives zest to the postponed proper name. Compare P. 8.42.

Λατοίδαισιν: Compare N. 6.42: ἀδὼν ἔρνεσι Λατοῦς (of a victory at the Pythian games); 9, 4: ματέρι καὶ διδύμοις παίδεσσιν . . . Πυθῶνος αἰπεινᾶς ὁμοκλάροις ἐπόπταις. Apollo and Artemis, together with their mother, presided over the Pythian games. Hence ὀφειλόμενον. — αὔξῃς: “Freshen the gale of songs” (Fennell).

οὖρον ὕμνων: N. 6.31: οὖρον . . . ἐπέων. P. makes much use of nautical metaphors and similes, but as the Battiads were originally Minyans, a manner of Vikings (O. 14.4), there is a special Argonautical propriety in this use of οὖρον.

χρυσέων . . . αἰητῶν: There were two golden eagles on the ὀμφαλός at Delphi, the white stone navel, at which two eagles, sent from east and west, had met, and so determined the centre of the earth. αἰητῶν in one MS.

οὐκ ἀποδάμου . . . τυχόντος: When the god was present in person the oracle was so much more potent. Cf. P. 3.27: ἐν δ᾽ ἄρα μηλοδόκῳ Πυθῶνι τόσσαις. Apollo was a migratory god, now in Lykia, now in Delos (P. 1.39). For Apollo's sojourn among the Hyperboreans, see P. 10.30 foll.

ἵρεα, an Aeolic form = ἱέρεια, which Christ gives. Böckh and others, ἱρέα.

χρῆσεν οἰκιστῆρα Βάττον: “Appointed by an oracle Battos (as) colonizer.” Compare O. 7.32: πλόον εἶπε, where the verbal element is felt, as here.

καρποφόρου Λιβύας: P. 9.63 οὔτε παγκάρπων φυτῶν νήποινον.

ἱερὰν | ϝᾶσον: Thera (Santorini = Saint Eirene).

ὡς . . . κτίσσειεν = κτίσαι. As χρῆσεν is here a verb of will, ὡς is hardly so purely final as in O. 10 (11), 31; N. 8.36. It is used rather as ὄφρα, P. 1.72. Compare Il. 1. 558: τῇ σ᾽ ὀίω κατανεῦσαι ἐτήτυμον ὡς Ἀχιλῆα | τιμήσῃς, ὀλέσῃς δὲ πολέας ἐπὶ νηυσὶν Ἀχαιῶν, and L. and S. ed. 7, S. V. ὅπως, end.

ἀργινόεντι μαστῷ: “A shimmering hill,” an Albion Mamelon. P. 9.59: ὄχθον . . . ἀμφίπεδον. Kyrene was built on a chalk cliff. For description and recent researches, see F. B. Goddard in Am. Journ. of Philology, V. 31 foll.

Antistrophe 1

ἀγκομίσαι: “Bring back safe,” “redeem,” “fulfil.” Cf. “my word shall not return unto me void.” The MSS. have ἀγκομίσαι θ᾽, of which the editors have made ἀγκομίσαιθ᾽. P. nowhere uses the middle of κομίζω, nor is it necessary here.

ἑβδόμᾳ καὶ σὺν δεκάτᾳ: As this is not equivalent to σὺν ἑβδόμᾳ καὶ σὺν δεκάτᾳ, P. 1.14 is not a parallel. Cf. O. 13.58: γένει φίλῳ σὺν Ἀτρέος. It is idle to count these seventeen generations.

Θήραιον: “Uttered in Thera,” the ἁλίπλακτος γᾶ of v. 14.

ζαμενής: Animosa. Others think of non sine dis animosa, and consider Medea “inspired.” It is simply “bold,” “brave,” “highspirited,” as suits such a heroine. There is no such curious adaptation of epithet to circumstance as we find in the hivework of Horace (“apis Matinae | more modoque”).

Κέκλυτε: The speech ends, v. 56.

Ἐπάφοιο κόραν: Epaphos, son of Zeus and Io. The Scholiasts notice the blending of nymph and country, which is very easy here, as ῥίζαν and φυτεύσεσθαι are often used of persons. N. 5.7: ἐκ δὲ Κρόνου καὶ Ζηνὸς ἥρωας αἰχματὰς φυτευθέντας τᾶσδε γᾶς.

ἀστέων ῥίζαν: This root, which is to spring up out of Libya, is Kyrene, metropolis of Apollonia, Hesperides, Barka, etc.

φυτεύσεσθαι: “Shall have planted in her” (Fennell), as one should say “shall conceive and bring forth.” P. has no fut. pass. apart from the fut. middle.

μελησίμβροτον: Only here in Greek. Compare Od. 12. 70: Ἀργὼ πᾶσι μέλουσα.

ἐν Ἄμμωνος θεμέθλοις: The whole region was sacred to Zeus Ammon (Schol.).

Epode 1

ἀντὶ δελφίνων, κτἑ.: The dolphins were to the Greeks the horses of the sea, and we must not spoil poetry by introducing the notions of “fisheries” and “studs,” as some have done. On the speed of the dolphin, see P. 2.50: θεὸς . . . θαλασσαῖον παραμείβεται | δελφῖνα, and N. 6.72: δελφῖνί κεν | τάχος δι᾽ ἅλμας εἰκάζοιμι Μελησίαν.

θοάς: O. 12.3.

ἁνία τ᾽ ἀντ᾽ ἐρετμῶν δίφρους τε: ἓν διὰ δυοῖν, in the extreme form assumed here, can hardly be proved for Greek, and ἁνία δίφρους τε is not ἁνία δίφρων. The correspondence between “oar” and “rein” is not to be pressed, the “rein” being rather “the rudder” (πηδάλιον). The two spheres of ship and chariot have much in common, and borrow much from each other.

νωμάσοισιν: νωμᾶν of ships, P. 1.86: νώμα δικαίῳ πηδαλίῳ στρατόν, of reins, as here, I. 1, 15: ἁνία . . . νωμάσαντα). Subject “they,” i. e., “men.”

ἀελλόποδας: For the metonymy, compare P. 2.11: ἅρματα πεισιχάλινα, and O. 5.3: ἀκαμαντόποδος ἀπήνας.

κεῖνος ὄρνις: “That token,” the clod of earth (v. 21). ὄρνις and οἰωνός are familiarly used without too lively a sense of the bird meaning. See Ar. Av. 719:ὄρνιν δὲ νομίζετε πάνθ᾽ ὅσαπερ περὶ μαντείας διακρίνει” , and Professor Postgate in Amer. Journ. of Phil. IV. 70.

Τριτωνίδος ἐν προχοαῖς: The geography of the Argonautic expedition will always be misty, and the mistiness is essential to its poetry. On their return from Kolchoi, the Argonauts passed by the Phasis into Okeanos, thence to the Red Sea, carried their ship overland twelve days, reached Lake Tritonis, in Libya, and found an outlet from Lake Tritonis to the Mediterranean. The Okeanos is not our Ocean, the Red Sea is not our Red Sea, the Lake Tritonis that we know is inland, and Pindar is poetry.

