), the personification of justice, was, according to Hesiod (Hes. Th. 901
), a daughter of Zeus and Themis, and the sister of Eunomia and Eirene.
She was considered as one of the Horae ; she watched the deeds of man, and approached the throne of Zeus with lamentations whenever a judge violated justice. (Hesiod. Op.
She was the enemy of all falsehood, and the protectress of a wise administration of justice (Orph. Hymn.
42, 61); and Hesychia, that is, tranquillity of mind, was her daughter. (Pind. P. 8.1
; comp. Apollod. 1.3.1
; Hyg. Fab. 183
; Diod. 5.72
She is frequently called the attendant or councillor (πάρεδρος
) of Zeus. (Soph. Oed. Col.
1377; Plut. Alex. 52
; Arrian, Arr. Anab. 4.9
; Orph. Hymn.
In the tragedians, Dice appears as a divinity who severely punishes all wrong, watches over the maintenance of justice, and pierces the hearts of the unjust with the sword made for her by Aesa. (Aeschyl. Choeph.
In this capacity she is closely connected with the Erinnyes (Aeschyl. Eum.
510), though her business is not only to punish injustice, but also to reward virtue. (Aeschyl. Agam.
The idea of Dice as justice personified is most perfectly developed in the dramas of Sophocles and Euripides.
She was represented on the chest of Cypselus as a handsome goddess, dragging Adicia (Injustice) with one hand, while in the other she held a staff with which she beat her. (Paus. 5.18
; comp. Eur. Hipp. 1172