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George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 6, 10th edition. 220 2 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 5, 13th edition. 16 6 Browse Search
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qui se developpa depuis dans mon coeur contre les vexations qua éprouve le malheu reux peuple et contre ses oppress eurs. he derived an eloquence which went to the heart of Europe. He lit up the darkness of his times with flashes of sagacity; and spoke out the chap. II.} 1763. hidden truth, that the old social world was smitten with inevitable decay; that if there is life still on earth, it is the masses alone that live. The phrase is from Cousin. At the very time when Bedford and Choiseul were concluding the peace that was ratified in 1763, Rousseau, in a little essay on the social compact, published to the millions, that while true legislation has its source in divinity, the right to exercise sovereignty belongs inalienably to the people; but rushing eagerly to the doctrine which was to renew the world, he lost out of sight the personal and individual freedom of mind. The race as it goes forward, does not let fall one truth, but husbands the fruits of past wisdom for the g
rent, the first Protestant discoverer might sue for the lease before known Protestants, making the defendant answer all interrogatories on oath; so that the Catholic farmer dared not drain his fields, nor inclose them, nor build solid houses on them. If in any way he improved their productiveness, his lease was forfeited. It was his interest rather to deteriorate the country, lest envy should prompt some one to turn him out of doors. Compare Durand, of the French Embassy in London, to Choiseul, 30 July, 1767. French Archives, Angleterre, CCCXXIII. In all these cases the forfeitures were in favor of Protestants. Even if a Catholic owned a horse worth more than five pounds, any Protestant might take it away. 7 William III. Nor was natural affection or parental authority respected. The son of a Catholic landholder, however dissolute or however young, if he would but join the English church, could revolt chap. IV.} 1763. against his father, and turn his father's estate in fee
stem of frugality. America, with its new acquisitions-Florida, and the valley of the Mississippi, and Canada-lay invitingly before him. The enforcing the navigation acts was peculiarly his own policy, and was the first leading feature of his administration. His predecessors had bound him by their pledges to provide for the American army by taxes on the colonies; and to find sources of an American revenue, was his second great object. This he combined with the purpose M. Frances au Due de Choiseul à Londres le 2 Septembre, 1768. of so dividing the public burdens between England and America as to diminish the motive to emigrate from Great Britain and Ireland; Second protest of the House of Lords, on the repeal of the stamp act. for, in those days, emigration Knox, i. 23, Extra-official Papers, II. 23. was considered an evil. In less than a month after Bute's retirement, Egremont, who still remained Secretary of State for the southern department, asked the advice of the Lord
es, designating the line chap VIII.} 1763 June. with precision on a map, which is still preserved. With regard to the limits of these governments, as described in the report, and marked out in the chart thereunto annexed, &c. of Egremont to the Board of Trade, 11 July, 1763 (E. and A., 278). At the south, the boundary of Georgia was extended to its present line. Of Canada, General Murray advised General Murray's opinion, given by himself to Frances, as contained in M. Frances au Due de Choiseul, à Londres le 2 Septembre, 1768. to make a military colony, and to include the west within its jurisdiction, in order to overawe — the older colonies, and keep them in fear and submission. Against this project Shelburne desired to restrict Lords of Trade to the Secretary of State, 8 June, 1763. the government of Canada within narrower limits, and to bound it on the west by a line drawn from the intersection of the parallel of forty-five degrees north with the St. Lawrence to the eas
establishing it in the isle of St. John. This reverie of a visionary he desired to apply to all the conquered countries, to Acadia and Canada on the north; and to the two Floridas on the south, which were to be divided into great baronies, each composed of a hundred vassals. In each province there were to be castles, fortified, casemated, chap. IX.} 1763. Oct. and armed with cannon, placed near enough to preserve a connection. The contemptuous neglect of his project M. Frances an Duc de Choiseul, à Londres le 21 8bre. 1768. II meprise les talens de M. Grenville et bait sa personne inclined him to think lightly of Grenville's ability, and to hate him, Frances to the Duke de Choiseul, Oct. 1768. 11 (Egmont) n'a pas pardonne a my Lord Hillsborough, qui etoit alors a la tete du bureau des plantations, de s'etre oppose à son execution. nor did he forgive Hillsborough for his opposition. In forming the new territory into provinces, the fear of danger from large states led to