θεῷ ἀνέρι ϝειδομένῳ: “A god taking to himself the likeness of man.” No ambiguity to a Greek. θεῷ depends on δέξατο (v. 22), which takes the dat. of interest (see O. 13.29), just as πρίασθαι, “buy,” and so “take off one's hands.” Ar. Ach. 812:πόσου πρίωμαί σοι τὰ χοιρίδια; λέγε” . A gift blesseth both. The god is supposed to be Triton. Poseidon was masking as his own son and speaking to his own son (v. 45).

γαῖαν: An immemorial symbolism. “With our Saxon ancestors the delivery of turf was a necessary solemnity to establish the conveyance of land.”

πρῴραθεν: Because he was πρῳρεύς.

αἴσιον . . . ἔκλαγξε βροντάν: “As a sign of favor he sounded a thunder peal.” Compare v. 197: ἐκ νεφέων δέ ϝοι ἀντάυσε βροντᾶς αἴσιον φθέγμα. Bergk reads βρονταίς, Aeolic participle, fr. βρόνταιμι = βροντῶ.

Strophe 2

ἄγκυραν: In Homer's time there were no ἄγκυραι, only εὐναί.

ποτί: With κρημνάντων.

χαλκόγενυν: The flukes bite; hence “jaws” of an anchor, which is itself a bit. Compare Lat. dens ancorae.

κρημνάντων: Commonly considered a genitive absolute with αὐτῶν, or the like, understood. Not an Homeric construction, and sparingly used in P. See O. 13.15, and below, v. 232: ὣς ἄρ᾽ αὐδάσαντος. ἐπέτοσσε takes the acc. P. 10.33, but it is hard to see why it cannot be construed with the genitive here, as ἐπέτυχε in prose.

ἐπέτοσσε=ἐπέτυχε: Sc. θεὸς ἀνέρι εἰδόμενος. On the change of subject, see O. 3.22.

δώδεκα . . . φέρομεν: φ. is imperfect. Definite numbers usu. take the aor., but the imperfect is used when the action is checked, usu. by the aor., sometimes by the imperf. There are numberless passages from Homer on, Od. 2. 106: ὣς τρίετες μὲν ἔληθε . . . ἀλλ᾽ ὅτε τέτρατον ἦλθεν ἔτος. Cf. Il. 1. 53. 54; 9, 470. 474; Od. 3. 118. 119. 304. 306, al.

νώτων . . . ἐρήμου: Cf. v. 228: νῶτον γᾶς, and Homer's εὐρέα νῶτα θαλάσσης. Here we have a desert sea of sand.

εἰνάλιον δόρυ: Consecrated oracular language.

μήδεσιν: Medeia was not above an allusion to her name.

ἀνσπάσσαντες: Usu. “drawing ashore.” Mezger tr. “shouldering.”

ἀμοῖς = ἡμετέροις = ἐμοῖς, P. 3.41.

οἰοπόλος: An Homeric word, Il. 13. 473; Od. 11. 574.

δαίμων: The god of v. 21.

περ᾽ ὄψιν θηκάμενος: So Bergk, after the Schol., for πρόσοψιν θηκάμενος. περιθηκάμενος, “having put on.” In resuming the story P. amplifies it.

ἅτε: “As,” “such as those in which.”

εὐεργέται: “The hospitable.” I. 5 (6), 70: ξένων εὐεργεσίαις ἀγαπᾶται.

δεῖπν᾽ ἐπαγγέλλοντι: The model words are found in Od. 4. 60, where Menelaos: σίτου θ᾽ ἅπτεσθον καὶ χαίρετον.

Antistrophe 2

ἀλλὰ γάρ: “But it might not be for.” Cf. O. 1.55.

πρόφασις: Is an assigned reason, true or false.

Εὐρύπυλος: Son of Poseidon and Kelaino, and king of Libya (Schol.). Poseidon (Triton) assumes a name like one of his own attributes. εὐρυβίας (O. 6.58), εὐρυμέδων (O. 8.31).

Ἐννοσίδα: So v. 173. In Homer ἐννοσίγαιος, ἐνοσίχθων.

ἀρούρας: Is not felt as dependent on προτυχόν, which comes in as an after-thought, but as a partitive on ἁρπάξαις.

προτυχόν: “What presented itself,” “what came to hand.”

οὐδ᾽ ἀπίθησέ νιν: “Nor did he fail to persuade him.” Herm. οὐδ᾽ ἀπίθησέ ϝιν (dat.), “nor did he disobey him,” the subject coming up emphatically in the second clause — the ἥρως (Euphemos) being set off against the god (Eurypylos).

ϝοι: The position speaks for dependence on χεῖρ᾽ ἀντερείσαις. See O. 2.16.

βώλακα: More special and technical than γαῖαν (v. 21).

δαιμονίαν: “Fateful.”

ἐναλίαν βᾶμεν: So Thiersch for ἐναλίᾳ βᾶμεν σὺν ἅλμᾳ. The adj. (esp. in -ιος) for the prepos. and subst. So ὑπαίθριος (O. 6.61). Compare “πεδάρσιοι ναίουσι,Aisch. Prom. 710 ; θυραῖον οἰχνεῖν, So. El. 313. The ἐναλία βῶλαξ would thus match the εἰνάλιον δόρυ and take its own course.

βᾶμεν = βῆναι. See v. 1.

σὺν ἅλμᾳ: Comitative-instrumental use of σύν. See P. 12.21. The clod went with the spray by which it was washed into the sea.

Epode 2

ἑσπέρας: When men wax tired and careless.

σπομέναν: Coincident with βᾶμεν.

μάν: Protest.

ὤτρυνον: “I, Medeia.” ὤτ. with dat., like κελεύω in poetry.

λυσιπόνοις: “Who relieve their masters of their toils.” So also Schol. Il. 24. 734. “Reliefs,” “relays,” would be to us a natural translation.

πρὶν ὥρας: First and extremely rare use of πρίν as a preposition.

εἰ γὰρ οἴκοι νιν βάλε: Wish passing over into condition.

Ἄιδα στόμα: This was one of the most famous entrances to Hades.

ϝἱὸς ἱππάρχου Ποσειδάωνος: A half-brother of Eurypylos on the Triton theory. This Poseidonian origin accounts for the Battiadai's love of horses.

τίκτε: See O. 6.41.

Καφισοῦ παρ᾽ ὄχθαις: A Minyan of Orchomenos (see O. 14), and so an interesting figure to a Boeotian poet. παρ᾽ ὄχθαις as παρὰ κρημνοῖσιν, P. 3.34.

Strophe 3

τετράτων παίδων . . . αἷμα: The blood (offspring, N. 3.65) of the fourth generation (τ. π. ἐπιγεινομένων need not be genitive absolute) is the fifth generation, the time of the Dorian migration, or the return of the Herakleidai.

σὺν Δαναοῖς: The Danaoi (or Achaians) were the old inhabitants of the Peloponnesos, who were driven out by the general unsettling known as the Dorian conquest.

κε ... λάβε: One of P.'s few unreal conditions. See O. 12.13.

ἐξανίστανται: Prophetic present, as O. 8.42.

Λακεδαίμονος , κτἑ.: The order is the line of invasion, though such coincidences are not to be pressed.

