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quipped, and commissioned ships, all in neutral territory, even filling up blank commissions sent out to them by the Congress for the purpose. Among expeditions fitted out by them was one under Captain Wickes to intercept a convoy of linen ships from Ireland. He went first into the Bay of Biscay, and afterward entirely around Ireland, sweeping the sea before him of everything that was not of force to render the attack hopeless. Deane observes to Robert Morris that it effectually alarmed England, prevented the great fair at Chester, occasioned insurance to rise, and even deterred the English merchants from shipping in English bottoms at any rate, so that, in a few weeks, forty sail of French ships were loading in the Thames, on freight, an instance never before known. In the spring of 1777 the commissioners sent an agent to Dover, who purchased a fine, fast-sailing English-built cutter, which was taken across to Dunkirk. There she was privately equipped as a cruiser, and put in
Edward Porter Alexander, Military memoirs of a Confederate: a critical narrative, Chapter 16: Gettysburg: the first day (search)
ded by Pendleton, was broken up, on the organization of the 3d corps, and it was never reestablished. Pendleton, however, was retained as chief of artillery. It is worthy of note that this artillery organization of a few batteries with each division, and a reserve with each corps, but with no general reserve for the army, was the first of the kind ever adopted by any foreign army, and that it was subsequently copied by Prussia and Austria after 1866, and by France after 1870, and later by England. But, although our reserve under Pendleton had never found the opportunity to render much service, its being discontinued was due to our poverty of guns, not to dissatisfaction with the system. And the fine service at Gettysburg by the Federal reserve of 110 guns, under Hunt, would seem to demonstrate the advantage of such an organization in every large army. On Wednesday, June 3, Lee began the delicate operation of manoeuvring Hooker out of his position behind the Rappahannock by a m
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Beecher, Henry Ward, 1813- (search)
of the convulsions that come upon the world, Great Britain finds herself struggling single-handed against the gigantic powers that spread oppression and darkness--(applause, hisses, and uproar)--there ought to be such cordiality that she can turn and say to her first-born and most illustrious child. Come! ( Hear, hear! applause, tremendous cheers, and uproar.) I will not say that England cannot again, as hitherto, singlehanded manage any power--(applause and uproar — but I will say that England and America together for religion and liberty--(a voice: Soap, soap! uproar, and great applause)--are at match for the world. (Applause; a voice: They don't want any more soft soap. ) Now, gentlemen and ladies--(a voice: Sam Slick ; and another voice: Ladies and gentlemen, if you please )--when I came I was asked whether I would answer questions, and I very readily consented to do so, as I had in other places; but I will tell you it was because I expected to have the opportunity of speaki
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Bering sea. (search)
ng a protected zone within 60 miles of the Pribyloff Islands; forbidding steam-vessels, use of nets, fire-arms, and explosives. The award was regarded as a compromise, in which the United States was technically defeated, but acquired substantial advantages in the regulations. The complaints came mainly from Can ada. See Bering sea arbitration. In 1894, the year following the signing of this treaty, more seals were slaughtered by poachers than ever before. The United States again asked England to interfere against the Canadian poachers, but that country refused to act unless the United States should pay Great Britain $500,000 in discharge of all claims for damages resulting from alleged illegal seizures of British vessels in Bering Sea. The United States denied the justice of this claim, hut after another year of seal slaughter, agreed to submit the claim to arbitration In July, 1896, Judge G. E. King, of Canada, and Judge W. E. Putnam, of the United States, were chosen commissi
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Burke, Edmund, 1730-1797 (search)
f resemblance, according to the modes of those times. to that of commander-in-chief at present. to whom all civil power is granted as secondary. The manners of the Welsh nation followed the genius of the government; the people were ferocious, restive, savage, and uncultivated; sometimes composed, never pacified. Wales, within itself, was in perpetual disorder; and it kept the frontier of England in perpetual alarm. Benefits from it to the state there were none. Wales was only known to England by incursion and invasion. Sir, during that state of things Parliament was not idle. They attempted to subdue the fierce spirit of the Welsh by all sorts of rigorous laws. They prohibited by statute the sending all sorts of arms into Wales, as you prohibit by proclamation (with something more of doubt on the legality) the sending arms to America. They disarmed the Welsh by statute, as you attempted (but still with more question on the legality) to disarm New England by an instruction.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Colonial commissions. (search)
