Diary of Captain James M. Garnett, ordnance officer Rodes's division, 2d corps, army of Northern Virginia.

From August 5th to November 30th, 1864, covering part of General Early's campaign in the Shenandoah Valley.

[The Editor has pleasure in preserving in the pages of the Southern Historical Society Papers the following interesting diary of a Confederate officer, and well-known educator, Professor James Mercer Garnett, Ll. D.]

November 30th, 1864.
Private Diary from August 5th to November 30th, ‘64, covering time from last trip across Potomac to return of ordnance trains to camp near Staunton, about two miles out on Waynesboroa road. Troops still at New Market, but expect them back soon, and think we will go into winter-quarters between Staunton or Waynesboroa and Port Republic, unless ‘Mars Robert’ wants us down at Richmond.

Camp near Hainesville, Friday, August 5th, 1864.
Moved from our camp near Winchester day before yesterday evening, and camped that night at Bunker Hill. Moved from there to this point (15 or 16 miles) yesterday, and now about to start on my fourth trip across the Potomac. Hope ‘old Jubal’ knows what he is about, and haven't much fear of danger to the expedition, for he is, if possible, too cautious. Finished my Property Return day before yesterday, and my Armament and Ammunition Report for July 31st yesterday evening and sent it in. Hope to have my reports of engagements in to-morrow, and to go to Richmond with papers when we return from this trip.


Camp near Winchester (1 Mile) Thursday, August 11th, 1864.,
Returned from Maryland on the 6th, after a stay of but one night, only a diversion, I presume, and camped that night near Hainesville again. Moved on Sunday through Martinsburg to one mile this side of Bunker Hill.

Spent Monday and Tuesday at Bunker Hill; got in all my reports of engagements from brigade officers, and forwarded mine Tuesday evening. On Wednesday moved up here within one mile of Winchester, the enemy supposed to be pressing ‘old Jubal’ in considerable force, and am now about to move beyond Winchester, and how much further I don't know.

Camp near Winchester (3 1/2 miles) Monday, August 22, 1864.,
On Thursday, 11th, moved through Winchester towards Strasburg, and remained with General Rodes that day and next morning, thinking there might be an engagement; rejoined the train Friday, and camped beyond Fisher's Hill. That evening moved to ‘The Brook’ and camped, remaining there until Wednesday, the troops being in line of battle on Fisher's Hill all the time. On Wednesday, moved down to Winchester again, the enemy having retired the night previous. Our troops, after some brisk skirmishing, entered the town about 8 in the evening. Stayed at General Rodes' Headquarters at Kernstown that night, and visited in Winchester next day. Our ordnance trains moved to Kernstown, and we spent Thursday night there. Friday, moved through to our old camp on Martinsburg road, where we still remain. That day all of Early's troops moved to Bunker Hill. Fitz. Lee's cavalry and Kershaw's division moved down the pike yesterday. Our division very heavily engaged in skirmishing yesterday between Smithfield and Charlestown. Am about to start down to visit them now. Have some fear of Early's risking a fight against the enemy's large force.

Camp near Winchester, Wednesday, August 31, 1864.
On Monday, 22d, went down to Charlestown, and found our division on other side, near town, having driven the Yankees through that morning. Lost about 160 men on 21st, and expended about 60,000 rounds ammunition—very extravagant. Spent Monday night [3] at General Rodes' Headquarters, and returned to camp next day, reaching camp about 9 P. M. Spent Wednesday and Thursday in camp, visiting in the mean time in Winchester, and Friday went down to the troops, having heard they had moved the day before from Charlestown towards Shepherdstown. Met the troops returning that evening at Leetown, where we camped for the night. Next morning the troops moved back to Bunker Hill. Spent the night at Bunker Hill, and rode up to camp, and to church in Winchester next morning. Spent Monday and yesterday in camp.