νῦν γε: Regularly νῦν δέ. “As it is.”

ἀλλοδαπᾶν . . . γυναικῶν: The prophecy fulfilled, v. 252: μίγεν . . . Λαμνιᾶν . . . ἔθνει γυναικῶν ἀνδροφόνων. These murderous brides are often mentioned in classic poetry. See O. 4.17.

εὑρήσει: See P. 2.64. Subject is Εὔφαμος.

τάνδε . . . νᾶσον: P.'s range of the terminal acc. is not wide. For ἐλθεῖν with δόμον, see O. 14.20; with μέγαρον, P. 4.134; with πεδίον, P. 5.52; with Λιβύαν, I. 3 (4), 71; with a person, I. 2, 48. For μολεῖν, see O. 9.76; N. 10.36. ἵκεο (P. 9.55; Ν. 3, 3), ἵκοντι (O. 10 [11], 95), ἀφίκετο (P. 5.29), ἀφίξεται (P. 8.54), ἐξίκετο (P. 11.35) hardly count, as these verbs are felt as transitives, “reach.”

οἵ κεν . . . τέκωνται: The plural agrees with the sense of γένος. κεν, with the subj., as a more exact future, where in prose the future indic. would be employed; an Homeric construction, nowhere else in P.

σὺν τιμᾷ θεῶν: θ., subjective genitive, “favor of the gods.” Cf. v. 260.

φῶτα: Battos (Aristoteles), who is glorified in the next ode.

κελαινεφέων: Kyrene had rain, the rest of Libya none. Hence κ. by contrast rather than absolutely.

πολυχρύσῳ: So. O.R. 151: τᾶς πολυχρύσου | Πνθῶνος. The presence of Phoibos is emphasized, as v. 5.

ἀμνάσει = ἀναμνάσει.

θέμισσιν: “Oracles.” Pl. as ἀγγελίαις, O. 3.28.

Antistrophe 3

καταβάντα: The threshold is much higher than the floor (Od. 22. 2: ἆλτο δ᾽ ἐπὶ μέγαν οὖδον); hence, κατ᾽ οὔδου βάντα, Od. 4. 680.

χρόνῳ | ὑστέρῳ: With καταβάντα.

ἀγαγέν: Doric = ἀγαγεῖν (see O. 1.3).

Νείλοιο πρὸς . . . τέμενος Κρονίδα: “To the Nile precinct of Kronides” (Zeus Ammon). With Νείλοιο τέμενος, compare O. 2.10: οἴκημα ποταμοῦ = οἴκ. ποτάμιον. The Schol. combines N. Κρονίδα, and considers it equivalent to Διὸς Νείλου, but there is no Ζεὺς Νεῖλος in the sense meant.

ῥα: The Homeric asseveration (Il. 16. 750; Od. 12. 280) is well suited to the solemn, oracular passage.

ἐπέων στίχες: “Rows of words,” “oracular, verses.” On the absence of εἰσι, see O. 1.1.

ἔπταξαν: Only here in P. Not the usual tone of the word, which is ordinarily “to cower,” as in So. Ai. 171: σιγῇ πτήξειαν ἄφωνοι. The attitude here assumed is that of brooding thought.

υἱὲ Πολυμνάστου: Aristoteles - Battos (v. 52).

σὲ δ᾽: O. 1.36.

ἐν τούτῳ λόγῳ: “In consonance with this word” (of prophecy).

ὤρθωσεν: “Exalted,” “glorified.”

μελίσσας: “The bee” is the Pythia. Honey is holy food. Cf. O. 6.47.

αὐτομάτῳ κελάδῳ: “Unprompted cry.” He had only asked a remedy for his stuttering tongue.

ἐς τρίς: The consecrated number.

αὐδάσαισα: The original sense of αὐδᾶν is not lost, as is shown by κελάδῳ, “loudly bade thee Hail!” The oracle is given by Herodotos, 4, 155: Βάττ᾽ ἐπὶ φωνὴν ἦλθες: ἄναξ δέ σε Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων | ἐς Λιβύην πέμπει μηλοτρόφον οἰκιστῆρα.

Epode 3

δυσθρόου φωνᾶς: “Slowness of speech.” Βάττος means “stutterer.” Cf. βατταρίζω. His real name was Ἀριστοτέλης. Herodotos (l. c.) says that B. was the Libyan word for “king.”

ποινά: ἀμοιβὴ λύσις (Schol.).

μάλα δή: Nowhere else in P. Od. 9. 507: μάλα δή με παλαίφατα θέσφαθ᾽ ἱκάνει. There of a painful revelation, here of a joyous vision.

μετά: Adverbial.


φοινικανθέμου ἦρος: I. 3, 36: φοινικέοισιν ἄνθησεν ῥόδοις. The rose is the flower by excellence. Arkesilas was in the flower, the rosy flush of his youth.

παισὶ τούτοις , κτἑ.: “These children” are the descendants of Battos, to whom A. is the eighth bloom. “Eighth in the line of these descendants blooms Arkesilas.” Battos is counted in after the Greek fashion.

μέρος: P. 12.11: τρίτον κασιγνητᾶν μέρος.

Ἀπόλλων τε Πυθώ: A complex; hence ἔπορεν. Compare O. 5.15.

κῦδος . . . ἱπποδρομίας: “Glory in chariot-racing.” Others make ἀμφικτιόνων depend on ἱπποδρομίας.

ἐξ ἀμφικτιόνων: ἐξ is “over,” O. 8.54. ἀμφικτιόνων, not Ἀμφικτυόνων, “the surrounding inhabitants.” This is understood of those who lived around Delphi, but it would apply with more force to the Libyan rivals of Arkesilas. So. El. 702: δύο | Λίβυες ζυγωτῶν ἁρμάτων ἐπιστάται.

ἀπὸ . . . δώσω: “I will assign him to the Muses” as a fit theme for song. The meetness lies in ἀπό, often used of that which is due. Cf. I. 7 (8), 59: ἔδοξ᾽ ἆρα καὶ ἀθανάτοις, | ἐσλόν γε φῶτα καὶ φθίμενον ὕμνοις θεᾶν διδόμεν.

αὐτόν: Ipsum. Euphamos in contrast to τῷ μέν, his descendant, Arkesilas, the δέ shifting, as often in P. See O. 11 (10), 8.

σφισιν: The house of Euphamos.

φύτευθεν: I. 5, 12: δαίμων φυτεύει δόξαν ἐπήρατον. θάλλει, v. 65, shimmers through.

Strophe 4

δέξατο: Without an object, as ἄγει, P. 2.17. Bergk reads ἀρχη ᾿κδέξατο.

κίνδυνος: The dangerous quest, the ναυτιλία.

κρατεροῖς . . . ἅλοις: The Argonauts were riveted to their enterprise as the planks were riveted to the Argo, which may have suggested the figure, but we must not forget that Hera inspired them (v. 184), and so may be said to have driven the nails. The passages cited certatim by the editors do not really help, such as Aisch. P. V. 64, and Hor. Od. 1, 35, 17. These are not the nails of necessity, but the nails of passion — the nails that fastened the ἶυγξ to her wheel, just as the proverb ἧλον ἥλῳ, clavum clavo pellere can be used “of the expulsive power of a new affection.”

