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then included all the northern and eastern portion of Kentucky, in 1790 contained only 2,729 inhabitants, while the whole population of the Territory of Kentucky was less than 74,000. The country still suffered from Indian incursions across the Ohio, and was indeed the very frontier of civilization. But, although an outpost, this beautiful and fertile neighborhood already enjoyed the benefits of social order, and was fast filling up with substantial and educated families, principally from Virginia and Maryland. Dr. Johnston's skill and worth soon secured him not only a large practice, but the warm friendship of the best people with whom he continued in the kindest relations during his whole life. Having lost his first wife in 1793, in the following year he married Abigail Harris, the daughter of Edward Harris, an old settler, who, with his wife, had emigrated from Newburyport, Massachusetts, and whom a venerable citizen describes as the old John Knox Presbyterian of the place ;
ewise for his wit. He is yet remembered by old people for these traits. He died, leaving a large family and an embarrassed estate to the care of his widow. Mrs. Caroline Hancock Preston was the daughter of Colonel George Hancock, of Fincastle, Virginia (an aide to Pulaski, a colonel in the Revolutionary War, and a member of the Fourth Congress), and belonged to a family distinguished for beauty and talents. By her ability in business and indomitable courage, she relieved the estate from its ist, when Jackson, Webster, Calhoun, and Clay were his competitors, his name reopens a page illustrious in American annals. His wife was a daughter of Colonel James McDowell, of Rockbridge County, Virginia, and sister of the eloquent Governor of Virginia, of the same name. She was the niece and favorite kinswoman of Major Preston and spent four or five years in his house, devoting herself for the most part, as a matter of choice, to the education of his daughter Henrietta, then a little girl.
War. another letter. death of J. S. Johnston, by steamboat explosion. his only son, William. 1832-33. Mrs. Johnston's illness. Malpractice of the times. pulmonary consumption developed. Lieutenant Johnston resigns. visit to Mountains of Virginia and Atlantic coast. return to Louisville. Mrs. Johnston's death. Mrs. Hancock's account of Albert Sidney Johnston's character. he retires to farm, near St. Louis. various plans of life. brief visit to Washington. Determines to embark in turn, safe from the war and the epidemic, the recovery of her children, and the soothing hope of a less exciting life, relaxed this grievous mental strain. Mrs. Johnston's constitution was naturally good; but, in the change from the mountains of Virginia, where she was born and passed a good deal of her girlhood, to the neighborhood of Louisville, then in bad repute for malarial fevers, her health had been injured, and again still more by a three years residence on the banks of the Mississippi.
ganized. its policy. opinion in the South. Virginia. Lincoln calls for troops. revulsion and secion of the seceding States. The voice of Virginia had all along been for conciliation, but with I have only to say that the militia of Virginia will not be furnished to the powers at Washinhibited toward the South. On the same day Virginia passed an ordinance of secession, subject to May following. The decisive step taken by Virginia, in placing herself in the breach, is among tvote of 104,913 for, to 47,238 against it. In Virginia, the vote was 125,950 for, and 20,273 against that city the objective point of attack. As Virginia had placed herself in the fore-front of battlnot necessary to narrate here the campaign in Virginia. The battle of Manassas, or Bull Run, foughtn seceding States, including the present State of Virginia, contained a little more than 5,000,000 When the Federal troops occupied Alexandria, Virginia (May 24, 1861), the Potomac became the bounda
remark the patience and endurance of our general, who at all times bore himself with cheerfulness and dignity, and set us an example of fortitude and self-denial. After our seventy miles' ride without water, when we reached the wells entirely spent and dry, we found them foul and noxious with dead rats. We set to work to draw out and clean them; and, after we had finished, the first cup was handed to the general. He drank, and remarked, This water tastes like the White Sulphur Springs in Virginia. After that, no man could decline to taste of the waters, and we gladly cooled our parched throats. On a certain night, wet and stormy, as I sat by the camp-fire of the general, I expressed my dread of water, having nothing but blankets to sleep upon. Whereupon a most cordial invitation was given me to share his water-proof rubbers, which afforded us a most comfortable night's lodging. The journey from Los Angeles to Mesilla was 800 miles, and thence to San Antonio, the frontier
