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Aguinaldo, Emilio, 1870-

Leader of the Philippine insurgents in their insurrection against Spanish authority, in 1896, and organizer and president of the so-called Filipino Republic; was born in Imus, in the province of Cavite, in Luzon, in 1870. He is a Chinese mestizo (of Chinese and Tagalog parentage), and received his early education at the College of St. Jean de Lateran and the University of St. Tomas, in Manila. Later he became the protege of a Jesuit priest, and was for a time a student in the medical department of the Pontifical University of Manila. In 1883 he went to Hong-Kong, became interested in military affairs, learned something of

Emilio Aguinaldo.

the English, French, and Chinese languages, and through his reputation for ability, shrewdness, and diplomacy, and his personal magnetism, gained great influence with his countrymen. In the rebellion of 1896 he was a commanding figure, and was at the head of the diplomatic party, which succeeded in making terms with the Spanish government, the latter paying a large sum to the Philippine leaders. In Hong-Kong he quarrelled with his associates over the division of this money, and went to Singapore, where he remained until the outbreak of the Spanish-American War.

Aguinaldo presented himself to Admiral Dewey at Cavite shortly after the battle of Manila Bay, and was given an opportunity to organize the Filipinos against the Spanish authority; but no promises were made to him, and the insurgents were never officially recognized by the Americans. [72] The cruel treatment of the Spanish prisoners by the Filipinos, and their claim to the right of sacking the city, after the capture of Manila, soon caused serious relations between the natives and the United States officers. On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo organized his so-called Filipino Republic, with himself as president, and soon proclaimed himself dictator. He organized an extensive conspiracy among the native population of Manila, with the intention of massacring the entire American and foreign population of the city: but the plot was discovered and failed. He protested against the Spanish-American treaty of peace, which ceded the Philippine Islands to the United States, and on the evening of Feb. 4, 1899, his troops attacked the American lines in the suburbs of Manila.

This caused the immediate ratification of the treaty by the United States Senate. The Filipinos, under Aguinaldo, made a strong resistance to the Americans, and it was not till after the close of the rainy season that they could be followed up in the open field. Early in 1900 the organized insurrection, which was chiefly confined to the Tagalog nationality, was broken up. Aguinaldo was driven into hiding, and reports of his death had persistent circulation. Later in the year, the insurgents, encouraged by the possible change of administration in the United States, actively renewed hostilities; but, discouraged by their repeated failures in their attacks on the American troops, and the news of the re-election of President McKinley, they began giving up the struggle and surrendering in large bodies to the American officers. Aguinaldo himself was captured by Gen. Frederick Funston (q. v.) on March 23, 1901, at his hiding-place in Palanan, Isabella Province, Luzon, and was immediately taken to Manila.

He had been located by means of the capture of his secret cipher code in a drug-store in Manila, from which the insurgents had been furnished with medical supplies. As soon as his hiding-place was known, General Funston planned the scheme for his capture. He chose a number of native troops, informing them that they were to pass themselves off as Aguinaldo's expected reinforcements. Four Tagalogs who had been officers in the insurgent army were first selected, and then seventy-eight trustworthy Maccabebe scouts were picked out. Besides General Funston this expedition was accompanied by Captain Hazzard, of the 1st United States Cavalry, and Lieutenant Mitchell and Captain Newton, of the 34th Infantry. On March 6, at 4 P. M., the expedition embarked on the gunboat Vicksburg at Cavite. At 2 A. M. on the 14th General Funston and his party were landed within a short distance of Baler, about 20 miles south of Casiguran, the place nearest the reported headquarters of Aguinaldo. suitable for a base of operations. As the Vicksburg had displayed no lights and had used extreme precaution, not the slightest suspicion was excited by the landing. An ex-colonel of the insurgent army was the nominal commander of the expedition. About twenty Maccabebes were dressed in the insurgent uniform, the rest being attired in the ordinary dress of the country. The American officers, who were dressed as privates, posed as prisoners. When the party arrived at Casiguran a message was forwarded to Auginaldo that the re-enforcements he had ordered were on their way to Palanan, and a further statement was enclosed that there had been an engagement with Americans, five of whom, with Krag rifles, had been captured. In six days the expedition marched 90 miles over a most difficult country. When within 8 miles of Aguinaldo's camp the fact that he sent provisions proved the ruse had thus far worked admirably. On March 23 the party reached the camp. where Aguinaldo received the supposed officers at his house, located on the Palanan River. After a brief conversation with him the party quietly excused themselves, and at once orders were given to fire upon Aguinaldo's body-guard, who fled in consternation. Two of them, however, were killed and eighteen wounded. During this engagement the American officers rushed into Aguinaldo's house, and succeeded in taking him, Colonel Villa. his chief of staff, and Santiago Barcelona. the insurgent treasurer. After remaining two days in the camp the party returned to the coast. where the Vicksburg, which was in waiting, received them, and conveyed the entire party to Manila.

On April 2 he subscribed and swore to [73] the following declaration which had been prepared by the American military authorities for use in the Philippines:

I,------, hereby renounce all allegiance to any and all so-called revolutionary governments in the Philippine Islands, and recognize and accept the supreme authority of the United States of America therein; I do solemnly swear that I will bear true faith and allegiance to that government; that I will at all times conduct myself as a faithful and law-abiding citizen of the said islands, and will not, either directly or indirectly, hold correspondence with or give intelligence to an enemy of the United States, nor will I abet, harbor, or protect such enemy; that I impose upon myself these voluntary obligations without any mental reservations or purpose of evasion, so help me God.