ἀδάμαντος: On the genitive see O. 2.79. . iron of special hardness.

ἐξ ἀγαυῶν Αἰ.: ἐξ of the source, not of the agent. So Thuc. 1, 20.

Αἰολιδᾶν: Here is the genealogy of Iason that seems to be followed:

Aiolos Enarea Kretheus Salmoneus Athamas Aison Pheres Amuthan Tyro Poseidon Phrixos IASON Admetos Melampos Pelias Neleus Nestor Periklumenos

ἀκάμπτοις: Pelias perished by the latter means. ., “inflexible,” “invincible.”

ἦλθε δέ ϝοι . . . θυμῷ: On the double dative, see O. 2.16. ϝοι depends on θυμῷ κρυόεν. The relation is not that of apposition. Cf. P. 1.7: ϝοι . . . κρατί, and above, v. 37.

κρυόεν: “Blood-curdling.”

πυκινῷ . . . θυμῷ: O. 13.52: Σίσυφον μὲν πυκνότατον παλάμαις ὡς θεόν. Pelias is not only “wary,” but “crafty.” Compare v. 138: βάλλετο κρηπῖδα σοφῶν ἐπέων.

μέσον ὀμφαλόν: See note on v. 4.

εὐδένδροιο . . . ματέρος: Gaia was the first tenant of the oracle.

πρῶτον μὲν εὐχῇ τῇδε πρεσβεύω θεῶν
τὴν πρωτόμαντιν Γαῖαν,

and the ὀμφαλός was a reminder of her. N. 7.33: παρὰ μέγαν ὀμφαλὸν εὐρυκόλπου | μολὼν χθονός. Cf. P. 6.3; 8, 59; 11, 10.

αἰπεινῶν ἀπὸ σταθμῶν: On Pelion, where he was brought up by Cheiron. στ. is used in its special Homeric sense.

εὐδείελον: The Homeric signification “far-seen” suits Kronion after a fashion (Ο. 1, 111), but not Iolkos, whereas “sunny,” an old interpretation, suits Kronion perfectly (O. 3.24), and is not inapt for Iolkos, as opposed to the forest shade of Pelion and the cave of the Centaur. P. was not always clear himself as to the traditional vocabulary.

Antistrophe 4

ξεῖνος αἴτ᾽ ὦν ἀστός: Only passage where αἴτε is used = εἴτε. Even in prose the first εἴτε is sometimes omitted. Iason was both.

αἰχμαῖσιν διδύμαισιν: As Homer's heroes. Od. 1. 256: ἔχων . . . δύο δοῦρε.

τε . . . ἀμφὶ δέ: τε . . . δέ, again P. 11.29, the reverse of the common shift, μὲν . . . τε (O. 4.13).

Μαγνήτων ἐπιχώριος: A close-fitting dress was necessary for hunters in a dense forest.

παρδαλέᾳ: So Paris, Il. 3. 17: παρδαλέην ὤμοισιν ἔχων καὶ καμπύλα τόξα | καὶ ξίφος: αὐτὰρ δοῦρε δύω κεκορυθμένα χαλκῷ | πάλλων. But Paris was brought up on Mt. Ida, not on Mt. Pelion, and P. has blended his colors. Philostratos II. (Imagg. c. 7) gives Iason a lion-skin, which is a symbol of the Sun, who was Medeia's grandsire, πατρὸς Ἥλιος πατήρ, Eur. Med. 1321.

φρίσσοντας ὄμβρους = φρίσσειν ποιοῦντας (Schol.). “Shivering showers” = “shivery showers.” But as ὄμβρος is a στρατὸς ἀμείλιχος (P. 6.12), “bristling showers” may well represent bristling spears. Compare Il. 7. 62: στίχες . . . ἔγχεσι πεφρικυῖαι.

οὐδὲ κομᾶν . . . κερθέντες: He was still a boy, and had not shorn his locks off — for Greek youths were wont to dedicate their first hair to the river-gods (Schol.). Hence Pelias' sneer at him, v. 98. Others think of the κάρη κομόωντες Ἀχαιοί, and the vindication of his Achaian origin, despite his strange attire.

ἅπαν νῶτον καταίθυσσον: For acc. compare P. 5.11: καταιθύσσει . . . μάκαιραν ἑστίαν. As P. seems to associate αἰθύσσω with αἴθω (P. 1.87; 5, 11), “flared all down his back.” Compare ἀγλαοί above.

σφετέρας = ἑᾶς. See O. 9.78.

ἀταρβάκτοιο (not in L. & S.) = ἀταρβάτοιο. Herm. reads ἀταρμύκτοιο after Hesych. ταρμύξασθαι: φοβηθῆναι. I. makes trial of his unaffrighted soul — his soul that cannot be affrighted — just as, on one interpretation, Kyrene makes trial of her unmeasured strength (P. 9.38).

ἐν ἀγορᾷ πλήθοντος ὄχλου: In prose, πληθούσης ἀγορᾶς, from 10 o'clock in the morning. Genitive of time, from which the genitive absolute, with present participle, springs.

Epode 4

ὀπιζομένων: Not genitive absolute. “Of the awed beholders.”

ἔμπας: “For all that,” though they knew not that he was the heir.

τις . . . καὶ τόδε: “Many a one (ὧδε δέ τις εἴπεσκε, Hom.), among other things this.”

Οὔ τί που: Half-question, half-statement. “It can't be, although it ought to be.” Compare Ar. Ran. 522, and the famous skolion of Kallistratos: Φίλταθ᾽ Ἁρμόδι᾽, οὔ τί που τέθνηκας.

οὐδὲ μάν: Swearing often indicates a doubt which one desires to remove (P. 1.63). Apollo's hair is the first thing suggested by the πλόκαμοι . . . ἀγλαοί (v. 82). Ares is next (ἔκπαγλος, v. 79) — but not so beautiful as Apollo, though Aphrodite's lord — then the demigods.

πόσις | Ἀφροδίτας: Ares, for Hephaistos is not recognized by Pindar as the husband of Aphrodite; nor is he by Homer in the Iliad, and the episode of Od. 8. 266 was discredited in antiquity.

ἐν δέ: And yet who else can it be, for Otos and Ephialtes are dead?

Νάξῳ: The Aloeidai were buried in Naxos and had a cult there.

Ὦτον . . . Ἐφιάλτα: Homer calls them πολὺ καλλίστους μετά γε κλυτὸν Ὠρίωνα (Od. 11. 310). According to him the brothers were slain by Apollo for threatening the immortals with war. According to another account, they slew each other by the device of Artemis. The comparisons are taken from the Artemis cycle, as Iason is clearly a hunter.

Ἐφιάλτα: For the voc. compare v. 175; P. 11.62. The voc. naturally gives special prominence and interest, but it must not be pressed too much, as has been done with Πατρόκλεις ἱππεῦ and Εὔμαιε συβῶτα. Metre and variety have much to do with such shifts.

καὶ μάν: It is hard to believe Tityos dead with this gigantic youth before our eyes; hence the oath by way of confirmation, as v. 87.

