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traband of war, was the reply; and they were held as such. Other slaves speedily followed those of Colonel Mallory, and General Butler wrote to the Secretary of War concerning them, relating what he had done, on the assumption that they were the property of an enemy used in warfare, and asking for instructions. The General's action was approved by his Government; and thenceforward all fugitive slaves were considered as contraband of war, and treated as such. On the spot where the first African who was sold as a slave in America first inhaled the fresh air of the New World, the destruction of the system of slavery, which had prevailed in Virginia two hundred and forty years, was thus commenced. The peninsula on which Fortress Monroe stands was the first resting-place of the early emigrants to Virginia, after their long and perilous voyage, and was named by them Point Comfort. There the crew of a Dutch vessel, with negroes from Africa, landed in August, 1620, and a few days aft
Cape Fear (North Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 21
enant Greble and his friend (F. J. Dreer), who was with him when he bore home the lifeless body of his son. We arrived at Fortress Monroe on Sunday morning, December 11, 1864. and after breakfasting at the Hygeian Restaurant, near the Baltimore wharf, we called on General Butler, who was then the commander of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina. He was at his quarters in the fortress, and was preparing to sail on the memorable expedition against the forts at the mouth of the Cape Fear River, and the town of Wilmington, so famous as the chief port for blockade-runners. We were invited by General Butler to accompany him, and gladly embraced the opportunity to become spectators of some of the most stirring scenes of the war. Whilst waiting two or three days for the expedition to sail, we visited the battle-ground at Big Bethel, the site of Hampton, and the hospitals and schools in the vicinity of Fortress Monroe. Sixteen years before, 1848. the writer, while gathering u
Baltimore, Md. (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 21
near Fortress Monroe, on the southeastern borders of that State, where General Benjamin F. Butler was in chief command. He had been sent thither, as we have observed, after he incurred the displeasure of the General-in-chief by the seizure of Baltimore, without orders to do so, and in a manner contrary to a proposed plan. See page 448. The President was not offended by the act, and he gave Butler the commission of a Major-General of Volunteers, on the 16th of May, the first of the kind thawas earnestly sought. The Department Commander, the chief leader on the field, and the heads of regiments, were all in turn censured, while the bravery of the troops was properly extolled. So thoroughly were Butler's services at Annapolis and Baltimore overshadowed and obscured by this cloud of disaster, that the confirmation of his appointment to a major-generalship was secured in the Senate by only two votes, and these through the exertions of Senator Baker, who was soon to fall a sacrifice
St. John's church (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 21
ly settled and well cultivated, was now desolated and depopulated. The beautiful village of Hampton, which contained a resident population of about fourteen hundred souls when the war broke out, had been devoured by fire; and the venerable St. John's Church, built in far-back colonial times, and presenting a picturesque and well-preserved relic of the past, was now a blackened and mutilated ruin, with the ancient brick wall around the yard serving as a part of the line of fortifications cast up there by the National troops. The site of the town Ruins of St. John's Church. this is a view from the Yorktown road, and shows the front entrance to the Church. Close by that entrance we observed a monument erected to the memory of a daughter of the Rev. John McCabe, the rector of the parish when the writer visited Hampton in 1853. was covered with rude cabins, all occupied by negroes freed from bondage; and the chimney of many a stately mansion that was occupied in summer by some of
Ohio (Ohio, United States) (search for this): chapter 21
g from Pennsylvania toward Harper's Ferry, where the insurgents were in strong force under General Joseph E. Johnston. This order was the result of the urgent importunities of Colonel Wallace and his friends, to allow his fine regiment an opportunity for active duties. During the few weeks it had encamped at Evansville, it had been thoroughly drilled by the most severe discipline. On the day after the receipt of the order, Wallace and his regiment were passing rapidly through Indiana and Ohio by railway, and were everywhere greeted by the most hearty demonstrations of good-will. At Grafton, it received ammunition; and on the night of the 9th, it reached the vicinity of Cumberland, June, 1860. where it remained, near the banks of the Potomac, until the next day. Its advent astonished all, and gave pleasure to the Unionists, for there was an insurgent force at Romney, only a day's march south from Cumberland, said to be twelve hundred strong; while at Winchester there was a much h
