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Florence, S. C. (South Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
d of harpsichords called piano-forte, are introduced, etc. Piano-Forte movements. A, Bartolomineo Cristofori of Florence, 1711. B, Mason, London, 1755. C, single action. The hammer-harpsichord, so called from the substitution of hammers for plectra, was the first piano-forte, and invented by Cristofori of Florence, 1711. It had a row of leather-topped hammers, which vibrated on a rod and struck the string from below. A projection on the hammer near its axis was struck by a tongu after the geocentric system, which then obtained, — the earth in the center, and so on. A planetarium constructed at Florence in the fifteenth century is described in a letter from Angelo Politiano to his friend Francesca Casa. It illustrated theek book, 1476. Aldus introduced italics, 1476. The Pentateuch in Hebrew, 1482. Homer in folio, by Demetrius of Florence, 1488. The Complutensian Polyglot of Cardinal Ximenes, in 1517. The exact conformity of different copies of the bo
Cahors (France) (search for this): chapter 16
ance. A simple way of holding the bursting-charge to its work is by a diagonal brace with its upper end holding a powder-bag against the barrier, and the other resting in a slight depression in the ground. The invention is ascribed to the Huguenots in 1579. Those first used were of metal, in the shape of a hat. and were employed to blow up gates or other barriers, and also in countermines to break through the enemy's galleries. The petard was formerly fixed to a plank called a madrier. Cahors was taken by Henry IV., by means of petards, in 1580. Pet-cock. Pet-cock. 1. (Steam-engine.) A little faucet at the end of a steam-cylinder, to allow the escape of water of condensation. It is kept open until the engine is fairly under way, and is then shut. 2. A test-cock. 3. A valve or tap on a pump. Pe′ter-sham. (Fabric.) A heavy and fine woolen goods for men's overcoats, the face being rolled so as to present the appearance of little tufts. Petong. (Allo<
Rochester (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
water from the interior of the making cylinders through hollow journals. John Cowper, England. Rag-mill comprising endless feeder which feeds the material to fluted rollers that deliver it to a toothed rotating cylinder. J. F. Jones, Rochester, N. Y. Machine by which a number of continuous webs may be made, or they may be united to form pasteboard. M. L. Keen, Roger's Ford, Pa. Pulp-boiler with perforated diaphragm, discharge pipe and valve for blowing out the contents under pressure.arried on in the submerged end. It was first used in France. A mode of sinking cylinders for foundations by means of compressed air, as shown at Fig. 3850, was adopted to meet difficulties incident to building a bridge over the Medway at Rochester, England. It was at first intended to sink the hollow cast-iron piles for the piers by means of the exhaustive process, but the remains of an old timber bridge imbedded in the mud of the river rendered this impossible This foundation cylinder i
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
in various parts of the United States. The usual process of coal-oil distillation was by placing cannel-coal in retorts similar to those of gas-works and distilling at a moderate temperature. Natural petroleum had been known to exist in Pennsylvania since a date prior to the war of the Revolution, and in Ohio and West Virginia it was well known, but was considered worthless or a nuisance. The use of Young's coal-oil led to the belief that the natural oil might have a value, and about 18526.75 11/1625.81227.69431.79740.60429.425 3/428.15930.21134.68844.29632.1 13/1639.50532.72937.57847.987 7/832.85235.24740.46951.678 15/1635.19937.76443.35955.37 137.54540.28246.2559.061 note. The wrought-iron is that of hard-rolled Pennsylvania plates, and the copper that of hard-rolled plates from the works of Messrs. Phelps, Dodge, & Co., Conn. 4. (Steam-engine.) To plate a port is to close it by the land or unperforated portion of the plate of a slide-valve. 5. (Horology
Powder Mill (Kentucky, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
ade consisting of a box charged with powder, old nails, etc., to be hurled at boarders. Powder-flask. A pouch or metallic case for holding gunpowder, and having a charging nozzle at the end. Powder-horn. A horn fitted to hold powder and used as a flask. Powder-hose. (Blasting.) A tube of strong linen, about an inch in diameter, filled with powder, and used in firing military mines. Powder-ing-mill. See grinding-mill; snuff-mill; ore, etc. See list under mill. Powder-mill. Works in which the materials for gunpowder are prepared and compounded and the powder grained and faced. See gunpowder. Pow′der-mix′er. A pharmaceutical device for intimately mixing various powders. This is usually done on a small scale in a Wedgwood mortar, but in some cases a cylinder with spiral revolving beaters is employed. Pow′der-prover. See ballistic pendulum; eprouvette. Powder-room. (Nautical.) The apartment in a ship where powder is kept. Power
Gerar (Israel) (search for this): chapter 16