Friday, September 2, 1864.
Spent day before yesterday in camp. Went to W. yesterday morning and saw Joe Irving off for Staunton, severely, though not dangerously, wounded; the poor fellow was in very bad spirits. Went to see Arrington, General Rodes' Aid, who is badly wounded, and found him doing very well. Will ride to W. and then to Bunker Hill.

Sunday, September 4, 1864. 1/2 miles from Berryville.
On 2d, went to the troops, striking the main column marching from Bunker Hill across. Learnt our division had kept up the pike, so had to ride over to it, and got there an hour or two after the cavalry affair in which Vaughan's cavalry were driven through Bunker Hill upon the infantry, but our rear-guard fired a volley and the Yankees left. Found the division near the ten-mile post, but it moved back to Stevenson's just before dark, and I returned to camp. Yesterday morning the troops all moved back to Bunker Hill. Spent the day in camp, and in the evening went into W. Moved camp that evening about two miles lower down. Troops came back from Bunker Hill yesterday evening. This morning trains moved to W. and I joined General Rodes, who moved across to the Berryville pike, and now about to form line of battle. The artillery is coming up, so must stop.

Camp near Stevenson's, Thursday, September 15, 1864.
On Sunday, 4th, General Early took Rodes' and Breckenridge's divisions and went two miles to left of Berryville pike, below eight and a half post, on flank movement, but found Yankees too strong and didn't attack; came back at dark. Stayed with my train at the Opequon that night. Next day train moved back to Winchester, [4] and then down to Stevenson's, and troops moved back to Stevenson's. Next day it rained powerfully and I stayed in camp. Wednesday, visited my brigade ordnance officers and General Rodes' Headquarters, dining there, and in evening came back. Next day rain again, and I stayed in camp. Friday moved camp to this side of the road and went into Winchester.

Saturday went down to Darksville and overtook my division there. Cavalry went on to Martinsburg for little while. Troops came back to Bunker Hill and I returned to camp. Sunday went in to W. to church and learnt of death of T. B., shot at Newtown evening before.

Tuesday went to see brigade ordnance officers and to General Rodes' Headquarters. Soon after reaching there, division moved to Stevenson's woods. The move proved to be to no purpose, and troops and trains returned to camp before dark.

Saturday, September 17th, 1864.
Spent day before yesterday in camp. Spent yesterday in camp, with exception of riding over to Colonel Allen's and to Archer's train. Am going to General Rodes' Headquarters, division being under orders to move at 2 with two days cooked rations. Shall accompany them on this expedition.

Monday, September 19th, 1864.
Day before yesterday rode over to Colonel Allen's on my way to General Rodes' Headquarters; then returned to camp to give orders about empty ordnance wagons accompanying the troops. Rodes' and Gordon's divisions moved down to Bunker Hill that evening and camped for the night. Stayed in my empty ordnance wagon with W. B. that night. Yesterday morning moved about four and went down to Martinsburg. Reached Martinsburg about nine, our cavalry having driven the Yankee cavalry out. Was busy for couple of hours trying to get coal to load the empty ordnance wagons. Succeeded by taking a little from several private citizens and paying in Federal funds. Was exceedingly polite in discharge of the disagreeable duty, so am sure they couldn't object on that score.

Overtook Gordon's staff and rode to Bunker Hill, partly with them and afterwards with Dr. Straith, a fine fellow. Found that our division had returned to camp, so rode on back here last night. Not a very profitable, though a pleasant, Sunday. This morning Yankees [5] are making demonstration, and our ordnance trains have just moved back about a mile. Will ride down to the division to see what's up.