Τιτυόν: T. was slain by Artemis. Od. 11. 580: Λητὼ γὰρ ἥλκησε Διὸς κυδρὴν παράκοιτιν | Πυθώδ᾽ ἐρχομένην διὰ καλλιχόρον Πανοπῆος. Those who wish to moralize P.'s song see in these figures warning examples. It would be as fair to say that Tityos was introduced as a compliment to Arkesilas, whose ancestor he was (v. 46).

ὄφρα . . . ἔραται: ἔρα_ται is subj. A bit of obbligato reflection without any personal application. The Greek moralizes as Shakespeare quibbles.

τᾶν ἐν δυνατῷ φιλοτάτων: See P. 2.34.

Strophe 5

γάρυον: The lower range of this word, as O. 2.96.

ἀνὰ δ᾽ ἡμιόνοις: Compare O. 8.51: ἀν᾽ ἵπποις.

ἡμιόνοις ξεστᾷ τ᾽ ἀπήνᾳ: Greek seldom comes nearer than this to ἓν διὰ δυοῖν (v. 18). Mules were a favorite team among the Thessalians as well as among the Sicilians.

δεξιτερῷ: Iason had lost his left shoe in crossing the Anauros. See v. 75.

κλέπτων = καλύπτων. Cf. O. 6.36. The Greek associated the dissociate radicals of these words.

Ποίαν γαῖαν: There is something disrespectful about ποίαν, and γαῖαν is not especially courteous. The Homeric formula (Od. 1. 170) is: τίς πόθεν ἐσσ᾽ ἀνδρῶν; πόθι τοι πόλις ἠδὲ τοκῆες; Pelias had come προτροπάδαν, looking neither to the right nor to the left of him, his eye riveted on the unsandalled foot, and seeing nothing of the ὄπις on the face of the multitude.

ἀνθρώπων . . . χαμαιγενέων: “Groundling wenches.”

πολιᾶς . . . γαστρός: No father is mentioned (contrast Homer's τοκῆες), and the mother is an old drab, by whom Iason was “ditch-delivered.” The insinuation that she petted her child is not impossible, though to less prejudiced eyes Iason could not have suggested a μαμμάκυθος.

ἐξανῆκεν: “Sent forth,” “spewed forth,” “spawned.”

καταμιάναις: Ironical.

Antistrophe 5

θαρσήσαις ἀγανοῖσι γόγοις: Both lesson, that Iason had learned from Cheiron — boldness of action, gentleness of speech.

ἀμείφθη: This form, only here in P., becomes common in later times; perhaps “was moved to answer.” Cf. ἐστρατεύθη (P. 1.51).

οἴσειν: May be an undifferentiated fut., equiv. to a present. But the future = μέλλειν οἴσειν is defensible, “that I am going to show myself the bearer of Cheiron's training.” Cheiron's great lesson, reverence for Zeus, and reverence for one's parents (P. 6.23), is the very lesson which Iason is about to carry out. In restoring Aison he is obeying Zeus.

Χαρικλοῦς: Chariklo was the wife and Philyra the mother of Cheiron (P. 3.1).

κοῦραι . . . ἁγναί: Repels the πογιὰ γαστήρ, the old drab who is supposed to have spoiled him.

ϝέργον . . . εἰπών: Zeugma for ποιήσας.

εὐτράπελον: The reading of the old codices, ἐντράπεγον, might mean “to cause concern, shame, anxiety.” εὐτράπεγον (Cod. Perus.) would mean “shifty,” “deceitful.” “I have never said nor done aught that was not straightforward.” ἐκτράπελον (Schol.), “out of the way,” “insolent.”

ἀρχὰν ἀγκομίζων: So with Bergk after the grammarian Chairis for the MS. ἀρχαίαν κομίζων. ἀγκομίζων: “To get back,” pres. part. for fut. (ἀγκομίζων has been suggested, but is unnecessary. The conative present will serve. See O. 13.59. If ἀρχαίαν is read, notice how far the adjective carries in the equable dactylo-epitrites. Cf. O. 11 (10), 19.

πατρός: Pelias had asked for his mother, Iason proudly speaks of his father.

Epode 5

νιν: Sc. τιμάν.

λευκαῖς πιθήσαντα φρασίν: λευκαῖς is variously interpreted. “White,” i.e. “envious.” Others compare λευγαλέος (Il. 9. 119: φρεσὶ λευγαλέῃσι πιθήσας), λυγρός, Fennell λύσσα (λυκψα), “yielding to his mad desires.”

ἀρχεδικᾶν: “Lords by primal right,” “lawful lords.”

κᾶδος . . . θηκάμενοι: “Having made lamentation.”

μίγα κωκυτῷ: So μίγδα with dat., Il. 8. 437.

πέμπον: With the imperf. the thoughts follow the motion. See note on O. 2.23.

σπαργάνοις ἐν πορφυρέοις: The σπάργανα are also κροκωτά, N. 1.38.

νυκτὶ κοινάσαντες ὁδόν: “Having made night privy to the journey.” Time is often considered a companion (O. 2.11).

τράφεν = τρέφειν: The inf. as O. 6.33: ἥρωι πορσαίνειν δόμεν Εἰλατίδᾳ βρέφος.

Strophe 6

λευκίππων: White horses were princely. See P. 1.66: λευκοπώλων Τυνδαριδᾶν.

οὐ ξείναν ἱκοίμαν . . . ἄλλων: The MSS. have ἱκόμαν, which is unmetrical. οὐ ξείναν ι?̔́κοιμ᾽ ἄν (=ἀφιγμένος ἂν εἴην), “I can't have come to a strange land” would be easy, and an aorist ἵκοιμι is supported by ἵκωμι, Il. 9. 414, and by P. 2.36, where the codices have ι?̔κόντ᾽. The pure opt. might stand here as a half-wish, a thought begotten of a wish, “I hope it will turn out that I have come to no strange land,” οὐ being adhaerescent. Bergk has written οὐ μὰν ξεῖνος ἵκω γαῖαν ἄλλων, which does not explain the corruption. οὐ μάν does not occur in P., though οὐδὲ μάν does.

ἄλλων = ἀλλοτρίαν. Cumulative,

Φήρ = θήρ. Only of the Centaurs. P. 3.4.

ἔγνον = ἔγνωσαν.

πομφόλυξαν: For the plur. see P. 1.13. The dualistic neut. plur. often retains the plur. verb, and there are two streams of tears here.

ἃν περὶ ψυχάν: “All round (through) his soul” — κατὰ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ψυχήν (Schol.).

Antistrophe 6

κασίγνητοι: Aison's brothers. See v. 72.

σφισιν: O. 3.39: Ἐμμενίδαις Θήρωνί τ᾽ ἐλθεῖν κῦδος. The brothers were an accession.

κατὰ κλέος: “At the report,” “close on the report.” Compare κατὰ πόδας, “at the heel of,” “following.”

Φέρης: See v. 72. Most memorable to us for his part in the Alkestis of Euripides, where he declines to die for his son Admetos: χαίρεις ὁρῶν φῶς, πατέρα δ᾽ οὐ χαίρειν δοκεῖς;

Υπερῇδα: A fountain in the ancient Pherai, near Iolkos, Hypereia. See commentators on Il. 2. 734; 6, 457.