ements in husbandry among this people of the Nile. As time rolled on. the name came to be transferred to the river itself, and Osiris the benefactor became a god, and the incarnation of the flood whose annual overflow was the life of the land. No flood, no food; let the Nile stay within his banks for a few years, and the granary of the ancient world becomes a desert. Abraham went down there to buy bread; Isaac started for the same place for the same purpose, but put up with Abimelech at Gerar; Jacob and his family were saved alive in Egypt during another drouth, from which even Egypt was not exempt. Year by year, for seven years, to follow the metaphor of the people, Osiris (the Nile) rose in his vigor, and spread himself upon Isis (the cultivated soil), causing her to bring forth abundantly. In the excess of his virility he even embraced Nephthys (the barren ground of the desert adjacent to that cultivated), causing her to yield a fruitage. And in the seven plenteous years
Chicago (Illinois, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
hich the masonry was laid as the caisson descended. The shafts were open at top, and had but a single air-lock, which was at the bottom. See air-lock; caisson. Pneu-mat′ic car. A car driven by compressed air contained in reservoirs, which are filled by means of air-pumps. This application of compressed air is important as affording a means of dispensing with animal power on street railroads, and has been applied in practice with a certain degree of success. The cars employed in Chicago have four hollow tanks between the ceiling and roof, having a capacity of 150 cubic feet. The air is condensed to a pressure of 260 pounds to the inch, and drives two small engines, one on each side, at one end of the car. These are controlled by means of a wheel adjacent to the brake-wheel and immediately under the hand of the conductor. See Street-car. Pneu-mat′ic dis-patch′--tube. See Pneu-Matic tube. Pneu-mat′ic drill. A drilling-machine operated by compressed air admit
Austria (Austria) (search for this): chapter 16
had been attained. A bar of phosphor bronze, under a strain of 10 tons, resisted 862,980 bends, while the best gunmetal broke after 102,650 bends. Another bar, tested under a strain of 9 tons, has resisted 1,260,000 bends without breaking. In Austria the following comparative results have been obtained: — Absolute Resistance. Phosphor bronze81,798 pounds per square inch. Krupp cast-steel72,258 pounds per square inch. Ordnance bronze31,792 pounds per square inch. The best English m the foregoing and those shown in the next figure, and a comparison of others for which we have no room here, it appears that the ancient Egyptian, Etruscan, Syrian, and Greek plows were equal to the modern plows of the South of France, part of Austria, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, Persia, Arabia, India, Ceylon, and China. The last thirty years may have worked a partial change, but not sufficient to invalidate the general truth of the statement. The ancient Etruscan plow, for instance, wa
Dixon, Ill. (Illinois, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
graphic means designs upon stone, from which impressions may be obtained in the ordinary lithographic press. Indications of efforts in this direction may be credited to the late Joseph Dixon of Jersey City, and to Lewis of Dublin, about 1841. Dixon's attempt was analogous to Poitevin's process, as described hereafter, and Lewis's was an ingenious modification of the daguerreotype process, in which a thin surface of silver applied to an underlying resinous coating was so treated subsequent timilar organic matter (really selecting albumen), and bichromate of potash. He then dried the surface and exposed it under a negative. He then damped the stone, rolled up with lithographic ink, etched, and printed. It may be here remarked that Dixon's experiment contained the gist, though unperceived by any, of the recent important inventions of Tessie du Motay, Albert, Edwards, and others, inasmuch as he really printed from an organic deposit which lay between the ink and the stone. See ph
Nevada (Nevada, United States) (search for this): chapter 16
chain. Named from its resemblance to the rosary. See noria; chain-wheel. Patio-process. The patio-process of amalgamation is practiced in Peru and Mexico. A patio, or amalgamation, floor, is a large paved area, walled around to contain the fortas, or flat, circular heaps of ground ore, salt, magistral, etc., which are tramped by horses, treated by mercury, etc., as described under amalgamator, page 75 (which see). The process was invented by Medina in 1557, and was introduced into Nevada with but indifferent success. Pat′ten. 1. A clog or sole of wood mounted on a frame to raise the feet of a person above a wet or muddy pavement. The support is usually an iron ring. They are much used in some countries where sabots are not in vogue. The Dutch wade round in wooden shoes in their dairies and sculleries. The English and French of the wealthier class use clogs; the more humble class in England use pattens (a); in France, sabots. The Oriental ladies patter round in thei
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