The fleet conveyed an army of 12,000 men, led by General Cathcart, and the number of seamen amounted to 15,000.
The army was composed of British regulars, battalions from the American colonies, and negroes from Jamaica—the greatest armament ever seen in the West Indies.
The second in command of the troops was Sir Alexander Spottswood (q. v.), formerly governor of Virginia.
The expedition met with disaster.
While the fleet, with the soldiers yet on hoard the transports, was blockading Carthagena, the yellow fever broke out among them with great fury.
Cathcart and Spottswood perished by the disease, and the command devolved on General Wentworth, who could not agree with Vernon.
After several unsuccessful attacks upon the city, the enterprise was abandoned, with immense loss, chiefly through sickness.
Additional troops were sent from Massachusetts, and, with them, Vernon sailed for Cuba, but was unsuccessful.
A fleet under Anson, which had been sent to the Pacific to repeat th
by Great Britain, when the Spanish Court published a manifesto, which was equivalent to a declaration of war against England, and so, indirectly, gave aid to the United States.
France, financially weak, now wished for peace, and therefore the minister suggested to Congress measures for securing it.
In 1795 Thomas Pinckney was sent on a special mission to Spain, where he negotiated a treaty which settled a longpending dispute concerning the Spanish boundary and the navigation of the Mississippi River.
This treaty was signed at Madrid by Thomas Pinckney and El Principe de la Paz on Oct. 20, 1795.
It fixed the Florida boundary at lat. 31° N., between the Mississippi and the Apalachicola, and east of the Apalachicola a line from the junction of the Flint to the head of the St. Mary, and thence by that river to the sea. The navigation of the Mississippi was to be free to both parties throughout its entire extent.
The Americans were to enjoy a right of deposit at New Orleans for thre