Camp on Tom's Brook, between Strasburg and Woodstock, Wednesday, September 21st, 1864.
Little did I think, when writing the lines on the preceding page, what a sad, sad day it would prove to be for us. I have never experienced such a day in my military life, and God grant that I may never experience such another. After leaving camp day before yesterday, I found General Rodes, whose division was then on the march following General Gordon's, and received some orders about the brigade ordnance wagons. The troops moved on up to the support of General Ramseur, who was being heavily pressed by the enemy near Winchester, on the Berryville pike. Gordon's division formed and went in to the left of Ramseur's, and ours (three brigades) between the two; but before ours got fairly engaged, Gordon's left, being outflanked, gave way, and we were only saved from great disaster by Battle's brigade of our division (which the General had directed me to order to be held in reserve) being ordered straight forward at a charge, which was handsomely executed, carrying everything before it. As soon as I had delivered the order to General Battle, hearing the rest of our division become engaged, in obedience to previous orders from General Rodes, I immediately went after the brigade ordnance wagons and ordered up one from each brigade with Lieutenant Partridge. On reaching the field again, I was informed by Major Peyton that General Rodes had been killed soon after the division became engaged. He was struck on the head by a piece of shell, it is thought, and lived but a short while, totally unconscious. This is an irreparable loss to our division, and indeed to our army, for he was General Early's right arm. We succeeded in handsomely repulsing this attack, and several succeeding ones, our artillery being very effective, doing good execution. Ramseur was pressed back on the right, but succeeded finally in reestablishing his line, which was very long and thin; and, fearing the enemy might attack there again and, if it gave way, get into Winchester in our rear, General Early ordered up Wharton's (Breckenridge's old) division, which was engaged with the Yankee cavalry near Brucetown. To the withdrawal of this division, though necessary perhaps, may be attributed the loss of the day, for now our disasters commenced. Wharton's division had barely reached Ramseur's line [6] when a heavy force of Yankee cavalry dashed up the Martinsburg pike, driving back our cavalry like sheep and penetrating to our rear. Wharton's division was immediately withdrawn and sent to the left and rear to check them, which it succeeded in doing; but the enemy, seeing the success of their cavalry, sent a body of infantry to connect with it, which turned our left flank, forcing Gordon's and Rodes' divisions to fall back and form perpendicular to their original line; and in this position the fight raged for an hour or more, the field meanwhile being covered with stragglers whom it was impossible to rally. When Wharton's division became engaged with the cavalry, I occupied myself endeavoring to rally stragglers and urge the men forward, when, ammunition being inquired for, I started after my brigade ordnance wagons, which had gotten out of the way when the Yankee cavalry advanced. I missed their track, and rode around the east side of the town to the Staunton pike without finding them, but succeeded in finding others, which I sent forward. Riding through town on my way back, I found everything coming through town in the greatest confusion, Market street filled with medical and ordnance wagons and ambulances three deep. I met the ambulance with General Rodes' body, in charge of Captain Randolph, and afterwards my brigade ordnance wagons, in charge of Lieutenants Partridge and Cabaniss. Told them to move on through beyond the town, and concluded to go and bid my friends good-bye. On Main street met the troops coming through in much confusion. The Yankee cavalry had charged again and captured most of Wharton's division, and the overwhelming numbers of their infantry, after our left was thus broken, had forced the remainder of the line to retire. The troops, however, were formed beyond the town, and the retreat continued in order. I went up to Mrs. W.'s, and soon after Major Johnson, of Breckenridge's staff, came up also. As I rode away, the shells were bursting all around the house, and, indeed, all over the unfortunate town.