ἐκ δὲ Μεσσάνας: Messene was distant, hence an implied antithesis to ἐγγὺς μέν.

Ἀμυθάν = Ἀμυθάων, as Ἀλκμάν for Α᾿λκμαίων (P. 8.46).

Μέλαμπος: A famous seer, son of Amythan. Od. 11. 259; 15, 225.

ἀνεψιόν: Must depend on ἷκεν — cf. P. 11.35: Στρόφιον ἐξίκετο — but it would be easier to have ἷκον (suggested by Bergk), and ἀνεψιοί (Hartung). ἷκον would then be in the schema Alcmanicum. See v. 179. It is wholly inconceivable that ἀνεψιόν should depend on εὐμενέοντες = φιλέοντες.

ἐν δαιτὸς . . . μοίρᾳ: At a shared, i. e. common, banquet.

ἁρμόζοντα: Compare N. 1.21: ἁρμόδιον δεῖπνον. The Thessalians lived well, as we know from Euripides' Alkestis, Plato's Kriton, and other familiar passages.

πᾶσαν . . . τάνυεν: “Stretched joy to its full extent,” “kept it up to its full height.”

δραπών: N. 2.8: δρέπεσθαι κάλλιστον ἄωτον. The aor., on account of the definite number (v. 26). Otherwise we should have expected the present part., as the action is coincident with τάνυεν.

Epode 6

πάντα: Acc. pl. with παρεκοινᾶτο. In contradistinction to v. 116: κεφάλαια λόγων.

θέμενος = ποιησάμενος. “Speaking in sober earnest.”

σπουδαῖον: Before v. 129 it was all εὐφροσύνα.

ἐπέσποντο: Figuratively. “They took sides with him.”

ἦλθον . . . μέγαρον: v. 51.

Τυροῦς ἐρασιπλοκάμου: See v. 72, and note the contrast to πολιᾶς . . . γαστρός, both at the time of bearing.

πραῢν . . . ὄαρον: Cf. v. 101. πραΰς, “gentle” by nature; ἥμερος, by culture (J. H. H. Schmidt).

ποτιστάζων: Compare the Biblical “distil” (Deut. 32, 2), and Homer's ῥέεν αὐδή.

βάλλετο κρηπῖδα: P. 7.3: κρηπῖδ᾽ ἀοιδᾶν βαλέσθαι. The metaphor shifts rapidly, but the notion of drink - offering is not foreign to that of laying the foundation.

Παῖ Π.: Stately genealogical address, with effective position of vocative.

Πετραίου: Poseidon was worshipped in Thessaly as the Cleaver of the Rock, because he had opened a way through the rock for the Peneios. On the π's, see v. 150.

Strophe 7

ὠκύτεραι: “Are but too swift.” N. 11.48: ἀπροσίκτων δ᾽ ἐρώτων ὀξύτεραι μανίαι.

ἔπιβδαν: “Day after the feast,” the next morning with all its horrors, next day's reckoning.

θεμισσαμένους ὀργάς: “Having ruled our tempers by the law of right (θέμις).”

ὑφαίνειν: Cf. v. 275.

μία βοῦς: Not common, yet not surprising after the frequent use of heifer (“Samson's heifer”) everywhere for a girl or young married woman. Cf. Aisch. Ag. 1126 (Kassandra speaks): ἄπεχε τῆς βοὸς τὸν ταῦρον.

θρασυμήδεϊ Σαλμωνεῖ: See v. 72. S. imitated Zeus's thunder and lightning, and was struck by lightning for his pains.

κείνων φυτευθέντες: v. 256: Εὐφάμου φυτευθέν.

σθένος ἀελίου: The sun rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race.

χρυ^σέου: υ_ in Homer, υ common in P.

Μοῖραι δ᾽ ἀφίστανται), κτἑ.: “The Fates withdraw . . . to hide their blush” (Dissen). This has a modern sound, but is better than Rauchenstein's, “The Fates avert their faces, if enmity among the members of a family obscures reverence (die heilige Scheu).” Hermann reads αἰδοῖ, and makes the Fates revolt against concealment.

Antistrophe 7

ἀκόντεσσιν: The historical Thessalians were famous ἀκοντισταί. X. Hell. 6, 1, 9.

ξανθάς: “dun.”

ἀπούραις ἁμετέρων τοκέων , κτἑ.: This is hardly πραῢς ὄαρος, according to modern ideas, but Iason warms as he goes on. Compare v. 109 with v. 101.

πλοῦτον πιαίνων: “Feeding fat thy wealth.” P. has an especial fancy for π- alliteration.

πονεῖ: “Irks,” a rare transitive use.

ταῦτα πορσύνοντα = ὅτι ταῦτα πορσύνει.

καὶ σκᾶπτον μόναρχον καὶ θρόνος: The verb of ταῦτα is not exhausted, and there is no need of a nominativus pendens.

Κρηθεΐδας: Aison.

ἱππόταις . . . λαοῖς: The Thessalian cavalry was famous.

εὔθυνε . . . δίκας: Solon, fr. IV. 37: εὐθύνει δὲ δίκας σκολιάς.

τὰ μέν: Notice the lordly indifference to τὰ δέ, which had already been disposed of — flocks and fields.

Epode 7

ἀναστήῃ: To which the ἀναστήσῃ, ἀναστήσῃς, of the MSS. points. ἀνασταίη, the opt., is a rare sequence and cannot be paralleled in P. As there is no touch of a past element, ἀνασταίη would be a wish, and detach itself from λῦσον. See Am. Journ. of Phil. IV. p. 425.

νεώτερον, itself threatening, is reinforced by κακόν.

Ἔσομαι | τοῖος: “I will be such” as thou wishest me to be, will do everything thou wishest. Compare the phrase παντοῖον γενέσθαι.

γηραιὸν μέρος: Yet Pelias belonged to the same generation with Iason, acc. to Pindar (see v. 72), although not acc. to Homer, who makes Aison and Pelias half-brothers (Od. 11. 254 foll.). This makes the fraud transparent. Notice also his vigorous entrance (v. 94). It is true that his daughters cut him up, in order to restore his youth, but that does not prove that he was as old a man as Aison.

σὸν δ᾽ ἄνθος ἥβας κυμαίνει: κ. “is swelling,” “is bourgeoning.” κῦμα is not only the “wave,” but also the “swelling bud.” (J. H. H. Schmidt).

κομίξαι: This refers to the ceremony of ἀνάκλησις, by which the ghosts of those who had died and been buried in foreign parts were summoned to return home and rest in their cenotaph. So we might translate κ., “lay.”

ἐλθόντας: We should expect ἐλθόντα, sc. τινά. But there is a ἡμᾶς in Pelias' conscience.

Strophe 8

ματρυιᾶς: Ino-Leukothea, acc. to the common form of the familiar legend; acc. to P., Demodike (Schol.).

εἰ μετάλλατόν τι: “Whether there is aught to be followed up.” Dreams might be false, for they come through the gate of ivory as well as through the gate of horn, Od. 19. 562.

ὀτρύνει: Sc. Ἀπόλλων, a very natural ellipsis whenever oracles are mentioned.

