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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 148 0 Browse Search
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.) 120 0 Browse Search
George Ticknor, Life, letters and journals of George Ticknor (ed. George Hillard) 90 0 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 10 64 0 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 64 0 Browse Search
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia. 60 0 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 3, 15th edition. 42 0 Browse Search
Wendell Phillips, Theodore C. Pease, Speeches, Lectures and Letters of Wendell Phillips: Volume 2 40 0 Browse Search
George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 4, 15th edition. 38 0 Browse Search
Edward L. Pierce, Memoir and letters of Charles Sumner: volume 3 24 0 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in George Bancroft, History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent, Vol. 10. You can also browse the collection for Austria (Austria) or search for Austria (Austria) in all documents.

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They assist to define exactly the pressure under which Vergennes entered upon measures for mediation and for peace. Mr. Frederic Kapp rendered me the best service in negotiating on my behalf for the purchase of ample collections of letters and journals of German officers who served in America. In Vienna are preserved the reports of an agent sent from Brussels to the United States in the interest of Belgian commerce. Of the best of these, Mr. De la Plaine, of the American legation in Austria, took copies of which he generously made me a present. Mr. Schuyler, lately of our legation at Petersburg, communicated to me all that he could find on earlier American affairs in the archives at Moscow. My transcripts from the Dutch archives, for which I had formerly much occasion to feel obliged to Mr. W. Groen van Prinsterer, have been largely increased through the intervention of my friend Count de Bylandt. My request to make further researches in the English archives was cheerfull
never aspired to control his foreign policy, except in relation to Austria; and she could not always conceal her contempt for his understandiabsolutely in the hands of a young man of fourand-twenty, whom his Austrian brother-in-law described as a child. He felt for the Americans n be utterly thrown down from its very foundations, if the house of Austria is to stand upright. Erliuterung zum Vortrag vom 28 Aug. 1755, liance. Twenty years after it was framed, his language was still: Austria and Bourbon are natural allies, and have to regard the Protestant nd would not own an equal, even in the empress of Russia. Since Austria, deserting its old connection with England, had bound itself with Bryce's Holy Roman Empire, fourth ed., 367, 371. The attitude of Austria to the United States will appear as our narrative proceeds. Kauni fruit, delaying for their generation the development of the great Austrian state. In Italy, which by being broken into fragments was reft
would events have been shaped if Pitt's ministry had continued, and the bonds between England and Prussia had been riveted by a common peace? But here, as everywhere, it is useless to ask what would have happened if the eternal providence had for the moment suspended its rule. The American colonists were now at variance with the same class of British ministers which had wronged Frederic in 1762. With which branch of the Teutonic family would be the sympathy of Germany? The influence of Austria leaned to England. Where stood the true nobility of the empire, the masters of German thought and language? where its ruling Chap. II.} princes? where its one incomparable king? In the north-east of Germany the man who, alone of Germans, can with Leibnitz take a place among the wise by the side of Plato and Aristotle, reformed philosophy as Luther had reformed the church, on the principle of the self-activity of the individual mind. As Luther owned neither pope nor prelates for any
is dearest friend to aid in curbing the ambition of Austria: All hope for our freedom and the preservation of tal Providence. The prince who, next to Joseph of Austria, governed at that time the largest number of men ha heartily his ally. Russia will soon leave him for Austria. His great deeds become to him so many anxieties; ctual liberty, and the liberty of Germany, against Austria, which uses Chap. III.} the imperial crown only foeath of the childless elector of Bavaria, Joseph of Austria was prepared, under the false pretext of a right ofienna. Kaunitz, who made it the cardinal point of Austrian policy to overthrow the kingdom of Prussia, looked1777. As the only way to bridle the ambition of Austria, and to preserve the existence of his own kingdom aaid, would follow, and no alliance would be left to Austria except that with England. Ibid., 2 Oct., 1777, ascue Bavaria and with it Germany from absorption by Austria, except in the good — will of France and Russia.