to the inner harbor of Boston, and, resolving to resist the commissioners, agreed to erect a fort on the island, and to advance the means for the purpose themselves until the meeting of the general court. They sent letters of remonstrance to England, and refused to send over the charter before the meeting of the court. When that body met, in May, active measures for defence were adopted. They ordered a fort to be built in Boston. Military preparations were ordered, and three commissioner the conquest, they proceeded to settle the boundary between New York and Connecticut. Leaving Nicolls at New York as governor, the other commissioners proceeded to Boston. Meanwhile the authorities of Massachusetts had sent a remonstrance to England against the appointment of the commissioners. It was unheeded. The Massachusetts authorities were unyielding, the commissioners were haughty and overbearing, and a bitter mutual dislike finally made their correspondence mere bickerings. The c
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Corwin, Thomas 1794-1865 (search)
every robber-chief from Nimrod to the present hour. I dare say, when Tamerlane descended from his throne, built of 70,000 human skulls, and marched his ferocious battalions to further slaughter, I dare say he said, I want room. Bajazet was another gentleman of kindred taste and wants with us Anglo-Saxons—he wanted room. Alexander, too, the mighty MacEDONIANdonian madman, when he wandered with his Greeks to the plains of India, and fought a bloody battle on the very ground where recently England and the Sikhs engaged in strife for room, was, no doubt, in quest of some California there. Many a Monterey had he to storm to get room. Sir, he made quite as much of that sort of history as you ever will. Mr. President, do you remember the last chapter in that history? It is soon read. Oh! I wish we could but understand its moral. Ammon's son (so was Alexander named), after all his victories, died drunk in Babylon! The vast empire he conquered to get room became the prey of the ge
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Lamar, Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus 1825-1893 (search)
ingle party. There has not been a single great measure in the constitutional history of England, not a single great reform, which after its establishment by one party was not in the course of time, and a very short period, placed in the hands of the party originally opposed to it. Repeated instances might be given; indeed, no instance to the contrary can be found. The repeal of the corn laws, the great measures for law reform, the more recent measures of parliamentary reform which brought England to the verge of revolution and came near sweeping from the English constitution the House of Lords, where the Tory party had its greatest strength, have by the suffrages of the English people over and over again been placed in the hands of that Tory party with perfect confidence of security. Indeed, it is considered the very highest policy, after securing reforms adopted and pushed by the party of progress, to mature and consolidate them by placing them in the hands of the party of conserv
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Navigation acts. (search)
one company, the North German Lloyd. In all these cases the transactions are considered as being in the nature of fair compensation for actual services, and no one denounces them as subsidies. It would appear that compensation for service becomes subsidy only when paid to an American ship-owner. Summing up, it appears that the actual, practical, valid reasons for the repeal of our navigation laws are: 1. That it would open a new and muchneeded market for the product of overdeveloped English ship-yards. 2. That it would offer to English shipowners opportunity to unload their obsolete and worn-out tramps from the foot of their list upon our bargain-hunters, enabling them to recruit at the top with new ships. 3. That it would release England from her bond to keep the peace by opening an asylum for her commercial fleet whenever she might desire to make war on a maritime power. These reasons are all English. There are no American reasons. Navy of the United States
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Neutrality. (search)
of her declaration. These, with Prussia and Russia, entered into a league in the course of the year. France and Spain acquiesced in the new maritime code; and at one time a general war between Great Britain and the Continental nations seemed inevitable. The United States approved the measure, and towards the close of 1780 sent Francis Dana as ambassador to the Court of St. Petersburg to negotiate a treaty of amity and commerce. The alliance neither awed nor in any sensible way affected England. The known fickleness and faithlessness of Catharine made other powers hesitate in going to war, and the league resulted in inaction. When the Berlin decree (see orders in council) was promulgated, John Armstrong, American minister at Paris, inquired of the French minister of marine how it was to be interpreted concerning American vessels, and was answered that American vessels bound to and from a British port would not be molested; and such was the fact. For nearly a year the French c
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