I called at Mrs. G's, then at Mrs. D's. I bade good-bye to the T's and S's, and was going round to Mrs. L's, when Maj. Douglas and others just before me were shot at near the corner beyond. I then retired up Market street, stopping near the Methodist church and witnessing the Yankees come in near the Union Hotel, flags flying, drums beating, and shouting. I have retired through Winchester many a time before, but never did I witness the Yankees come in in that manner, but I have often seen them in the same predicament that we were. Douglas was a square nearer the Yankees, [7] and I called to him to come on, but he amused himself bowing to them while they were shooting at us. After viewing them long enough on Market street, I rode over to Main street and looked at then a while there. A dozen or so of our men were on Main street, and the enemy fired several shots at us. I rode out of town and stopped at our skirmish line until after the Yankee skirmishers appeared on this side of town, and then came on to the division, which stopped a while in the woods beyond Kernstown, then moved about a mile this side of Newtown and camped for the night in line of battle. I called at Mrs. B's as I passed and told them all good-bye, and spent the night at division Headquarters, General Battle being in command. Moved at four yesterday morning to our old position to the left of Fisher's Hill. I came on and stopped a while at the division quartermaster's train, and at the reserve ordnance train of the army, and then came on here, fatigued in body and spirit, especially the latter. Cannot get over a feeling of sadness and humiliation at having been compelled to abandon Winchester in that style. If we had only had some good cavalry to resist that of the enemy, our infantry could have maintained its position, but our cavalry did not behave well, even if there were superior numbers against them. If Wharton's division had been up early in the morning when we repulsed the first attack, we might have followed it up, but its withdrawal from below let in the whole Yankee cavalry upon us, for McCausland's and Imboden's brigades couldn't, or wouldn't, resist them. I haven't life enough left for anything. I have just issued this morning the last of the arms, accoutrements and ammunition that I had, and the division still lacks arms and accoutrements, though it is pretty well supplied with ammunition, for it has lost, I suppose, about 1,000 men all together. General Ramseur has been assigned to the command of the division. I had a conversation with Major Peyton on that subject yesterday morning and he requested it of General Early; it is better than yesterday's commander, but no man here can equal General Rodes. We sent a large ordnance train to Staunton this morning for stores. May we have more success with them than with those expended day before yesterday, though up to three o'clock we had whipped the enemy well, and but for that cavalry we might have held our own against succeeding attacks. It is the first time that I have ever seen cavalry very effective in a general engagement. Would that Rosser's Brigade had been with us and on the left! the day might have been different. It was 5:07 o'clock when I looked at my watch as the Yankees came into Winchester, and we had been fighting [8] from ten or eleven until two, when there was a cessation until the cavalry attack about three, which resulted so disastrously. I hope that, if they do withdraw any force to help Grant, we will go straight back, though I have hardly the face to see my friends again.

Camp between Mt. Jackson and New Market, Saturday, September 24th, 1864.
More disasters to record still. I thought that we would certainly be successful at Fisher's Hill, but Providence has seen fit to order otherwise. Spent Wednesday, 21st, in camp.

There was some brisk skirmishing on our lines that evening, but nothing serious. Next morning a train of ordnance wagons came in from Staunton, bringing arms, accoutrements, and ammunition, which we very much needed. I rode down to direct brigade ordnance officers to send for ordnance stores, and to see what was going on. Found skirmishing progressing, and presently some artillery firing commenced. They fired at Massie's battery—which was on extreme left of our division, where General Ramseur had his Headquarters—from two directions, and I retired to the rear. Sent one ordnance wagon nearer to the front, stopped at Major Whiting's Provst Guard awhile, and returned to camp between 3 and 4 o'clock. Not very long after I had dined, great excitement commenced by the cavalry with the led horses dashing in from a road coming in from the left, opposite to my camp, and saying that the Yankees were pursuing. The extreme left of our lines was occupied by dismounted cavalry in breastworks; the position was very weak, and the men weaker, so that both General Lomax, who commanded the cavalry, and General Ramseur, considered that, if an attack was made against our left (which was very probable), it was very questionable whether it would be repulsed. Not knowing that a bona fide attack had been made on our left, but thinking that a few Yankee cavalry had gotten in amongst the led horses grazing in the rear, I rode over to the back road to see what the real state of affairs was, Colonel Allen having meanwhile ordered the ordnance trains down towards the troops, following me soon himself. I rode some two or three miles, and learned that 15 or 20 Yankee cavalry had come up to within 1 1/2 or 2 miles of the pike and created the stampede amongst the led horses. I also saw a detachment of men who had been cut off when the attack was made on the left and had come back on the mountain. I still, however, thought that the lines had been re-established, and placed little confidence in the report of the cavalry [9] stragglers that the whole army was on the retreat and scattered in different directions. What, then, was my surprise on reaching the pike to find this literally true! The enemy had attacked our left, dispersed the cavalry, and flanked the infantry. An effort was made to resist them by sending one brigade of our division to the support of the dismounted cavalry, but it broke and ran, and the whole army was compelled to retire, leaving 13 pieces of artillery and much small arm ammunition along the lines.

