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H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 13: permanent fortifications.—Historical Notice of the progress of this Art.—Description of the several parts of a Fortress, and the various Methods of fortifying a position (search)
ed themselves as engineers under the Spaniards. The fortifications of Badajos are a good example of the state of the art in Italy and Spain at that epoch. The citadel of Antwerp, built by two Italian engineers, Pacciotti and Cerbelloni, in 1568, has become celebrated for the siege it sustained in 1832. The age of Louis XIV. effected a great revolution in the art of fortification, and carried it to such a degree of perfection, that it has since received but slight improvement. The years 1633 and 1634 are interesting dates in the history of this art, as having given birth respectively to Vauban and Coehorn. The former was chief engineer of France under Louis XIV., and the latter held a corresponding position under the Dutch republic. Coehorn's ideas upon fortification are conceived with an especial view to the marshy soil of his own country, and, although well suited to the object in view, are consequently of less general application than those of his more distinguished cotempor
ecords, or give up. In the county records we find the following names of men represented as at Medford:-- George Felt1633. James Noyes1634. Richard Berry1636. Thomas Mayhew1636. Benjamin Crisp1636. James Garrett1637. John Smith1638. Richl charge concerning all such ; that every thing be done for their safety and comfort. These were the fathers of Medford. 1633: An historian says of the colonists: Although they were in such great straights for food that many of them ate their breadSachem, residing in Medford, Aug. 1, 1637, gives lands to Jotham Gibbon, aged four, son of Ed. Gibbon. Jotham was born in 1633, and afterwards lived in Medford. For the deeds of these lands, as proofs of legal possession, see our account of Indians Both these brothers command not above thirty or forty men, for aught I can learn. We have it from Gov. Winthrop, that in 1633 Sagamores John and James, and most of their people, died of the small pox. Of the subjects of John, thirty were buried in
settle upon the same; or that the gospel should be regularly preached, or a church gathered upon the granted premises. In this manner, forty-four towns were constituted and established within the Plymouth and Massachusetts Colonies before the year 1655, without any more formal act of incorporation. Among the oldest are the following: Plymouth, 1620; Salem, 1629 ; Charlestown, 1629; Boston, 1630; Medford or Mystic, 1630; Watertown, 1630; Roxbury, 1630; Dorchester, 1630 ; Cambridge or Newton, 1633; Ipswich, 1634; Concord, 1635; Hingham, 1635; Newbury, 1635; Scituate, 1636; Springfield, 1636; Duxbury, 1637; Lynn, 1637; Barnstable, 1639; Taunton, 1639; Woburn, 1642; Malden, 1649. London, May 22, 1629: On this day the orders for establishing a government and officers in Massachusetts Bay passed, and said orders were sent to New England(. Although, in the first settlement of New England, different sections of country were owned and controlled by Companies in England, yet the people h
had a fair trial at sea. The second year (1632) witnessed another vessel built by Mr. Cradock on the bank of the Mystic, whose register was a hundred tons. In 1633, a ship of two hundred tons was built; and another, named Rebecca, tonnage unknown: both built by Mr. Cradock. Mr. William Wood, in 1633, writes: Mr. Cradock is he1633, writes: Mr. Cradock is here at charges of building ships. The last year, one was upon the stocks of a hundred tons: that being finished, they are to build twice her burden. There is reason to believe that Mr. Cradock's ship-yard was that now occupied by Mr. J. T. Foster. That large vessels could float in the river had been proved by the governor, whoy so far abounded in that part of the river which is now between our turnpike river-wall and Malden Bridge that they obstructed navigation. Mr. Wood, speaking, in 1633, of these hinderances, has these words: Ships, without either ballast or lading, may float down this (Mystic) river; otherwise, the oyster-bank would hinder them,
s, and are made free; It is a year of jubilee. Let us, therefore, good husbands be; And good old times we soon shall see. Taxes. The first inhabitants of Medford, bringing with them the common usage of England with respect to poll and property taxation, adopted the rules which they had followed in their native country. The records of our Colonial General Courts, under Governor Endicott, before the arrival of Governor Winthrop, are lost, and therefore the rates of taxation from 1628 to 1633 cannot be ascertained; yet they may be presumed from the subsequent rates which were soon after established with respect to church and state expenses. The first rule enacted by the Legislature was in 1646. This was twenty-pence a poll, and one penny on a pound, for the State. Sterling was the currency till 1652, when the pine-tree coin, called New England currency, was introduced. This new coin was six shillings and eightpence less than the English pound sterling, and was so made to keep
