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tions yield. But since we engaged ourselves in a few Books not only to set forth, to the best of our ability, the events but also to embrace a period of more than eleven hundred years, we must forgo the long discussion which such introductions would involve and come to the events themselves, with only this word by way of preface, namely, that in the preceding six Books we have set down a record of events from the Trojan War to the war which the Athenians by decree of the people declared against the Syracusans,i.e. from 1184 B.C. to 415 B.C. the period to this war from the capture of Troy embracing seven hundred and sixty-eight years; and in this Book, as we add to our narrative the period next succeeding, we shall commence with the expedition against the Syracusans and stop with the beginning of the second war between the Carthaginians and Dionysius the tyrant of the Syracusans.The Book covers the years 415-404 B.C.
an iron corselet under his tunic, and has bequeathed since his death his own life as an outstanding example unto all ages for the maledictions of men. But we shall record each one of these illustrations with more detail in connection with the appropriate period of time; for the present we shall take up the continuation of our account, pausing only to define our dates. In the preceding Books we have set down a record of events from the capture of Troy to the end of the Peloponnesian War and of the Athenian Empire, covering a period of seven hundred and seventy-nine years.i.e. from 1184 B.C. to 405 B.C. Athens capitulated in April 404 B.C., but Diodorus' year is the Athenian archon year, in this case July 405 to July 404. In this Book, as we add to our narrative the events next succeeding, we shall commence with the establishment of the thirty tyrants and stop with the capture of Rome by the Gauls, embracing a period of eighteen years.
more Books on the younger Dionysius (cp. Book 15.89.3), a total of thirteen Books on Sicily. At this same time Sophocles the son of Sophilus, the writer of tragedies, died at the age of ninety years, after he had won the prize eighteenThe eighteen firsts are confirmed by the "Victory" inscription (I.G. 2.977a). times. And we are told of this man that when he presented his last tragedy and won the prize, he was filled with insuperable jubilation which was also the cause of his death. And Apollodorus,A philosopher and historian of Athens of the second century B.C. (cp. Book 1.5.1). His Chronology covered the years 1184-119 B.C. who composed his Chronology, states that Euripides also died in the same year; although others say that he was living at the court of Archelaus, the king of Macedonia, and that once when he went out in the countryside, he was set upon by dogs and torn to pieces a little before this time.
description and worked with great skill. The most valuable pieces, accordingly, Himilcar sent to Carthage, among which, as it turned out, was the bull of Phalaris,Cp. Book 9.18-19. and the rest of the pillage he sold as booty. As regards this bull, although Timaeus in his History has maintained that it never existed at all, he has been refuted by Fortune herself; for some two hundred and sixty years after the capture of Acragas, when Scipio sacked Carthage,In 146 B.C. he returned to the Acragantini, together with their other possessions still in the hands of the Carthaginians, the bull, which was still in Acragas at the time this history was being written. I have been led to speak of this matter rather copiously because Timaeus, who criticized most bitterly the historians before his time and left the writers of history bereft of all forgiveness, is himself caught improvising in the very province where he most proclaims his own accu
inhabitants laid up great wealth, and the city, which had won considerable repute, finally in our own lifetime, after CaesarSince Tauromenium had been a stronghold of Sextus Pompey, Augustus, as a precautionary measure and because of its strong position commanding the coast road between Syracuse and Messene, expelled the former inhabitants to make room for new colonists. It may have been one of the Sicilian cities colonized by Augustus in Dio Cassius, 54.7.1 (21 B.C.) had expelled the inhabitants of Tauromenium from their native land, received a colony of Roman citizens. While these things were going on, the inhabitants of Euboea fell into strife among themselves, and when one party summoned the Boeotians to its assistance and the other the Athenians, war broke out over all Euboea. A good many close combats and skirmishes occurred in which sometimes the Thebans were superior and sometimes the Athenians carried off the vic