Richmond (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 21
in and around Washington City were barely sufficient to keep the hourly increasing host of the insurgents at Manassas in check; and the easiest and most expeditious route to Richmond seemed to be by way of the York and James Peninsula, and the James River, from Fortress Monroe. With the capture of Richmond in view, Butler shaped all of his movements. On the day after his arrival, the Commanding General sent out Colonel Phelps, at the head of some Vermont troops, to reconnoiter the vicinity of the works. Greble had under his command two subalterns and twenty men of the regular Army. Camp Butler was at once established; and in the course of a few days a battery was planted at Newport-Newce that commanded the ship-channel of the James River and the mouth of the Nansemond, on one side of which, on Pig Point, the insurgents had constructed a strong redoubt, and armed it well with cannon from the Gosport Navy Yard. It was a part of Butler's plan of campaign to Newport-Newce landi
Hampshire County (West Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 21
sked the important questions, First, What shall be done with these fugitives? and, second, What is their state and condition? Then followed the consent of the Government to have them considered contraband of war, already noticed. See page 501. We have observed that the loyal people of the country were greatly disappointed and mortified by the affair at Great Bethel. That disappointment and chagrin were somewhat relieved by a victory obtained over insurgent troops at Romney, in Hampshire County, Northwestern Virginia, achieved on the following day by a detachment of the Eleventh Indiana (Zouaves), Eleventh Indiana Regiment. commanded by Colonel Wallace, whose speedy organization of the first volunteer regiments of that State we have already observed. See page 456. That regiment, in material, deportment, drill, and discipline, was considered one of the best in the State. Its colors had been presented by the women of Indiana with imposing ceremonies, The presentation o
Annapolis (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 21
in the open field, and our officers have learned wherein their organization and drill are inefficient. But the people were not satisfied. Their chagrin must be appeased. It was felt that somebody was to blame, and the offender on whom to lay the responsibility was earnestly sought. The Department Commander, the chief leader on the field, and the heads of regiments, were all in turn censured, while the bravery of the troops was properly extolled. So thoroughly were Butler's services at Annapolis and Baltimore overshadowed and obscured by this cloud of disaster, that the confirmation of his appointment to a major-generalship was secured in the Senate by only two votes, and these through the exertions of Senator Baker, who was soon to fall a sacrifice to incompetency or something worse. The heaviest weight of responsibility finally rested, in the public comprehension of the affair, on General Peirce; but, we are satisfied, after careful investigation, without justice. During the r
North Carolina (North Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 21
its almost four hundred cannon — the massive key to the waters of Maryland, Virginia, and Upper North Carolina--firmly in his possession--a fine old Leonidas at the head of the three hundred, when Genthe insurgents in building fortifications, and that they themselves were about to be sent to North Carolina for the same purpose. They were taken before General Butler. He needed laborers on field-wds of the battery. He sprang upon a log to get a view of the position, when the bullet of a North Carolina drummer-boy penetrated his brain, and he fell dead. Townsend's retirement, the repulse onor of the Boston Journal, August 3, 1861; Report of Colonel D. H. Hill to Governor Ellis, of North Carolina, June 11, 1861; and Report of Colonel Magruder, June 12, and correspondence of the Richmond passed out to sea with a large fleet of transports, and at sunset were far down the coast of North Carolina, and in full view of its shores. Our military company consisted of Generals Butler, Weitzel
Bethel, Me. (Maine, United States) (search for this): chapter 21
ewport Newce fortified, 501. attack on Pig Point Battery the troops at Camp Hamilton, 502. the insurgents on the Peninsula, 503. expedition to Big and little Bethel, 504. the insurgent post at Big Bethel, 506. battle at Big Bethel, 507. death of Major Winthrop, 508. death of Lieutenant Greble, 509. effect of the battle oy, according to instructions, when an unfortunate circumstance ruined the expedition. Duryee, as we have observed, was pressing on to get in the rear of Little Bethel, followed by Townsend. Washburne, at the same time, was pushing on toward the same point, followed by Bendix and the artillery. Townsend and Bendix approached treble, but that of Winthrop remained for a time with the insurgents. The bravery of Winthrop was extolled by the foe. They gave his body a respectful burial at Bethel, and it was disinterred a few days afterward and taken to New York. On the 19th of April, says his friend George W. Curtis, in a beautiful sketch of his life, he
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