Camp on East side of Blue Ridge, at foot of Brown's Gap, Monday, September 26, 1864.
Was interrupted while writing Saturday, by the trains moving to the rear, and by riding down to the troops to see that the ordnance wagons were properly posted. Will continue from where I left off.

Soon after reaching the pike in company with Major Webster, who had also gone over to the back road to engage in stopping the cavalry stampede, I met Major Peyton, who narrated what had occurred, and I determined to remain with him and render what assistance I could. Our division seemed better organized than the others, but in the darkness and confusion everything was mixed up. Our division was ordered to guard the rear, but before the others had finished passing, the Yankees fired into the rear-guard, which was two regiments of Battle's brigade, under General Ramseur himself, and that started the demoralized troops off again, but portions of each of our brigades were rallied and placed in line of battle. Soon after, the firing of a piece of our artillery started them off again and started them to firing, some of us running great risk of being shot, but they were soon quieted down, and the retreat continued in a very orderly manner, the Yankees soon ceasing pursuit. The troops camped that night at the Narrow Passage, two miles above (southwest of) Woodstock, and Major Peyton and I rode on to the wagon train a mile above Mt. Jackson, reaching there soon after daylight. The trains moved on the 23d beyond Rude's Hill, the troops remaining on the other side of Mt. Jackson, skirmishing with the enemy. I remained in camp and slept most of the day.

On Saturday the trains moved on and I went to the troops in line of battle on Rude's Hill, getting there just in time to hear General Ramseur and General Battle speak. They informed the troops that [10] reinforcements were coming, Kershaw's division and Rosser's cavalry brigade, and General Battle delivered two very good speeches, one to his brigade and one to General Grimes's. When General Ramseur alluded to General Rodes, in speaking to Battle's brigade, I could not refrain from tears, and there were many other wet eyes. Soon after, we commenced to retire, and retreated slowly in line of battle until sundown, skirmishing and artillery firing off and on during the day. About sundown we halted until after dark, just where the Keezilltown road leaves the turnpike, which K. road the trains had taken, and skirmishing and artillery firing went on pretty briskly for a while. In this artillery firing, LIV. Massie [Captain of a battery] was struck with a piece of shell, cutting the femoral artery, and he died that night. He was a fine fellow, beloved of his company and all who knew him. About dark I started for the wagon train, some six or seven miles distant. I did not have long to rest after reaching there, for about 2 A. M. we started and marched continuously, crossing the mountain and reaching here about 3 o'clock yesterday evening. I rode along, partly with Eugene Blackford and partly with Colonel Nelson (who informed me of LIV.'s death), and overtook my train while coming down the side of the mountain. Got my dinner (or supper), having eaten nothing but green apples since the night before, and retired very early. This morning drew arms and accoutrements and issued them to the brigade ordnance officers. The troops are over the other side of the mountain. I learn that Kershaw's division arrived to-day, and whipped the Yankee cavalry, who endeavored to attack his train.