ναῒ πομπάν: Almost as one word, “a ship-home-bringing.” πομπάν: Od. 6. 290; 10, 18.

τέλεσον . . . προήσειν = ἐὰν τελέσῃς . . . προήσω.

μοναρχεῖν | καὶ βασιλευέμεν: Compare v. 152: καὶ σκᾶπτον μόναρχον καὶ θρόνος.

Ζεὺς γενέθλιος: Cf. O. 8.16. Z. was the father of their common ancestor, Aiolos.

κρίθεν = διεκρίθησαν.

Antistrophe 8

ἐόντα πλόον = ὅτι ὄντως ἔστιν.

φαινέμεν: Compare the use of φρουρὰν φαίνειν among the Spartans, Xen. Hell. 3, 2, 23. 5, 6. There may be an allusion to fire-signals

τρεῖς: Herakles, Kastor, Polydeukes.

ἑλικοβλεφάρου: Of Aphrodite, fr. IX. 2, 5: Ἀφροδίτας ἑλικοβλεφάρου. Cf. Hesiod. Theog. 16; Hymn. Hom. V. 19.

Ἐννοσίδα: Of the sons of Poseidon (v. 33), Euphamos, ancestor of Arkesilas, is from Tainaros (v. 44); Periklymenos, grandson of Poseidon, brother of Nestor (Od. 11. 286), is from Pylos. Notice the chiasm. They are all Minyans.

αἰδεσθέντες ἀλκάν: In modern parlance, “from self-respect,” ἀλκάν being an equiv. of “self,” as χαίταν (O. 14.24), as κόμας (P. 10.40). ἀλκάν is “repute for valor,” a brachylogy made sufficiently plain by κλέος below. αἰδώς and αἰσχύνη are often used in the sense of military honor. Il. 15. 561: φίλοι, ἀνέρες ἔστε, καὶ αἰδῶ θέσθ᾽ ἐνὶ θυμῷ. See also v. 185.

ὑψιχαῖται: Hardly a reference to the top-knot. Poseidon's sons were all tall (the unit of measurement being the fathom), and if they were tall, so was their hair. Cf. οἰόζωνος (So. O.R. 846), “ἑκατομπόδων(O. C. 717) .

Περικλύμενε: Compare v. 89. P. has no special interest in Periklymenos.

εὐρυβία: A title in the Poseidon family, O. 6.58; P. 2.12.

ἐξ Ἀπόλλωνος: Orpheus is the son of Oiagros (fr. X. 8, 10; hence ἐξ . may be taken as ‘sent by.’ Cf. Hes. Theog. 94.

ἀοιδᾶν πατήρ: Even in prose the speech-master at a symposium is a πατὴρ λόγου (Plat. Sympos. 177 D).

Ὀρφεύς: First mentioned by Ibykos of Rhegion, assigned to the Argonautic expedition by Simonides of Keos.

Epode 8

πέμπε; See v. 114.

χρυσόραπις: χρυσόρραπις is an Homeric epithet of Hermes.

Ἐχίονα . . . Ἔρυτον: Hold-fast and Pull-hard, sons of Hermes and Antianeira.

κεχλάδοντας: A peculiar Doric perfect participle with present signification (compare πεφρίκοντας, v. 183). The Schol. makes it = πληθύοντας, “full to overflowing with youth.” The anticipation of the plural is called σχῆμα Ἀλκμανικόν. See note on v. 126. Il. 5. 774; 20, 138; Od. 10. 513: εἰς Ἀχέροντα Πυριφλεγέθων τε ῥέουσιν Κωκυτός θ᾽ ὃς δὴ Στυγὸς ὕδατός ἐστιν ἀπορρώξ. The figure becomes much easier if we remember how distinctly the plural ending of the verb carries its “they,” and here κεχλάδοντας recalls υἱούς.

ταχέες: So the better MSS. for ταχέως. Cf. P. 11.48: θοὰν ἀκτῖνα.

Παγγαίου: On the borders of Thrace and Macedon.

ναιετάοντες: “Dwelling, as they did,” far to the north, while Euphamos dwelt in the far south. Cf. P. 1.64.

θυμῷ γελανεῖ: Compare O. 5.2: καρδίᾳ γελανεῖ. Notice the cumulation.

ἔντυεν: O. 3.28: ἔντὐ ἀνάγκα.

πεφρίκοντας: See v. 179.

πόθον ἔνδαιεν Ἥρα: Hera favored the expedition, as appears from other sources. Od. 12. 72: Ἥρη παρέπεμψεν, ἐπεὶ φίλος ἦεν Ἰήσων.

Strophe 9

τὰν ἀκίνδυνον . . . αἰῶνα: αἰών is fem. P. 5.7; N. 9.44. The article has a contemptuous fling. So. Ai. 473: αἰσχρὸν γὰρ ἄνδρα τοῦ μακροῦ χρῄζειν βίου, “your.”

παρὰ ματρί: Compare the slur cast on Iason (v. 98), and P. 8.85: μολόντων πὰρ ματέρα.

πέσσοντα: O. 1.83.

ἐπὶ καὶ θανάτῳ: Even if death were to be the meed (like ἐπὶ μισθῷ).

φάρμακον . . . ἑᾶς ἀρετᾶς: φάρμακόν τινος is either “a remedy for” or “a means to.” Here it is the latter. It is not “a solace for their valorous toil,” but an “elixir of valor,” as we say the “elixir of youth.”

λέξατο: “Reviewed.”

ἐπαινήσαις: Coincident action.

Μόψος: A famous soothsayer.

ἐμβόλου: The ἔμβολον was more modern, but P. had in mind the famous talking-plank in the ship Argo.

ἀγκύρας: The same mild anachronism as above, v. 24. The anchors were suspended at the prow, v. 22 and P. 10.52. On the two anchors, see O. 6.101.

Antistrophe 9

φιάλαν: Compare the famous scene in Thuk. 6, 32.

ἐγχεικέραυνον: So O. 13.77: Ζηνὸς ἐγχεικεραύνου.

ὠκυπόρους: Proleptic. So εὔφρονα and φιλίαν, v. 196.

κυμάτων ῥιπὰς ἀνέμων τε: ἀνέμων ῥιπαί is common enough everywhere. So in our author, P. 9.52; N. 3.59; fr. V. 1, 6; So. Antig. 137. . not so common of the waves. Fr. XI. 83: πόντου ῥιπαί.

ἐκάλει: He called on Zeus, and then on the other things that he feared or desired. Nothing is more characteristic of the heathen mind than this meticulous prevision. Zeus answered for all.

φθέγμα . . . ἀκτῖνες: No ὕστερον πρότερον. The lightning was secondary.

ἀμπνοὰν . . . ἔστασαν: ἱστάναι is used in poetry to form periphrases with abstract nouns (Böckh), very much as ποιεῖσθαι is used in prose. . ἔστ.=ἀνέπνευσαν, for which see So. O.R. 1221: ἀνέπνευσά τ᾽ ἐκ σέθεν καὶ κατεκοίμησα τοὐμὸν ὄμμα. “They drew a free breath again.”

Epode 9

ἐνίπτων: Not the Homeric ἐνίπτω, but a new present formation from ἔννεπε (Curtius).

