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Highland County (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
f: The tang, which enters the hilt; the shoulder, which abuts against the end of the hilt; the forte, the half of the blade nearest the hilt; the faible, or foible, the half part nearest the point; the point; the back; the flat; the edge. The hilt consists of (the parts varying in different kinds of swords): The pommel, or back piece; the gripe; the bars of the basket, in sabers; the stool, or guard-plate; the bow, in sergeants' swords and horse-artillery sabers: the cross, as in the old Highland clay more: the linguets, in foils and rapiers. The successive operations in sword-making are forging, hammering. swaging, hardening, tempering, setting, grinding, glazing, hilting, and proving. In the process of making swords, as practiced at the factories, pieces of Sheffield steel called double molds each of the length of two blades, the ends for the tangs being of iron, are employed. These are cut or broken in the middle, the tangs are forged first, and afterward the blade. the
Lynn (Massachusetts, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
les successfully by the aid of Neilson's hot-blast ovens in 1837. The experiment at Mauch Chunk was repeated, with the addition of the hot blast, in 1838-39, and succeeded in producing about two tons per day. The Pioneer furnace at Pottsville was blown in July, 1839. The first iron-works in America were established near Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619. In 1622, however, the works were destroyed, and the workmen, with their families, massacred by the Indians. The next attempt was at Lynn, Massachusetts, on the banks of the Saugus, in 1648. The ore used was the bog ore, still plentiful in that locality. At these works Joseph Jenks, a native of Hammersmith, England, in 1652, by order of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, coined silver shillings, sixpences, and threepences, known as the pine-tree coinage, from the device of a pine-tree on one side. Early in the eighteenth century, a smeltingfur-nace was erected in Virginia by Sir Alexander Spottswood, governor of Virginia, who liv
Ovid (Michigan, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
. We owe them a great debt of gratitude, however. Other writers say that Perdix, nephew of Daedalus, employed the backbone of a fish, and was thus led to the invention. Perdix raised the jealousy of somebody, and was changed into a partridge. Ovid mentions this, without assigning the name of the inventor. Saws of the bronze age have been discovered in Germany and Denmark, but not in Great Britain. (Lubbock.) The metal was cast thin, and probably was serrated by chipping and grinding. the same with a toe-piece or cap; a leather moccasin, or soleless shoe; a shoe in which the toes are exposed (Fig. 4557, e); a shoe, as we understand it; slippers; boots; buskins, etc., etc. The material was of tanned or tawed skins. Homer, Ovid, and Pliny agree in celebrating the skill of Tychius, the Boeotian, in the art of shoemaking. The latter credits him with the invention of leathern shoes. It may be supposed that the sandal and moccasin had been in use from time immemorial, and
Jasper, Tenn. (Tennessee, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
Md.1.355 Coal, Newcastle1.270 Coal, Welsh1.315 Coke1.000 Corundum3.710-3.981 Cryolite2.692-3.077 Diamond, Oriental3.521-3.550 Diamond, Brazilian3.444 Dolomite2.800 Earth2.194 Earth, loose1.500 Earth, rammed1.600 Earth, moist sand2.050 Emerald2.600 Emerald, Brazilian3.155 Flint2.586-2.664 Garnet, common3.576-3.688 Garnet, precious4.000-4.352 Granite2.613-2.956 Gypsum1.872-3.310 Gypsum, ordinary, about2.3 Hornblende, common3.600-3.830 Hyacinth4.000-4.620 Jade2.959-3.389 Jasper2.566-2.816 Jet1.259-1.300 Limestone2.700-2.837 Limestone, green3.182 Marl1.700-2.944 Malachite3.572-3.994 Marble2.516-2.858 Mica2.546-2.934 Millstone2.484 Mortar1.384-1.750 Mud, about1.630 Opal1.958-2.144 Peat0.600-1.329 Pitchstone1.970-2.720 Plaster of Paris1.176 Plumbago1.987-2.267 Porphyry2.670-2.790 Pumice-stone0.915 Quartz2.64-2.66 Rock crystal2.605-2.888 Ruby, Oriental4.283 Ruby, Brazilian3.531 Sand1.392-1.800 Sandstone2.08-2.52 Sapphire3.991-4.283 Sardonyx2.59
Hartford (Connecticut, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
ation of talents that either of these three important inventions was enabled to achieve any remarkable success. The sewing-machine previous to 1851, made without the admirable division of labor which is a feature in all well-conducted factories, was hard to make, and comparatively hard to run. The system of assembling — first introduced in the artillery service of France by General Gribeauval in 1765, and brought to proximate perfection by Colonel Colt in the manufacture of his revolver at Hartford, Connecticut — has economized material and time, and improved the quality as well as cheapened the product. There is to-day, and in fact has been for some years, more actual invention in the special machines for making sewing-machines than in the machines themselves. The effect of this will be, when the adventitious aids of exclusive patents shall terminate, to give the larger and better equipped concerns a great advantage over smaller competitors. Singer sewing-machine for leather.