Camp near Waynesboroa, Thursday, September 29th, 1864.
On 26th, retired soon after writing here. On 27th, remained in camp. Sold my bay horse for $125 in Federal funds—too little, I think, but I wanted the money. After dinner rode with Gregory over to the troops, and found they had driven off the Yankee cavalry and camped near Waynesboroa that night. Met courier going to order over our trains, which reached the river about 6 o'clock yesterday morning. Gregory and I spent the night in a carriage-house at General Early's Headquarters, and had to plunder a field of corn to get feed for our horses. The trains moved up the river about 3 miles, and our division, which was on the other side of the river, was ordered over and up in rear of the trains. After much delay, seemingly unnecessary, about 1 or 2 o'clock our division was ordered [11] to act as rear-guard for the trains and move on the road to Waynesboroa. Pegram's and Wharton's divisions moved up the other side of South river to get in ahead of the trains as advance-guard, and Kershaw's and Gordon's moved on a road still farther to the right. We moved on up, hoping to surprise the Yankee cavalry, who were here destroying the depot buildings, railroad and bridge, but didn't reach the neighborhood until dark, and only succeeded in driving them off. Much delay, and my train didn't get into camp until 11 P. M. Had no dinner, and it was too late to cook under the circumstances. Moved this morning to east side of town, and expect to remain all day. Think we were too late in getting here, and did Yankees no harm. This doesn't look like going back down the Valley fast, but will hope on, trusting that we may be successful and drive these fellows back soon.

Camp near Augusta church, On Valley Pike, 8 miles from Staunton, Sunday, October 2d, 1864.
Spent Thursday in camp doing nothing. Friday, had orders to be ready to move at moment's notice, but nothing came of it. Rode up to cars in morning and got Thursday's paper. Received arms and accoutrements and issued them, supplying the whole division.

In evening rode over to General Ramseur's Headquarters and spent a short while. On returning to camp found orders to be ready to move at sunrise.

Yesterday morning ordnance trains moved to Staunton, then down the pike to this point; troops moved across. Stopped at American Hotel to dinner. This is the right direction, if we can only keep on now. To-day is Sunday, and hope we will remain quiet, thoa something unusual for ‘Jubal’ to be quiet on Sunday. Hope his disaster on Monday, after his Sunday's trip to Martinsburg, has taught him a lesson. Intended to go to Charlottesville yesterday if we hadn't moved. Hope we will get to the lower Valley this time, thoa not much prospect of it.

Camp near Harrisonburg, Friday, October 7th, 1864.
On Sunday evening attended church, hearing very good sermon from Rev. Mr. Bowman, text: ‘No man liveth to himself.’ Spent Monday in camp; issued some arms and accoutrements. Also sent in Armament Report, and report of engagements at Fisher's Hill. [12] Tuesday visited brigade ordnance officers and General Ramseur's Headquarters. Tried to get some government cloth, but failed. Received arms and accoutrements and more than supplied the division. Wednesday stayed in camp. Yesterday morning rode to the division, which was just moving. Shortly after return to camp received orders to move, and travelled till 9 P. M., camping here near Harrisonburg, enemy having moved on down the Valley. Everything on the move this morning. Glad of it. ‘On to Winchester’ again. Only hope we will whip the Yankees and get there.

Camp near New Market, 1/2 mile distant, Monday, October 10th, 1864.
On Friday troops moved to this point, but ordnance trains stopped at Lacy's Spring. I rode with troops, conversing with Dubose, Henry Noel, and others. Stayed at division Headquarters that night, and next morning rode over here, train having moved down. Friday evening Rosser whipped the enemy's cavalry, capturing some wagons and forges. Saturday remained here in camp. Yesterday morning rode over with Estill to Conner's South Carolina brigade to hear Dubose preach, and sat awhile afterwards. Rode to division Headquarters and then back to camp, hearing soon after of the stampede of our cavalry below Woodstock. It seems our whole cavalry were well thrashed, losing eleven pieces of artillery, some wagons and ambulances. At this rate we will not get down the valley fast. The last two nights very cold, and heavy frost this morning, the first heavy frost we've had. Hope ‘old Jubal’ will soon determine what he's going to do, but don't think he will go any further down the Valley. Sorry for it.