ve 5s. 6d. if they fell and square their wood themselves. Feb. 7, 1632.--On this day, Governor Winthrop, Mr. Nowell, and others, crossed our ford in Medford, and traveller on an exploring expedition towards the north-east, and came to a very great pond, having in the midst an island of about one acre, and very thick with trees of pine and beech; and the pond had divers small rocks standing up here and there in it, which they therefore called Spot Pond. They went all about it on the ice. 1633.--Puritans: Neal says, Hardly a vessel came into these ports but was crowded with passengers for New England. July 2, 1633.--It is ordered that no person sell either wine or strong water without leave from the governor or deputy-governor; and no man shall give any strong water to any Indian. 1638.--Wine shall not be sold by innholders; but they may brew the beer they sell. Oct. 1, 1633.--Thanksgiving-day appointed by the General Court,--the first on record. It was as follows: In regar
d a son, David, who had David, jun. This last, David, jun., was the father of Coleman C. Kenrick, for the past six years a resident of Medford. The Kidder family was settled, for several centuries, at Maresfield, in the county of Sussex, some seventy miles from London. It is believed that the only persons now living of that name can be traced back to this common stock. In England, the most distinguished bearer of this name was Richard Kidder, Bishop of Bath and Wells. He was born in 1633, at East Grinstead, the birthplace of the American emigrant, whose kinsman he was. He was Rector of St. Martin's, London; Prebend of Norwich, 1681; Dean of Peterborough, 1689; and Bishop of Bath, 1691. He was killed, during the great gale of Nov. 27, 1703, by the fall of a chimney on the bishop's palace at Wells, which crushed him and his wife while at prayers. His daughter, Ann, died unmarried; and her only sister, Susanna, married Sir Richard Everard, one of the early governors of South C
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Agawam, (search)
Agawam, The Indian name of Ipswich, Mass.; settled in 1633; incorporated under the present name in 1634. See Boston; Massachusetts.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Alexander, Sir William, 1580-1640 (search)
by the French. In 1625 Charles I. (who had just succeeded his deceased father), in order to help Sir William plant a successful colony or sell the domain in parcels, created the order of Baronets of Nova Scotia, the title to be conferred upon purchasers of large tracts of land there. He also gave the proprietor the privilege of coining base copper money. In 1626 Sir William was appointed Secretary of State for Scotland, Keeper of the Signet in 1627, Commissioner of the Exchequer in 1628, also Lord of Canada. In 1630 he was created Viscount Stirling, and in 1633 Earl of Stirling and Viscount of Canada. In 1628 the Council for New England gave him a grant of territory, which included a part of Long Island, opposite Connecticut; but he was not able to manage his colonization schemes in Nova Scotia, and he sold his domain to the French. He died in London, Sept. 12, 1640. Lord Stirling's title expired with the fifth earl (1739), but other claimants appeared afterwards. See Acadia.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Bogardus, Everardus, 1633- (search)
Bogardus, Everardus, 1633- Was the first clergyman in New Netherland; born in Holland. He and Adam Roelandson, school-master, came to America with Governor Van Twiller in 1633. Bogardus was a bold, outspoken man, and did not shrink from giving a piece of his mind to men in authority. Provoked by what he considered maladministration of public affairs, he wrote a letter to Governor Van Twiller, in which he called him a child of the devil, and threatened to give him such a shake from the pu1633. Bogardus was a bold, outspoken man, and did not shrink from giving a piece of his mind to men in authority. Provoked by what he considered maladministration of public affairs, he wrote a letter to Governor Van Twiller, in which he called him a child of the devil, and threatened to give him such a shake from the pulpit the next Sunday as would make him shudder. About 1638 Bogardus married Annetje. widow of Roeloff Jansen, to whose hushand Van Twiller had granted 62 acres of land on Manhattan Island, now in possession of Trinity Church, New York. This is the estate which the heirs of Annetje Jansen Bogardus have been seeking for many years to recover. Being charged before the Classis of Amsterdam with conduct unbecoming a clergyman. Bogardus was about to go thither to defend himself on the arrival of
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