ce. Men of ability commanded the small armies of observation stationed at intervals along the extended frontiers, from Virginia to Kansas; but no general plan of defense had been adopted, and each emergency was met as best it might be. Want of cohethe ranks of their invaders. Kentucky was the first State admitted to the Union by the original thirteen. Settled from Virginia, her people brought with them from that ancient Commonwealth its characteristics and traditions, with a greater vehemench Great Britain and Mexico, no troops won a more enviable distinction for steadiness and valor. Kentucky, along with Virginia, had, in 1798-99, taken the most advanced position in regard to the reserved rights of the States; nor did she recede fre is little doubt that, if such an authoritative body had convened, it would have occupied a position similar to that of Virginia, adhesion to the Union, except in the event of an attempt at coercion and subjugation, and then resistance. The Legisla
ts salient at Bowling Green. The passes of the Cumberland Mountains into Southwest Virginia, also committed to General Johnston's care, were intrusted to about three hundred militia, enlisted in Virginia for three months for local defense. The movement upon Bowling Green was committed to General S. B. Buckner, as already stated.Kentucky. Its population, the overflow by emigration of the poorer classes of Virginia and North Carolina, was rude, hardy, and ignorant. A sort of clanship, based in the command, and the arms and equipments were very poor. At Pound Gap, 300 Virginia militia, enlisted for three months, constituted the sole defense. Thus, Gener, which should cut the only Confederate line of Railroad communication between Virginia and the South West of the blue Ridge, and stir up the disaffected inhabitants ashville had recently been made a base of supplies for the Confederate army in Virginia. Its success would sever the most direct connection between the Confederate a
on in taking a military command early in the war. The circumstances were as follows, as they are detailed to the writer by Dr. William M. Polk, the bishop's son, himself a gallant soldier of the Lost cause: In June, 1861, Bishop Polk went to Virginia to visit the Louisiana troops in his episcopal capacity. Governor Harris, of Tennessee, had asked him to call upon Mr. Davis, and urged upon him prompt measures for the defense of the Mississippi Valley. This, together with a desire to see hisould feel disposed to release him. Upon two subsequent occasions he made like attempts, but with like results. Proceeding to Memphis, he assumed command of his department. Bishop Polk, at this time, wrote to the patriarchal Meade, Bishop of Virginia, justifying his course. He said, When I accept a commission in the Confederate army, I not only perform the duties of a good citizen, but contend for the principles which lie at the foundation of our social, political, and religious polity. He
nd I do so with much regret, that it is utterly impossible for me to comply with your request. There are no arms belonging to the State at my disposal; all have been exhausted arming the volunteers of the State now in the Confederate service in Virginia, at Pensacola, and on our own coast — in all some twenty-three regiments. Georgia has now to look to the shot-guns and rifles in the hands of her people for coast-defense, and to guns which her gunsmiths are slowly manufacturing. I deeply regroblem. The Government had to conduct a great war and a political campaign at the same time. It was the error of the Administration not to have perceived that the defense of Tennessee was vital, and that it was in more immediate peril even than Virginia — that a stab in the back is as fatal as one in the breast. Still, it must be remembered that the Government was in great difficulties, and that the primary cause of want of troops was the apathy of the Southern people. It is no more than j
endezvous, but I cannot suppose any considerable portion will be armed. When I made the call, I hoped that some might come armed; I cannot now conjecture how many will do so. The call was made to save time, and in the hope that, by the time they were organized and somewhat instructed, the Confederate Government would be able to arm them. As at present informed, the best effort of the enemy will be made on this line, threatening at the same time the communications between Tennessee and Virginia covered by Zollicoffer, and Columbus from Cairo by river, and Paducah by land, and maybe a serious attack on one or the other; and for this their command of the Ohio and all the navigable waters of Kentucky, and better means of transportation, give them great facilities of concentration. As my forces at neither this nor any of the other points threatened are more than sufficient to meet the force in front, I cannot weaken either until the object of the enemy is fully pronounced. You no
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