Camp near Fisher's Hill on middle road, division Headquarters, Saturday, October 15th, 1864.
Spent Monday and Tuesday in camp near New Market. Wednesday troops moved down near Woodstock and ordnance trains camped near Mt. Jackson. Thursday troops moved on down to Fisher's Hill and beyond Strasburg, Conner's brigade engaging two brigades of enemy and driving them across Cedar Creek, General Conner being wounded. About 1 P. M. that day, I left camp near Mt. Jackson and rode to Q. M. train, staying with Major Tanner that night. Yesterday morning joined division in line of battle about a mile and a half from [13] here, and remained there all day, the enemy not advancing. Camped at old Headquarters last night. This morning have just received orders to go back to position occupied yesterday, the enemy reported advancing. If they come, hope we will whip them and get on to Winchester, though not much prospect.

Camp near Mt. Jackson, Wednesday, October 19, 1864.
On Saturday remained part of the day with troops; they returned to their old camps in evening. Dined with Major Tanner and stayed at division Headquarters that night. Sunday, about 12 o'clock left Headquarters, everything being quiet, and returned here to camp, stopping in Woodstock. Spent Monday in camp working on Property Return for third quarter, which I completed. Yesterday, made up Cash Account for third quarter, and forwarded both. Troops still at Fisher's Hill. This morning heard rapid cannonading just after sunrise; hope ‘old Jubal’ will drive 'em. We can't remain here long. Expect we will be found in trenches at Richmond soon.

Camp near New Market (1/2 mile) Wednesday, October 26, 1864.,
The cannonading heard last Wednesday meant something. That morning General Early attacked the enemy on Cedar Creek, and drove them at least three miles, taking twenty pieces of artillery, wagons, ambulances, and about 1,500 prisoners, but unfortunately he stopped beyond Middletown about 10 A. M., and would not renew the attack. Meanwhile the enemy reorganized and attacked us about 4 P. M., turning our left which gave way, and the whole concern came back in the utmost confusion. To add to the rout, a squad of Yankee cavalry, said to be not more than twenty-five or thirty, dashed into our train of artillery, ordnance and medical wagons, and ambulances, and captured the greater portion of it. Our nett loss is twenty-three pieces of artillery, thirty or forty wagons, and forty or fifty ambulances. It was impossible to rally a handful of men to stop the Yankee cavalry. This is the worst stampede yet, and the harder to bear after our victory of the morning. If ‘old Jubal’ had only pressed on, I firmly believe, from all I have heard, that we could have driven them beyond Winchester. General Ramseur, commanding our division, was wounded, and his ambulance [14] captured; we learn that he has since died. Ran. Hutchinson, of our staff, is missing, supposed to be captured. I was not present at the fight, or the stampede, our ordnance trains being ordered down after the success of the morning, starting from Mt. Jackson about 5 1/2 P. M,, but before getting to Woodstock, about 10 1/2 P. M., we were ordered back and kept on to Rude's Hill, the quartermaster train following soon after. Estill and I stayed at Edinburg that night and joined our divisions next morning as they passed through. The troops came back that day (Thursday) to their old camps near New Market and we came back here. It was quite humiliating to come back up the Valley after another thrashing, but we are getting use to them now. We did, however, gain a brilliant victory in the morning, and if we had only kept on, we might have reaped the fruits of it. We have been here since last Thursday evening, nothing of interest occurring. The men have been coming in and we have been arming and equipping them slowly. Spent Friday at Headquarters reading Yankee mail; rode over there again Saturday. Sunday went to church in New Market. Spent Monday and Tuesday in camp. What will we do next?

