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s laid, every new armament or reinforcement to the usual fleets. Doubting the French assurances of a wish to see the troubles in America quieted, they resolved to force the American struggle to an immediate issue, hoping not only to insulate Massachusetts, but even to confine the contest to its capital. On the day of the accession of Louis the Sixteenth, 10. the act closing the port of Boston, transferring the board of customs to Marblehead, and the seat of government to Salem, reached the. His instructions enjoined upon him the seizure and condign punishment of Samuel Adams, Hancock, Joseph Warren, and other leading patriots; but he stood in such dread of them that he never so much as attempted their arrest. The people of Massachusetts were almost exclusively of English origin; beyond any other colony, they loved the land of their ancestors; but their fond attachment made them only the more sensitive to its tyranny. To subject them to taxation without their consent, was ro
mander-in-chief in America, his army, and the civil officers, no longer amenable to American courts of justice; and also to that which mutilated the charter of Massachusetts, and destroyed the freedom of its town meetings. The law, said Garnier, the French minister, must either lead to the complete reduction of the colonies, or clthe people of Connecticut anxious for a congress, even if it should not at once embrace the colonies south of the Potomac; and their committee wisely entreated Massachusetts to fix the place and time for its meeting. At Boston, the agents and supporters of the British ministers strove to bend the firmness of its people by holdin far south as Philadelphia, would embrace the same mode of peaceful resistance. The letter which soon arrived from that city, and which required the people of Massachusetts to retreat from their advanced position, was therefore received with impatience. But Samuel Adams suppressed all murmurs. I am fully of the Farmer's sentimen
eople. Especially Washington sent the notice to his constituents; and Mason charged his little household of sons and daughters to keep the day strictly, and attend church clad in mourning. On the morning which followed the adoption of Chap. III.} 1774. May. this measure, Dunmore dissolved the House. The burgesses immediately repaired to the Raleigh tavern, about one hundred paces from the capitol, and with Peyton Randolph, their late speaker, in the chair, voted that the attack on Massachusetts was an attack on all the colonies, to be opposed by the united wisdom of all. In conformity with this declaration, they advised for future time an annual continental congress. They named Peyton Randolph, with others, a committee of correspondence to invite a general concurrence in this design. As yet social relations were not embittered. Washington, of whom Dunmore sought information respecting western affairs, continued his visits at the governor's house; the ball in honor of Lady Du
Chapter 4: Massachusetts Appoints the time and place for a general congress. June, 1774. on the first day of June, Hutchinson embarked for Chap. IV.} 1 king was so eager to give effect to the law which subverted the charter of Massachusetts, that acting upon information confessedly insufficient, he, with Dartmouth,r to their own liberties? Thus reasoned the people of the country towns in Massachusetts; and they signed the league and covenant, confident that they would have on There will be no congress, they said; New York will never appoint members; Massachusetts must feel that she is deserted. To a meeting of tradesmen, a plausible spe day dawned on him in private life; the evening saw him a representative of Massachusetts to the general congress. That summer he followed the circuit for the last s the sharpest thorn on which I ever set my foot. Two days in advance of Massachusetts, the assembly of Rhode Island unanimously chose delegates to the general c
e first who asserted the independency of the colonies upon the supreme authority of the kingdom. For nearly two hours, the king continued inquiries respecting Massachusetts and other provinces, and was encouraged in the delusion that Boston would be left unsupported. The author of the pleasing intelligence became at once a favoris offered the rank of baronet, and was consulted as an oracle by Gibbon, the historian, and other politicians of the court. I have just seen the governor of Massachusetts, wrote the king to Lord North, at the end of their interview, and I am now well convinced the province will soon submit; and he gloried in the efficacy of his wn in America, every colony, every city, every village, and, as it were, the inmates of every farm-house, felt it as a wound of their affections. The towns of Massachusetts abounded in kind offices. The colonies Chap. V.} 1774. July. vied with each other in liberality. The record kept at Boston shows that the patriotic and gen
