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His father was Demosthenes of Paeania, a free man, for there is no need of lying. But how the case stands as to his inheritance from his mother and his maternal grandfather, I will tell you. There was a certain Gylon of Cerameis. This man betrayed Nymphaeum in the Pontus to the enemy, for the place at that time belonged to our city.Nymphaeum was a port of the Tauric Chersonese. He was impeached and became an exile from the city, not awaiting trial. He came to BosporusThe Cimmerian Bosporus; the chief city was Panticapeum, the modern Kertch. and there received as a present from the tyrants of the land a place called “the Gardens
while the State took the addition and filled its treasury. The people of Heraclea, being about to dispatch a fleet of forty ships against the lords of Bosporus, were at a loss for the necessary funds. They therefore bought up all the merchants' stock of corn and oil and wine and other marketable commodities, agreeing to pay at a future date. The merchants were well satisfied that they had disposed of their cargoes without breaking bulk; and the people, advancing two months' pay to their armament, sent along with it a fleet of merchant-vessels laden with the commodities, every ship being in charge of a public official. When the expedition reached its goal, the men purchased from these officials all they needed. In this way, the money was collected before the leaders again paid their
See what this amounts to. He exacts a toll of one-thirtieth from exporters of corn from his country. Now from the Bosporus there come to Athens about four hundred thousand bushels; the figures can be checked by the books of the grain commissioners. So for each three hundred thousand bushels he makes us a present of ten thousand bushels, and for the remaining hundred thousand a present of roughly three thousand.To help his audience in this piece of mental arithmetic, Demosthenes divides his 400,000 into two parts, of 300,000 (of which the thirtieth is easily calculated) and of 100,000, the thirtieth of which is 3333 1/3 or roughly 3000. It should be remembered that the medimnus is more strictly about a bushel and a half.
Now, so little danger is there of his depriving our state of this gift, that he has opened another depot at Theudosia, which our merchants say is not at all inferior to the Bosporus,Here not the district, but the capital, Panticapaeum, the modern Kertch. Sixty miles west lies Theudosia （Kaffa）, an ancient colony of Miletus. and there, too, he has granted us the same exemption. I omit much that might be said about the other benefits conferred upon you by this prince and also by his ancestors, but the year before last, when there was a universal shortage of grain, he not only sent enough for your needs, but such a quantity in addition that Callisthenes had a surplus of fifteen talents of silver to dispose of.Callisthenes, assitw/nhsor Food Controller （an office held by Demosthene<
How reasonable and just was the immunity which Leucon has obtained from you, these decrees have informed you, gentlemen of the jury. Copies of all these decrees on stone were set up by you and by Leucon in the Bosporus, in the Piraeus, and at Hierum.On the Asiatic side of the entrance to the Thracian Bosporus from the Euxine. Just reflect to what depths of meanness you are dragged by this law, which makes the nation less trustworthy than an individual.
In the second place, will you not wrong Archebius and Heraclides, who by putting Byzantium into the hands of Thrasybulus made you masters of the Hellespont, so that you farmed out the toll of ten per cent,Levied by the Byzantines on the value of the cargo of every ship passing through the Bosporus. and thus being well furnished with money forced the Lacedaemonians to conclude a peace favorable to you?The Athenians gained Byzantium and Chalcedon in 390 B.C. It is strange to find the notorious peace of Antalcidas mentioned with approval. When subsequently they were banished, you, Athenians, passed what I think was a very proper decree in favor of men exiled through devotion to your interests, conferring on them the title of Friends of