Camp near New Market (2 miles) Thursday, November 3d, 1864.,
Spent last week in camp, riding occasionally to division Headquarters and to General Early's Headquarters to see Colonel Allen. Issued some stores—the last of the arms on Sunday. Walked into town to church Sunday. After church went to camp with Holmes Boyd and Neep Baldwin and dined with them. Witnessed guard-mounting in Terry's brigade; went to division Headquarters, and then to town with Whiting to get the mail, and then to church. On Monday evening walked with Estill over to Allen's. Wrote also one or two reports on Monday. Tuesday wrote another report. In evening rode over to division Headquarters and witnessed dress parade, the band playing a dirge for Major-Generals Rodes and Ramseur. Tuesday was observed in our division in memory of these officers, the chaplains preaching. Yesterday changed camp and moved up here. Quite a good camp, though not so convenient. Have many unarmed men, and wish we could get arms and accoutrements.


Camp near New Market, Tuesday, November 15th, 1864.
Have spent the last ten days mostly in camp,, riding occasionally to division Headquarters and to New Market to see Allen. Spent last Sunday week at division Headquarters, having gone there to prevent brigade ordnance wagons from being used for forage purposes, and dined with Whiting and Lewis Randolph. Dined with them again last Wednesday. Thursday the troops moved down the Valley, and on Saturday I started down also (our ordnance trains remaining here), with some slight anticipations of getting to W. again. On reaching Fisher's Hill, met the trains returning, troops following and camping that night in old camps at Fisher's Hill. General Early went between Middletown and Newtown and found all the enemy's force still between that point and Winchester. Our cavalry on back road had a fight, in which Rosser's brigade was driven back, but Payne, coming over, drove back the Yankees in utter confusion. Lieutenant-Colonel Tom Marshall, of the 7th [Va.], was killed, another heavy blow to the Barton family. McCausland's brigade, on Front Royal road, was driven back to the Shenandoah, losing some wagons and two pieces of artillery. When will we cease supplying the Yankees with artillery? Sunday the army continued its march back, reaching their old camp near here on Monday. Hope we will now go back and go into winter-quarters.

Camp near Staunton (2 miles) Wednesday, November 30th, 1864.,
Spent latter part of week before last in camp, the weather being miserable—rain all the time. Wednesday, the 11th, the day for Public Worship, was, however, a good day, and I went to church in New Market, hearing a most excellent sermon from Rev. Dr. Lacy. I wish it could be published in tract form and distributed throughout the army. ‘Old Jubal’ was at church to-day. On Friday, 18th, sent Lee and Wilkins with wagon to Culpeper after arms. Wilkins and wagon returned day before yesterday with only 20 arms, a complete failure; Lee went on to Loudoun. Saturday, 19th, had meeting of our Board, and again on Monday, 21st, on which day Estill and I were appointed Committee to draw up the instructions, and all the papers were committed to me—convenient way to put off all the work on two. [16]

Tuesday, 22d, our trains moved back up the Valley, and I went down with troops to Rude's Hill after Yankee cavalry, which had driven in our pickets and come up there. Found about two brigades across and rest of two divisions on other side of Shenandoah river. Shelled them with artillery, threw forward sharpshooters, and our small force of cavalry on the left attacked, when they retired, retreating beyond Edinburgh, when we re-established our pickets; our loss and the enemy's small. Our artillery fired badly.

I spent the night at division Headquarters with Lewis Randolph and Whiting. Started up the Valley on Wednesday, 23d; Chichester overtook me at Lacy's Spring, and we spent the night at Mr. Shafer's, three miles this side of Harrisonburg—good place to stop at. Came on to Staunton the next day, dined with Major Randolph, and then out to camp, about 200 yards from this spot (on mountain near Mrs. Smith's), to which point we moved next morning. That day sent arms down to troops with Pollard, who returned day before yesterday. Saturday, 26th, went down to University and Charlottesville, intending to return same day, but was left, and got back Sunday. Spent Monday in camp and worked on papers committed to me by Board. Yesterday sent wagon with ammunition to troops by Wilkins; went into Staunton and paid the dentist a visit. Must get to work on papers now.

This concludes this rambling Diary, which has been of some interest to me, especially before leaving W. No chance of seeing the lower Valley again before next spring or summer.

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