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the mouth of the Peiho River, the harbor for Tientsin and Peking. Here gathered, within a few daysristians massacred. Finally the railway from Tientsin to Peking was cut. On June 10, the British0 men, drawn from the international forces in Tientsin, set out to repair the railway, and found it s and Boxers, and that all communication with Tientsin and Peking was closed. Not until June 26 wasving reinforcements, to cut his way back into Tientsin. He had lost 374 men, and had not been able e from the fleet, into the foreign quarter at Tientsin, and had united with the Europeans there besis. The temporary success of the Chinese at Tientsin, the siege of the legations in Peking, and thOn Aug. 4, a relief column 16,000 strong left Tientsin and met its first determined resistance at Pen of a truce of twelve days after the fall of Tientsin, July 17, the bombardment scarcely ceased day Chinese to induce the besieged to proceed to Tientsin under promise of safe escort, but were prompt[1 more...]
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Chinese-American reciprocity. (search)
g the route. Here is a case of the railroad following the population, and not that of the population following the railroad. A road built through populous cities and famous marts has not long to wait for traffic. It would pay from the beginning. The first railroad in China was built for the transportation of coal from the Kaiping mines to the port of Taku. The line, though in an out-of-the-way corner of the empire, proved so profitable from the very start that it was soon extended to Tientsin and Peking in one direction, and to Shanhaikwan, the eastern terminus of the Great Wall, in the other. Not long ago it was thought advisable to build a branch beyond Shanhaikwan to the treatyport of Newchwang. The era of railroad building in China may be said to have just dawned. China desires nothing better than to have Americans lend a hand in this great work. It gave me great pleasure two years ago to obtain for an American company a concession to build a railroad between Hankow, t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Consular service, the (search)
same salary. The consul-general at Havana receives $6,000, and the consul-general at Melbourne $4,500. There are twelve offices where $5,000 are paid, viz.: Rio de Janeiro, Shanghai, Paris, Calcutta, Hong-Kong, Liverpool, London, Port au Prince, Rome, Teheran, Cairo, and Bangkok (where the consul is also minister resident); seven offices where $4,000 are paid, viz.: Panama, Berlin, Montreal, Honolulu, Kanagawa, Monrovia, and Mexico; seven where $3,500 are paid, viz.: Vienna, Amoy, Canton, Tientsin, Havre, Halifax, and Callao; thirty-one where $3,000 are paid; thirty where $2,500 are paid; and fifty-one where $2,000 are paid. The remaining ninety-five of the salaried officers receive salaries of only $1,500 or $1,000 per annum. Consular officers are not allowed their travelling expenses to and from their posts, no matter how distant the latter may be. They are simply entitled to their salaries during the transit, provided they do not consume more than a certain number of days In t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Li hung Chang, 1823- (search)
compiler in the Hanlin College and in the imperial printing-office. He served with much distinction in the Taiping rebellion of 1860, having charge of the final campaign which crushed the revolt; was created viceroy of the United Countries in 1865; and conquered the Nienfei rebellion in 1868. In 1870 he was appointed viceroy of Chih-Li and Senior Grand Secretary of State, and the same year was divested of his various titles for not having assisted the general in command at the time of the Tientsin massacre. Soon afterwards, however, he was relieved of his punishment and was appointed Grand Chancellor. Subsequently he was appointed viceroy of the metropolitan provinces of Pechili, and so became virtually the chief administrator of the Chinese Empire. After the war between China and Japan he was a commissioner to negotiate peace, and after the allied army had rescued the foreign Li hung Chang. representatives in Peking, in 1900, he was the chief plenipotentiary to arrange with the
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Liscum, Emerson H. 1841- (search)
e Civil War he served as corporal in the 1st Vermont Infantry from May to August, 1861; enlisted as private in the 12th United States Infantry Feb. 1, 1863; was transferred to the 30th Infantry as first lieutenant; promoted captain of the 25th Infantry March 26, 1867; assigned to the 19th Infantry July 5, 1870; promoted major of the 22d Infantry May 4, 1892; lieutenant-colonel of the 24th Infantry May 26, 1896; and colonel of the 9th Infantry April 25, 1899. In the war with Spain (1898) he went to Cuba, and took part in the battle of San Juan Hill, where he was wounded. He was appointed a brigadier-general of volunteers July 12, 1898, and was honorably discharged at the close of that year. From Cuba he was sent with his regiment to the Philippines, where he remained till June 27, 1900, when he was ordered to China. He landed at Taku, proceeded to Tientsin, and in the attempt of the allies to capture the latter city he was shot dead at the head of the American troops, July 13, 1900.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), McCalla, Bowman Hendry 1844- (search)