His last proclamation.

Copies of what was probably the full text of the last proclamation issued by Aguinaldo previous to his capture by General Funston were received at the War Department in Washington in March, 1901. The proclamation was contained in the Filipinos' Anti-Europa, the organ of the Filipino insurgents, published at Madrid, Spain, and appears in the issue of that paper of March 10, 1901. A translation of the article is here given: The following proclamation has been recently received by this paper, which will probably satisfy the clamor of all Filipinos:
Don Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy, President of the Philippine Republic, Captain-General, and General-in-Chief of her army:

Heart-broken groans of the oppressed and of their unfortunate families, and energetic protests from the entire people of the Philippines, come to my far-off camp on account of the unheard — of cruelties and scornful violations of the most elementary laws of war committed by the imperialists who. under pretext of some American having been killed, hang their prisoners of war by means which are both repugnant and inhuman, the agony lasting about fifteen minutes, according to the press of Manila, or otherwise submitting them to unheard — of tortures, according to the official communications from my various commanding generals: and if this were not sufficient, the military governor of the invading army has proclaimed martial law, placing beyond the protection of law not only Filipinos under arms, but also all peaceful residents, whom they arrest and deport without giving them a hearing, almost always for no other purpose than to loot their houses and treasures, or to await a ransom or bribe for their liberty.

According to the censored press of Manila during the month of October only thirty-six Filipinos in various provinces were hanged; the totals for the month of November and December were the same, and during the first ten days of this month the United States courts-martial have condemned to the same inhuman death the following:

Fifteen in San Isidro (Doroteo Noul and his fellow-martyrs), nine in Tayabas, one in Baler, one in Bolinao, one in Pangasinan. one in Donsol, and three in Tayaba, a total of twenty-eight death sentences in ten days, according to information given the Manila press by the staff of the enemy.

In addition to all this the invaders have committed another violation of the Geneva international treaty by employing against us our own countrymen, who have sold themselves to them, sowing by this atrocious measure the seeds of a civil war, which could very well occur after this war, which is desolating this poor country, if those now counted as traitors should form a regular group, thus making more and more remote the coming of the long-sought — for peace.

I protest, therefore, before God and the honorable men of the whole world, in the name of the Philippine people, against such iniquitous measures, and for our own defence:

I order and command--

Article I: All guerilla chiefs as soon as they capture any armed American citizen. shall take him into the interior at once, and shall communicate with the chief of the nearest American detachment. urgently requesting the exchange of prisoners at the rate of one American for every three Filipinos of the many who are condemned to death by them, and who expect to be led to execution at any moment, and informing him that he would be responsible for the reprisals which we would see ourselves obliged to take in our just defence. If said American chief should refuse to make the exchange requested, the American prisoners shall be shot, whatever be their number, which punishment is fixed in the Spanish penal code, which we have adopted for those who attack our national integrity, if in four days after the exchange requested the execution of some Filipino sentenced by the Americans should be announced.

Article II: Preference should also be given in exchange of prisoners to deported Filipinos, and to those who have rendered signal service to the cause of our independence.

Article III: The promoters of the so-called Federal party shall be submitted as traitors to a most summary court-martial, and those who stimulate the invaders to pursue and prosecute our fellow-countrymen who do not wish to identify themselves therewith shall be punished with special severity, and after those who are guilty have been sentenced, they shall be captured and punished wherever they may be, and by any means which may be possible.

Article IV: The commanding generals and all guerilla chiefs in their respective districts are entrusted with and responsible for a speedy execution of this general order. [74]

Given in the capital of the republic on Jan. 17, 1901. E. Aguinaldo.

There is a seal in purple ink, consisting of a sun and three stars, and the words, “Philippine republic, office of the President.”

Address of submission.

After his capture Aguinaldo was fully informed of the actual situation in all parts of the archipelago, not only by the United States military, naval, and civil authorities, but by many of his former generals and supporters who had surrendered. He was thus led to issue the following address to the Filipinos, which was published in Manila on April 19:
I believe I am not in error in presuming that the unhappy fate to which my adverse fortune has led me is not a surprise to those who have been familiar with the progress of the war. The lessons taught with a full meaning, and which have recently come to my knowledge, suggest with irresistible force that a complete termination of hostilities and lasting peace are not only desirable, but absolutely essential to the welfare of the Philippine Islands.

The Filipinos have never been dismayed at their weakness, nor have they faltered in following the path pointed out by their fortitude and courage. The time has come, however, in which they find their advance along this path to be impeded by an irresistible force which, while it restrains them, yet enlightens their minds and opens to them another course presenting them the cause of peace. This cause has been joyfully embraced by the majority of my fellow-countrymen, who have already united around the glorious sovereign banner of the United States.

In this banner they repose their trust, and believe that under its protection the Filipino people will attain all those promised liberties which they are beginning to enjoy. The country has declared unmistakably in favor of peace. So be it. There has been enough blood, enough tears, and enough desolation. This wish cannot be ignored by the men still in arms if they are animated by a desire to serve our noble people, which has thus clearly manifested its will. So do I respect this will. now that it is known to me.

After mature deliberation, I resolutely proclaim to the world that I cannot refuse to heed the voice of a people longing for peace nor the lamentations of thousands of families yearning to see their dear ones enjoying the liberty and the promised generosity of the great American nation.

By acknowledging and accepting the sovereignty of the United States throughout the Philippine Archipelago, as I now do, and without any reservation whatsoever, I believe that I am serving thee, my beloved country. May happiness be thine.

See Atkinson, Edward; Luzon; Manila; Philippine Islands.

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