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Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 1. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), chapter 6.35 (search)
History of the army of the Cumberland. By Chaplain Van Horne. published by Robert Clark & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. Review by General D. H. Maury. The History of ich the author opens his subject might have been judiciously omitted, for Chaplain Van Horne does not seem to know that in the South the leaders were behind the peoplson fell more than two years afterwards. Our lines were not repulsed, as Mr. Van Horne thinks, but they did not administer the coup de grace to the beaten army ofence of Nashville. We note with pleasure the dignified rebuke with which Mr. Van Horne censures the devastation of South Carolina by General Sherman. There is a wide difference between the sympathies of Chaplain Van Horne and our own regarding the war and its leading actors, and it will be excused in us to feel that he is spprove and commend this book, and if all the generals had historians like Chaplain Van Horne it would be better for their fame, and greatly facilitate the labors of t
as the rebels were fully prepared. General Sidney Johnston immediately crossed into Kentucky, and advanced as far as Bowling Green, which he began to fortify, and thence dispatched General Buckner with a division forward toward Louisville. Van Horne, speaking of Buckner, says, He advanced to capture Louisville. The Comte de Paris tells us his purpose was- To traverse the whole State of Kentucky by rail, so as to reach Louisville with a sufficient number of troops to take possessionurrection. Already two regiments of East Tennesseeans had found their way to camp Dick Robinson; and, at that time, the presence of a United States army would have roused a numerous and warlike population in revolt against the Confederacy. Van Horne says ( army of the Cumberland, vol. I., page 37): General Thomas suggested to General Anderson the importance of concentrating for an advance to Knoxville, Tennessee, to seize the East Tennessee & Virginia Railroad, destroy all the bridg
eight miles from the enemy. On that same day, General Johnston wrote him that there were probably 4,000 Federals at Rockcastle Hills, 6,000 at Dick Robinson, and a formidable reserve in Northern Kentucky. But this was too late, of course, to reach him. General Thomas, who had his headquarters at Dick Robinson, had been anxious to assume the offensive. His plan was to penetrate East Tennessee, cut the railroad communications east and west, and raise the Unionists there in revolt. Van Horne's Army of the Cumberland, vol. i., p. 37. It is hardly doubtful that all the arrangements for this scheme had been made. Thomas had pushed forward his advance to Rockcastle Hills, where, on notice of Zollicoffer's approach, the commander, General Albin Schoepf, took a strong, intrenched position, known as Wild Cat, with six regiments, numbering from 3,500 to 4,000 men. Zollicoffer had 5,500 men, but believed that only two Federal regiments were at Wild Cat, not knowing that the rest of t
en others at different points. This makes forty-two regiments. Nelson's command, elsewhere mentioned as containing five regiments, of which three contained 2,650 men, is probably intentionally excluded from this table. But the list contains no mention of a number of Kentucky regiments then actually or nearly completed, some of which were then doing service, such as those commanded by Garrard, Pope, Ward, Hobson, Grider, McHenry, Jackson, Burbridge, Bruce, and others. By reference to Van Horne's work, it will be found that a number of these were brigaded December 3d. Nor is any account taken of the numerous organizations of Home Guards. General Sherman estimated the Confederate force from Bowling Green to Clarksville at from 25,000 to 30,000 men-double their real numbers. Appendix B (2). General Johnston estimated the Federal force in his front at 15,000 to 20,000; in the Lower Green River country at 3,000; near Camp Dick Robinson, at 10,000; and elsewhere in Northern Ken
s correctly estimate the force of the enemy at Somerset at seven infantry regiments and some cavalry, which agrees with Van Horne's account. He expected to be attacked, but kept his force divided, five regiments in his intrenchments, and two on thees from Zollicoffer's intrenched camp. The particulars of Thomas's movements are from his official reports, and from Van Horne's Army of the Cumberland. Here Thomas took position to await four of his regiments that had not come up. To secure hi115 killed, 116 wounded, and 45 prisoners. This could not have included many of the wounded who escaped with the army. Van Horne says: He lost, in killed, wounded, and prisoners, 392 men. Of this aggregate, 192 were killed. The writer is not aware of the data on which Van Horne bases his statement, but is inclined to think his estimate of the aggregate loss nearly correct. In every point of view, the large number of killed compared to the wounded is a very striking fact, and indicates fight
