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The name commonly applied to the people found by Columbus in America; by many authorities believed to have been the aboriginal inhabitants. The [30] following remarks and tables refer to Indians within the present area of the United States. In manners, customs, and general features the difference between the Indians of the Gulf States and those of the shores of the Northern Lakes is scarcely perceptible; it is only by languages that they can be grouped into great families. East of the Mississippi there were not more than eight radically distinct languages, four of which are still in existence, while the others have disappeared.

Names and location of the principal tribes of the eight Great families at the time of the first settlements.

I. Algonquian tribes:
MicmacsEast of the State of Maine.
Etchemins or Canoe menMaine.
AbenakisNew Hampshire and Maine.
NarragansetsEastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island.
Pokanokets or Wampanoags
PequotsCentral Massachusetts and Rhode Island.
MohegansWestern Massachusetts and Connecticut.
Delawares or Lenni LenapeNew Jersey, the valley of the Delaware and Schuylkill.
NanticokesEastern shores of Chesapeake Bay.
Powhatan ConfederacyE. Virginia and Maryland.
CoreesE. North Carolina.
ShawneesSouth of the Ohio, W. Kentucky, and Tennessee.
MiamisS. Michigan, N. Indiana, and N. W. Ohio.
IllinoisS. Illinois and Indiana.
KickapoosN. and central Illinois.
PottawattomiesNorthern Illinois.
Sacs and FoxesNorthern Wisconsin.
MenomoneesSouthern shore of Lake Superior.
Chippewasor OjibwaysSouthern shore of Lake Superior.
II. Wyandotte or Huron-Iroquois tribes:
Eries (Huron or Wyandotte-IroquoisSouthern shore of Lake Erie.
Andastes (Huronor Wyandotte-IroquoisHead-waters of the Ohio.
Wyandottes (Huron or Wyandotte-IroquoisTerritory north of Lakes Erie and Ontario.
Senecas (Iroquois proper)Western New York.
Cayugas (Iroquois proper)Central New York.
Onondagas (Iroquois proper)Central New York.
Oneidas (Iroquois proper)Eastern New York.
Mohawks (Iroquois proper)Eastern New York.
Tuscaroras (Iroquois proper)S. W. Virginia and North Carolina. Joined the Iroquois of New York, 1713.

Names and location of the principal tribes of the eight Great families at the time of the first settlements—Continued.

Chowans (Huron) or Wyandotte-IroquoisSouthern Virginia.
Metherrins (Huron or Wyandotte-IroquoisSouthern Virginia.
Nottaways (Huron or Wyandotte-IroquoisSouthern Virginia.
III. CatawbasW. North and South Carolina.
IV CherokeesMountainous regions of Tennessee, Georgia, North and South Carolina.
V. UcheesAbout Augusta, Ga.
VI. NatchezN. W. Mississippi.
VII. Mobilian or Muscogees:
ChikasawsWestern Tennessee and Northern Mississippi.
ChoctawsEastern Mississippi and Western Alabama.
CreeksAlabama and Georgia.
VIII. WinnebagoesAbout Green Bay, Wis.

principal tribes West of the Mississippi in 1800-30.

Dakotas (SiouxWisconsin, west to Rocky Mountains.
ArapahoesWyoming, head-waters of Plate.
CheyennesWyoming and Nebraska.
KansasKansas, west.
AssiniboisMontana and Dakotas.
Minnetaries (Gros VentresMontana.
MissourisLower Missouri.
OsagesKansas, west.
PawneesKansas and Nebraska.
CaddosRed River and Arkansas.
Shoshones or SnakesKansas to Oregon.
KiowasKansas, west.
UtesUtah and Colorado.
ComanchesTexas and New Mexico.
ApachesNew Mexico and Arizona.
Navajos and MoquisArizona.
YumasArizona and California.
PueblosNevada and New Mexico.
BannocksIdaho and Oregon.
ModocsNevada and Oregon.
Nez PercesNevada and Oregon.
FlatheadsCalifornia, Oregon, and Nevada.
KlamathsOregon and N. California.

For other details concerning the various tribes, see their respective titles; also reservations, Indian.

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