eastings, and with the fish swans spent their time and a vast multitude of every other kind of bird, so that the pool was an object of great delight to gaze upon. And witness to the luxury of the inhabitants is also the extravagant cost of the monuments which they erected, some adorned with sculptured race-horses and others with the pet birds kept by girls and boys in their homes, monuments which Timaeus says he had seen extant even in his own lifetime.Timaeus died c. 250 B.C. And in the Olympiad previous to the one we are discussing, namely, the Ninety-second, when Exaenetus of Acragas won the "stadion,"He was victor not only in the Ninety-second Olympiad (412 B.C.; chap. 34) but also in the Ninety-first (416 B.C.; Book 12.82). he was conducted into the city in a chariot and in the procession there were, not to speak of the other things, three hundred chariots each drawn by two white horses, all the chariots belonging to c
dered them useless for the fighting. Last of all he rammed the trireme of Pericles with a rather heavy blow and broke a great hole in the trireme; then, since the beak of his ship stuck tight in the gap and they could not withdraw it, Pericles threw an iron handA grappling-iron, first introduced in the fighting in the harbour of Syracuse (cp. Thuc. 7.62). Called the "crow" by the Romans, it was used by them with great effectiveness against the Carthaginians in 260 B.C. on the ship of Callicratidas, and when it was fastened tight, the Athenians, surrounding the ship, sprang upon, it and pouring over its crew put them all to the sword. It was at this time, we are told, that Callicratidas, after fighting brilliantly and holding out for a long time, finally was worn down by numbers, as he was struck from all directions.Xenophon (Xen. Hell. 1.6.33) says that he "fell overboard into the sea and disappeared." As soon as the defeat of
(Plut. Timoleon 7.3; 9.2) Hicetas had become an ally of the Carthaginians even before Timoleon left Corinth. They prepared and transported to Sicily a large sea and land force of their own, and appointed Hanno to the command as general. They had one hundred and fifty battleships, fifty thousand infantry, three hundred war chariots, over two thousand extra teams of horses,The charioteer receipts of P. Petrie, 2.25, dated in the 21st year of Ptolemy Philadelphus (265/4 B.C.), show that it was customary for chariots to be accompanied by spare horses, trained to work in pairs. This account of Carthaginian operations is not given by Plutarch. and besides all this, armour and missiles of every description, numerous siege engines, and an enormous supply of food and other materials of war. Advancing first on Entella, they devastated the countryside and blockaded the country people inside the city. The Campanians who occupied the city
gustus, who showed no interest in extending Roman citizenship to the provinces on such a wholesale scale. Pliny in his sketch of Sicily (3.88-91) lists, shortly before A.D. 79, several different degrees of civic status for the cities of the island. Accordingly, when in later times laws were framed for the Syracusans by CephalusIn 339 B.C.; cp. Book 16.82. in the time of Timoleon and by Polydorus in the time of King Hiero,Hiero was given the title of "King" in 270 B.C. and probably bore it until his death in 216. they called neither one of these men a "lawgiver," but rather an "interpreter of the lawgiver," since men found the laws of Diocles, written as they were in an ancient style, difficult to understand. Profound reflection is displayed in his legislation, the lawmaker showing himself to be a hater of evil, since he sets heavier penalties against all wrongdoers than any other legislator, just, in that more precisely than
treaty of friendship and alliance.This would probably refer to the Peace of Callias in 448 (or earlier), but in it there was no question of an alliance. However, in 412 Sparta made a treaty with Persia against Athens. Chilon's precepts, though brief, embrace the entire counsel necessary for the best life, since these pithy sayings of his are worth more than all the votive offerings set up in Delphi. The golden ingots of CroesusSee Hdt. 1.50. and other handiwork like them have vanished and were but great incentives to men who chose to lift impious hands against the temple; but Chilon's maxims are kept alive for all time, stored up as they are in the souls of educated men and constituting the fairest treasure, on which neither Phocians nor Gauls would be quick to lay their hands.The reference is to the sack of Delphi by the Phocians in 356-346 B.C. and by the Gauls in 279 B.C.Const. Exc. 4, pp. 283-285.
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