on us. General Sherman said it could not be possible, Beauregard was not such a fool as to leave his base of operations and attack us in ours — mere reconnaissance in force. General Buell says that, so far as preparation for battle is concerned, no army could well have been taken more by surprise than was the Army, of the Tennessee on the 6th of April. Buell's letter, dated January 19, 1865, to United States service Magazine, republished in the New York World, February 29, 1865. Van Horne's Army of the Cumberland, to which General Sherman's special advocate, Mr. Moulton, refers the reader, for a fair and full history of this battle, has the following (page 105): While the national army was unprepared for battle, and unexpectant of such an event, and was passing the night of the 5th in fancied security, Johnston's army of 40,000 men was in close proximity, and ready for the bloody revelation of its presence and purpose on the following morning. General Johnston was al
Benson J. Lossing, Pictorial Field Book of the Civil War. Volume 3., Chapter 6: siege of Knoxville.--operations on the coasts of the Carolinas and Georgia. (search)
ter-General, under the title of Roll of honor, No. Xi. there were, a few months after our visit, 9,628 bodies buried in that cemetery, of whom 2,360 were unknown. Of the whole number, 718 were colored. On Friday morning, May 11, 1866. Mr. Van Horne took us to the battle-ground of Chickamauga, with which he was well acquainted, having been a participant in the action there, and since then an explorer of it in search of the bodies of the dead. The bodies were buried here and there, all over the battle-field, where they fell. The method pursued by Mr Van Horne in searching for them, was to have one hundred men move in a line abreast, about three feet apart, through the woods and over the cleared ground where the battle was fought, first marking the graves found, and then disinterring the remains. Having thus swept in one direction, they wheeled, making the man next the space just gone over, the pivot, and in the same manner moving in the other direction. In this way the ent
, and had stretched forth to the sea in one vast plain like the country from Atlanta? But when the Confederate commander, with seventy thousand available men, surrendered the Thermopylae of the South without risking a general battle, it is hardly reasonable to suppose that he would have made a final stand upon the plains of Georgia. According to the following extract from an official telegram, even General Sherman was in doubt as to whether or not Johnston would fight for Atlanta: Van Horne, 11 Army C., vol. II, page 121. headquarters Military Division of the Mississippi, in the field, at San House, Peach Tree road, five miles N. E. Of Buckhead, Ga., July 18, 1864: * * It is hard to realize that Johnston will give up Atlanta without a fight, but it may be so. Let us develop the truth. W. T. Sherman, Major General Commanding. My predecessor had evidently another scheme in reserve. General Forrest was required, with five thousand (5000) cavalry in Tennessee, to
n and animals on the country. On the 17th, he writes Schofield, at Chattanooga: Sherman's Memoirs, vol. II, page 157. * * * We must follow Hoodtill he is beyond the reach of mischief, and then resume the offensive. Ten days after this declaration, he was still undecided as to the plan he should adopt. In truth, it seemed difficult to divine when our little Army would be far enough away to be beyond the reach of mischief. On the 26th, he telegraphed to General Thomas: Van Horne's History of the Army of the Cumberland, vol. II, page 181. A reconnoissance, pushed down to Gadsden to-day, reveals the fact that the rebel Army is not there, and the chances are it has moved west. If it turns up at Guntersville, I will be after it. He writes in his Memoirs :t There is no doubt that the month of October closed to us looking decidedly squally, but, somehow, I was sustained in the belief that in a very few days the tide would turn. Upon the same page I find the followin
k river, just in time to prevent our troops from cutting them off. Van Home, in his History of the Army of the Cumberland, thus mentions their narrow escape: Van Horne's Army of the Cumberland, vol. II, page 189. General Hood's rapid advance had been made with the hope of cutting off General Schofield from Columbia, and baat the time lieutenant colonel and assistant adjutant general of the Fourth Army Corps. J. S. Fullerton, Brevet Brigadier General, United States Volunteers. Van Horne; in his History of the Army of the Cumberland, informs us that at 3 p. m., when the Confederate Army was already at Spring Hill, the Federal commander became apptill the movement went on without interruption by the enemy. Vol. II, pages 194, 195. Rarely has an Army escaped so easily from a peril so threatening. Van Horne's A. C., vol. II, page 196. In connection with this grave misfortune, I must here record an act of candor and nobility upon the part of General Cheatham, wh
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