ἄκορος: Gives life to the dipping oar, that cannot get its fill.

Ἀξείνου: The Ἄξεινος, afterwards Εὔξεινος.

ἕσσαντο = καθίδρυσαν. Cf. P. 5.42: καθέσσαντο (MSS.), where, however, we read κάθεσσαν.

φοίνισσα . . . ἀγέλα ταύρων: Cf. v. 149: βοῶν ξανθὰς ἀγέλας. For the sacrifice, see O. 13.69. 81.

Θρηικίων: Hieron, the seat of the altar, was on the Asiatic shore and in Bithynia. The Bithynians were Thracians (Hdt. 7, 75), but Thracian had a nobler sound, such as Norse has to us, a sound of the sea. So. O.R. 196: τὸν ἀπόξενον ὅρμον Θρῄκιον κλύδωνα, Antig. 588:δυσπνόοις ὅταν Θρῄσσαισιν ἔρεβος ὕφαλον ἐπιδράμῃ πνοαῖς” .

νεόκτιστον: Built by the sons of Phrixos.

λίθων: The best MSS. have λίθινον, which is a gloss. This shows that the old readers connected it with θέναρ.

θέναρ: I. 3 (4), 74: βαθυκρήμνου πολιᾶς ἁλὸς ἐξευρὼν θέναρ, where it means the hollow (depth) of the sea, as it elsewhere means the hollow of the hand. Acc. to the Schol. τὸ κοίλωμα τοῦ βωμοῦ τὸ ὑποδεχόμενον τὰ θύματα.

δεσπόταν . . . ναῶν: Poseidon.

Strophe 10

συνδρόμων . . . πετρᾶν: The famous Symplegades.

ἀμαιμάκετον: See P. 1.14.

στίχες: The winds come like files of armed men. Contrast P. 6.12.

τελευτάν: “Death.”

Φᾶσιν: Long a notable demarcation for the Greeks.

κελαινώπεσσι: See Hdt. 2, 104, on the dark skin of the Kolchians.

βίαν μῖξαν = “Joined battle,” “fought hand to hand with.”

παρά: “In the realm of.”

αὐτῷ: Contrast to their previous adventures.

πότνια . . . βελέων: Aphrodite. Cf. Il. 21. 470: πότνια θηρῶν (Artemis).

ποικίλαν ἴυγγα: See P. 2.40, and add N. 4.35: ἴυγγι δ᾽ ἕλκομαι ἦτορ, and Plaut. Cistell. 2, 1, 4:versor in amoris rota miser.

Antistrophe 10

μαινάδα: “Maddening.”

λιτάς: “Supplicatory,” “the litany of incantations.” Cf. O. 6.78: λιταῖς θυσίαις. Some prefer to consider λιτάς as a substantive in apposition.

ἐκδιδάσκησεν σοφόν: Sc. εἶναι. So τούτους ἱππέας ἐδίδαξεν, τὸν ϝἱὸν ἱππέα ἐδιδάξατο, αὐτοὺς γενναίους ἐξεδίδαξας.

ποθελνὰ . . . Ἑλλάς = ποθουμένη Ἑλλάς = πόθος Ἑλλάδος.

καιομέναν: The metaphor of the ἄλυτος κύκλος lingers. She is a wheel of fire, lashed by Peitho, who is Aphrodite's first maid of dishonor. So Aisch. Ag. 385 (of an unholy love): βιᾶται δ᾽ τάλαινα Πειθώ.

πείρατ᾽ ἀέθλων: “The achievements of (the means of achieving) the labors.”

ἀντίτομα: Magic herbs were shredded (τέμνειν), as in Aisch. Ag. 17: ὕπνου τόδ᾽ ἀντίμολπον ἐντέμνων ἄκος.

καταίνησαν: They pledged (themselves). Desponderunt. “They vowed sweet union in mutual wedlock.”

μῖξαι: A promise, as a vow, takes the aor. of the future. Od. 4. 252: ὤμοσα . . . μὴ . . . ἀναφῆναι. With μῖξαι cf. P. 9.13: ξυνὸν γάμον μιχθέντα. On ἐν with μιγνύναι, O. 1.90.

Epode 10

ἀδαμάντινον: So Apoll. Rhod. 3, 1285: ἀδάμαντος ἄροτρον.

σκίμψατο: “Pressed hard.” L. & S. transl. “alleged!” Applies strictly to ἄροτρον alone, not to the oxen, which would require ἔστησεν. Transl. καί, “with.”

ξανθᾶν: See v. 149: βοῶν ξανθὰς ἀγέλας.

γενύων = γενύ̂ων: υ is semi - vocalic (consonantal). See G. Meyer, Gr. Gr. § 147.

πνέον: Monosyllabic. Sometimes written πνεῦν. See G. Meyer, Gr. Gr. § 117.

πέλασσεν: Apoll. Rhod. 3, 1307: εἷλκεν ἐπικρατέως παντὶ σθένει ὄφρα πελάσσῃ ζεύγλῃ χαλκείῃ.

ὀρθὰς δ᾽ αὔλακας , κτἑ.: “Straight stretched he the furrows as he was driving.” The process and the result side by side.

ἀνά: With σχίζε. ἀν᾽ ὀρόγυιαν would mean “a fathom at a time,” not “fathom high.”

βασιλεύς, ὅστις ἄρχει ναός: He disdains to turn to Iason.

στρωμνάν: “Coverlet.”

Strophe 11

θυσάνῳ: “Flocks.”

αὐδάσαντος: Genitive absolute of participle without a subject. See v. 25.

κροκόεν: A royal color, as well as purple. See N. 1.38: κροκωτὸν σπάργανον.

ἐόλει = ἐϝόλει. Plupf. of εἴλω. Compare ἔοργα and the rest.

ἐφετμαῖς: P. suppresses the details. So he does not say that Medeia bade Iason not plough against the wind. Even here we have to do only with the κεφάλαια λόγων. For the pl., see O. 3.28.

ἀνάγκας ἔντεσιν: So N. 8.3: χερσὶν ἀνάγκας. Compare

saeva Necessitas
clavos trabales et cuneos manu
gestans aena.

αἰανές: P. 1.83.

ἴυξεν: His anguish was inarticulate (ἀφωνήτῳ . . . ἄχει), but his amazement forced from him the whistling ἰύ of astonishment.

Antistrophe 11

ποίας: Cf. P. 8.20: ποίᾳ Παρνασίδι.

ἔρεπτον = ἤρεφον (I. 3, 72: ἐρέφοντα). Homer has only an aor. ἔρεψα.

Ἀελίου θαυμαστὸς υἱός: Od. 10. 136: Κίρκη ἐυπλόκαμος, δεινὴ θεὸς αὐδήεσσα, αὐτοκασιγνήτη ὀλοόφρονος Αἰήταο: ἀμφὼ δ᾽ ἐκγεγάτην φαεσιμβρότου Ἠελίοιο.

δέρμα . . . ἔννεπεν, ἔνθα: Prolepsis.

ἐκτάνυσαν: Poetical condensation. Phrixos had slain the ram with his sacrificial knife in honor of Ζεὺς Λαφύστιος, flayed him, and stretched the skin.