joined with Saxony to stay the aggressions of Austria on Bavarian territory. At this moment, wrote were willing to acquiesce in the despotism of Austria. Rather than be guilty of such weakness, I slf, Louis the Sixteenth had no partiality for Austria, and Maurepas retained the old traditions of Moreover, he was willing to see Prussia and Austria enfeeble each other, and exhibit to the worlon of France and Russia to bring his war with Austria to an end, almost before France and Spain had come to an understanding. Joseph of Austria, like Frederic, had liberal aspirations, but with uer side, aware of his insincerity, pronounced Austria to be in name an ally, in fact a rival. Core alliee La de nom, et notre rivale de fait. Austria and Prussia resumed their places among Europenew powers. With the restoration of peace, Austria and Russia contested the honor of becoming meng to wound the self-love of either of them. Austria, though the nominal ally of France, excluded
ntly to keep up a chain of cruisers for the safety of ships bound to their ports. As the Russian trade was for the most part in the hands of the English, this action of Catharine would in practice be little more than a safeguard of English commerce. The cabinet of France was dissatisfied, and feared that the consolidated group of northern states might be drawn into connection with England. At this stage Frederic, who, through the mediation of Russia and France, was just emerging from his Austrian war, intervened. Russia had acted precipitately without intending to offend France and without proper concert with the courts of Stockholm and Copenhagen. Frederic to Goltz, 17 and 24 April, 1779. Through the explanations of the Chap. XII.} 1779 king of Prussia, every displeasure was removed from the mind of Vergennes, and his answer to the Russian note drew from Count Panin the remark to the French minister at Petersburg: Once more I give you my word that we have no engagement with E
commander-in-chief, the one man on whom rested the hopes of the ministry for the successful termination of the war. His friends disparaged the ability of Sir Henry Clinton, accused him of hating his younger and more enterprising compeer, and censured him for leaving at the south forces disproportioned to the service for which they were required. We are come to the series of events which closed the American contest and restored peace to the world. In Europe the sovereigns of Prussia, of Austria, of Russia, were offering their mediation; the united Netherlands were struggling to preserve their neutrality; France was straining every nerve to cope with her rival in the four quarters of the globe; Spain was exhausting her resources for the conquest Chap. XVI.} 1780. of Gibraltar; but the incidents which overthrew the ministry of North, and reconciled Great Britain to America, had their springs in South Carolina. Cornwallis, elated with success and hope, prepared for the northward
n. England would still have no negotiation with France for peace till that power should give up its connection with insurgent America; John Adams was ready to go to Vienna, but only on condition of being received by the mediating powers as the plenipotentiary of an independent state; Spain shunned all mediation, knowing that no mediator would award to her Gibraltar. Mortified at his ill success, Kaunitz threw the blame of it upon the unreasonable pretensions of the British ministry; and Austria joined herself to the powers which held that the British government owed concessions to America. Meantime he consoled his emperor for the failure of the mediation by saying: As to us, there is more to gain than to lose by the continuation of the war, which becomes useful to us by the mutual exhaustion of those who carry it on and by the commercial advantages which accrue to us so long as it lasts. Kaunitz to Joseph II., 8 July, 1781, in Beer's Joseph II., Leopold II., und Kaunitz, ihr B
een to that church at Leyden, where the planters of Plymouth worshipped so many years ago, and felt a kind of veneration for the bricks and timbers. John Adams to Samuel Adams, 15 June, 1782. The liberal spirit that was prevailing in the world pleaded for peace. The time had not come, but was coming, when health-giving truth might show herself everywhere and hope to be received. The principles on which America was founded impressed themselves even on the rescripts of the emperor of Austria, who proclaimed in his dominions freedom of religion. If liberty was spreading through all realms, how much more should it make itself felt by the people who regarded their land as its chosen abode! It might suffer eclipse during their struggle to recover their trans-Atlantic possessions by force; but the old love of freedom, which was fixed by the habit of centuries, must once more reassert its sway. In the calm hours of the winter recess, members of the house of commons reasoned disp