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William Swinton, Campaigns of the Army of the Potomac, chapter 9 (search)
trata that form the South Mountain was in action, it produced fissures in the strata of red shale which cover the surface of this region of country, permitting the fused material from beneath to rise and fill them on cooling with trap-dykes or greenstone and syenitic greenstone. The rock, being for the most part very hard, remained as the axes and crests of hills and ridges when the softer shale in the intervening spaces was excavated by great water-currents into valleys and plains. Professor Jacobs: Later Rambles over the Field of Gettysburg; United States Service Magazine, 1864. These ridges run in a direction nearly parallel with the South Mountain range, and give a rolling and diversified surface to the landscape. The town of Gettysburg nestles at the base of one of these ranges. At the distance of half a mile to the west of the town is another ridge, called, from the theological seminary that stands thereon, Seminary Ridge, and a mile further west run two other parallel swel