speed with which he accomplished this duty he was officially complimented by the Navy Department. When the Boxer troubles in China called for foreign intervention, Captain McCalla was ordered to Taku, and there was placed in command of the first American detachment ordered on shore duty. On the march headed by Admiral Seymour, of the British navy, planned for the relief of the foreign legations in Peking, it was Captain McCalla's tactical skill that enabled the small force to get back to Tientsin, after the failure of the attempt. Concerning this movement Admiral Seymour said: That my command pulled out in safety is due to Captain McCalla. The credit is his, not mine, and I shall recommend the Queen that he and his men be recommended by her to the President of the United States, and in his official report he said: I must refer specially to Commander McCalla, of the American cruiser Newark, whose services were of the greatest value to me and all concerned. He was slightly wounded
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Roosevelt, Theodore 1858-1893 (search)
hem, and for the expenses of the military expeditions sent by the various powers to protect life and restore order. Under the provisions of the joint note of December, 1900, China has agreed to revise the treaties of commerce and navigation, and to take such other steps for the purpose of facilitating foreign trade as the foreign powers may decide to be needed. The Chinese government has agreed to participate financially in the work of bettering the water approaches to Shanghai and to Tientsin, the centres of foreign trade in central and northern China, and an international conservancy board, in which the Chinese government is largely represented, has been provided for the improvement of the Shanghai River and the control of its navigation. In the same line of commercial advantages a revision of the present tariff on imports has been assented to for the purpose of substituting specific for ad valorem duties, and an expert has been sent abroad on the part of the United States to
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Treaties. (search)
de JaneiroJan. 27, 1849 Convention of Trade-marksRio de JaneiroSept. 24, 1878 Brunswick and Luxemburg: Convention of Rights of citizensWashingtonAug. 21, 1854 Central America: Convention of Peace, amity, navigation, etcWashingtonDec. 5, 1825 Chile: Convention of Peace, commerce, and navigationSantiagoMay 16, 1832 Convention of Arbitration of Macedonian claimsSantiagoNov. 10, 1858 China: Treaty of Peace, amity, and commerceWang-HiyaJuly 3, 1844 Treaty of Peace, amity, and commerceTientsinJune 18, 1858 Convention of Adjustment of claimShanghaiNov. 8, 1858 Convention of Additions to treaty of June 18, 1858WashingtonJuly 28, 1868 Treaty of EmigrationPekingNov. 17, 1880 Treaty of Commercial and judicialPekingNov. 17, 1880 Treaty of Peace with the powersPekingSept. 7, 1901 Colombia: Convention of Peace, amity, commerce, navigationBogotaOct. 3, 1824 Convention of ExtraditionBogotaMay 7, 1888 Costa Rica: Treaty of Friendship, commerce, navigationWashingtonJuly 10, 1851 C
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Yung wing, 1828- (search)
Yung wing, 1828- Diplomatist; born in Nan Ping, China, Nov. 17, 1828; came to the United States in 1847; graduated at Yale College in 1854; was commissioned by the Chinese government in 1864 to buy machinery in the United States for what became the arsenal of Kiang Nan. In 1870 he made several propositions to the Chinese government, two of which were adopted— viz., to arrange a settlement of the massacre of Christians in Tientsin by establishing a line of steamers to carry tributerice; the outgrowth of which was the celebrated China Merchant Steam Navigation Company; and to provide for the education of Chinese youth in foreign countries, that intercourse with foreigners might be made easier. Under the last provision scores of young men were sent to the United States, and, under the charge of an educational commission with headquarters at Yung wing. Hartford, Conn., were prepared by a thorough course of study to take their places as The Chinese College at Hartford, Conn. wi
gland and France in all peaceful measures to secure by treaty those just concessions to commerce which the civilized nations of the world had a right to expect from China The Russian Government, also, pursued the same line of policy. The difficulty, then, was to obtain for our country, whilst remaining at peace, the same commercial advantages which England and France might acquire by war. This task our Minister performed with tact, ability, and success, by the conclusion of the treaty of Tientsin of the 18th June, 1858, and the two supplemental conventions of Shanghae of the 8th November following. Pamphlet Laws, 1861-62, p. 177, appendix. These have placed our commercial relations with China on the same satisfactory footing with those of England and France, and have resulted in the actual payment of the full amount of all the just claims of our citizens, leaving a surplus to the credit of the Treasury. This object has been accomplished, whilst our friendly relations with the Ch
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