ay the expenses of a representation in congress. The inhabitants of that province also solemnized their action by keeping a day of fasting and public prayer. Massachusetts did the same; and Gage, who looked with stupid indifference on the spectacle of thirteen colonies organizing themselves as one people, on occasion of the fast, ourselves import, nor purchase any slave or slaves imported by any other person, either from Africa, the West Indies, or any other place. On the affairs of Massachusetts the temper of the Virginians ran exceedingly high. An innate spirit of freedom, such were the words of Washington, tells me that the measures which the adminiuld themselves be restrained. Especially were they incensed at the threat of Gage to use the deadly weapon of constructive treason against such inhabitants of Massachusetts as should assemble to consider of their grievances, and form associations for their common conduct; and they voted that the attempt to execute this illegal and
1774. Aug. in the hands of the royal governor. Without previous notice to Massachusetts and without a hearing, it arbitrarily took away rights and liberties which d under foot the affections, customs, laws, and privileges of the people of Massachusetts. He was willing to spare them an explicit consent to the power of parliameChap. VIII.} 1774. Aug. their pledge. Everywhere the rural population of Massachusetts were anxiously weighing the issues in which they were involved. One spirit, he had the precedence in military rank. He paid court to the patriots of Massachusetts, and left them confident of his aid in the impending struggle. He on his pgland yeomanry the best materials for an army. Meantime the delegates of Massachusetts to the general congress were escorted by great numbers as far as Watertown,arliament to be high treason. Hawley spoke the genuine sentiments of western Massachusetts. When on Tuesday, the sixteenth of August, the judges of the inferior
Chapter 9: Massachusetts Defeats the regulating act. August, 1774. the congressional delegates from Massachusetts, con Chap. IX.} 1774. Aug. secrated by their office as her suppliant ambassadors in the day of her distress, were welcomed everywhere on their journey with hospitable feasts and tears of sympathy. No goveMassachusetts, con Chap. IX.} 1774. Aug. secrated by their office as her suppliant ambassadors in the day of her distress, were welcomed everywhere on their journey with hospitable feasts and tears of sympathy. No governor in the pride of office was ever attended with more assiduous solicitude; no general returning in triumph with sincerer love. The men of Hartford, after giving pledges to abide by the resolutions of the congress, accompanied them to Middletown, from which place they were escorted by carriages and a cavalcade. The bells of Neweached chief justice, was to preside; and in the conduct of business to conform for the first time to the new act of parliament. The day was to decide whether Massachusetts would submit to the regulating act; and Gage, who thought it might be necessary for a part of his army to escort the judges in their circuit as far as Worceste
six men at the first shot. Sending forward the report to Norwich, New London, New Haven, New York, and so to Philadelphia, he summoned the neighboring militia to take up arms. Thousands started at his call; but these, like the volunteers of Massachusetts, were stopped by expresses from the patriots of Boston, who sent word that at present nothing was to be attempted. In re- Chap. X.} 1774. Sept. turn, assurances were given of most effectual support, whenever it might be required. Words cagovernment of their own, for which they found historical precedents. In the days of William the Deliverer and Mary, Connecticut and Rhode Island had each resumed the charter of government, which James the Second had superseded; the people of Massachusetts now wished to revive their old charter; and continue allegiance to George the Third on no other terms than those which their ancestors had stipulated with Charles the First; otherwise, said they, the laws of God, of nature, and of nations ob
Chapter 11: The continent Supports Massachusetts. September, 1774. among the members elected to th. The South Carolinians greeted the delegates of Massachusetts as the envoys of freedom herself; and the Virgin the troops at Boston; of Connecticut as well as Massachusetts rising in arms. The next day muffled bells wereempore prayer for America, for the congress, for Massachusetts, and especially for Boston, with the earnestnessresolution of the continent met the delegates of Massachusetts on every hand; and the cry of war was pronouncedn that no officer under the new establishment in Massachusetts ought to be acknowledged, but advocated allowing in New England. One express had brought from Massachusetts the proceedings of Middlesex; another having now, the seventeenth of September, the delegates of Massachusetts laid before congress the address of the Suffolk heir sympathy with their suffering countrymen in Massachusetts, most thoroughly approved the wisdom and fortitu
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