ions of passionate attachment from the many tribes of red men, cast a wistful and lingering look upon the empire which they were ceding. Aubry an Ministre, Due de Choiseul, le 7 Avril, 1764. But Choiseul himself saw futurity better. He who would not set his name to the treaty of peace with Great chap. X.} 1764. April. Britain, issued the order Le Due de Choiseul à M. d'abbadie, à Versailles le 21 Avril, 1764. in April, 1764, for the transfer of the island of New-Orleans and all Louisiana to Spain. And he did it without mental reserve. He knew that the time was coming when the whole colonial system would be changed; and in the same year, Choisewhile England was taxing America by act of parliament, France was already counting its steps towards independence. Depeche de M. le Cte. de Guerchy à M. le Due de Choiseul, 19 Oct. 1766. The world was making progress; restrictive laws and the oppression of industry were passing away, not less than the inquisition and the opp
to receive Grenville again as his chief minister, disregarded the offer. So the measures of the ministry proceeded. Such were the auspices, when on Thursday, the thirteenth day of February, Benjamin Franklin was summoned to the bar of the House of Commons. The occasion found him full of hope and courage, having for his interrogators, Grenville and Charles Townshend, as well as the friends of the administration; and the House of Commons for intent listeners. Garth to South Carolina. Choiseul, too, was sure to learn and to weigh all that Franklin uttered. In answer to questions, Franklin declared that America could not pay the Stamp Tax, for want of gold and silver, and from want of post-roads and means of sending stamps back into the country; that there were in North America about three hundred thousand white men, from sixteen to sixty years of age; that the inhabitants of all the provinces together, taken at a medium, doubled in about twenty-five chap. XXIII.} 1766. Feb.
ies to Great Britain and Ireland. The strength of the ministry was tested on their chap. XXIV.} 1766. April. introducing a new tax on windows. The English, said Grenville, must now pay what the colonists should have paid; De Guerchy to Choiseul, 21 April. and the subject was referred to a committee by a diminished majority. Great Britain not only gave up the Stamp Tax, but itself defrayed the expenses Treasury Minute of 4 April. of the experiment out of the sinking fund. The treastamp Act, had been dumb, leaving the brunt of the battle to be borne by Camden and Shelburne, was determined it should not be so; Grafton to Conway, 22 April, 1766. and Newcastle and Winchelsea and Egmont concurred with him. De Guerchy to Choiseul, 21 April, 1766. To be pre- chap. XXIV.} 1766. April. pared for the change, and in the hope of becoming, under the new administration, secretary for the colonies, Charles Townshend assiduously courted the Duke of Grafton. Pitt, on retiring to
t of the incident in his Autobiography. On the resignation of Grafton, Conway, with his accustomed indecision, remained in office, but seized the occasion to escape from the care of America De Guerchy, the French Ambassador at London, to Choiseul, 22 May, 1766. to Chap. XXV.} 1766. May. the Northern Department. There appeared a great and general backwardness Grafton's Autobiography. to embark with Rockingham. Lord North Lord North to Rockingham, 24 May, 1766. had hardly accepted ember of the House of Commons, and Agent for South Carolina, to the Committee of South Carolina, 6 June, 1766. the conduct of American affairs, and they were made over to a new Department of State, which Dartmouth was to accept, De Guerchy to Choiseul, 22 May, 1766. and which Charles Townshend avowed his hope of obtaining from a future Administration. Once, to delay his fall, Rockingham suggested a coalition Duke of Richmond's Journal in Albemarle, i. 349. with the Duke of Bedford. In sa
rother of his wife, the head of her family, and their common benefactor, to become the First Lord of the Treasury. But Temple, who had connected himself with Grenville Geo. Grenville to Bedford, 15 July, 1766, in Bedford Corr. III. 340. and the party of Bedford, refused to unite with the friends of Rockingham; and, having told the King, he would not go into the Ministry like a child, to come out like a fool, Inquiry into the Conduct of a late Right Honorable Commoner, Durand, to Due de Choiseul, 3 Juillet, 1766. Temple to Lady Chatham, Chat. Corr. II. 469. he returned to Stowe, repeating this speech to the world, dictating a scurrilous pamphlet against his brother-in-law, and enjoying the notoriety of having been solicited to take office and been found impracticable. The discussion with Temple and its issue, still further aggravated the malady of Pitt. He was too ill, on the eighteenth, to see the King, or even the Duke of Grafton, and yet, passing between all the factio
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