Spithead (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 19
bject. Rockets of large size, guided by a tube projecting from the vessel, have been tried, but without very flattering prospects of success. See submarine boat; submarine gun; torpedo. Subma-rine′ Blast′ing. (Hydraulic Engineering.) A means for the removal of submerged rocks, shoals, sunken vessels, or other impediments to navigation. The first effort in this direction was probably that of Colonel Pasley, about 1841, in blowing up the wreck of the Royal George, sunk at Spithead, England, in 1782. Fig. 6021 illustrates some of the operations for the removal of the submarine obstacles to navigation which formerly rendered that part of the East River known as Hellgate so dangerous to navigation in Long Island Sound. The principal of these were Pot Rock, on which the British frigate Hussar was wrecked at the close of the Revolutionary War, occasioning the loss of many lives and a large amount of treasure; Drake Rock; Holmes' Rock; the Frying Pan: and Way's Reef. Thes<
Illinois (Illinois, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
t-Root Sugar. Oliver de Serres, 1605, suggested the use of beets for making sugar. Margraff first produced sugar from beets in 1747; Achard, in 1799. Bonaparte encouraged it, as his connections with the West Indies were very precarious, and were likely to become more so. 60,000 tons of beet-root sugar are now produced annually in France. Large quantities are also made in Northern and Central Europe, forming a large proportion of the amount consumed. The industry has been introduced into Illinois and California. It prospers in the latter. Napoleon devoted 80,000 acres and 1,000,000 francs to encourage this industry, — one which has since grown to be of much importance in Europe. It is computed that beet-roots now supply nearly a fourth of all the sugar furnished to the markets of the world. The amount of sugar contained in the beet varies from 8 to 13 per cent. As high as 40 tons of beets per acre have been raised in some parts of France. This would give, at 10 per cent, 4
Joachimsthal (Czech Republic) (search for this): chapter 19
slipping by a peculiar form of spike, called a brob. The depths of the shafts in Cornish mines are reckoned from the level of the adit. Until lately the greatest depth yet attained was in the now abandoned Kuttenberg mine, in Bohemia. Some of the Newcastle mines are 1,800 feet deep. The depth of a mine in a mountainous country, such as the Tyrol, Bohemia, or Mexico, being reckoned from the surface, gives no indication of actual depth in respect of sea-level. The mine at Joachimsthal, in Bohemia, is 2,120 feet, but the surface of the ground at the mouth of the shaft is 2,388 feet, above sea-level. The Valenciana mine in Mexico is 5,910 feet above the level of the sea, and its deepest workings are 4,274 feet above that level. A boring at Minden is 2,231 feet deep, of which 1,993 feet are below the level of the sea. These depths are much exceeded by some in the Comstock lode, Nevada. 2. (Vehicle.) One of the bars between a pair of which a horse is hitched to a v
Hellgate (Montana, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
ig. 6021 illustrates some of the operations for the removal of the submarine obstacles to navigation which formerly rendered that part of the East River known as Hellgate so dangerous to navigation in Long Island Sound. The principal of these were Pot Rock, on which the British frigate Hussar was wrecked at the close of the Revolvast interests involved, until 1868. In the previous year, it was asserted, in a memorial to Congress, that the losses occasioned by the various obstructions in Hellgate amounted to from $1,500,000 to $2,000,000 a year. In 1868, an appropriation of $85,000 was made for their removal. Proposals for undertaking the work varied frich the displaced rock might fall and the fragments be afterward removed by grappling, if necessary. Fig 6021 shows a longitudinal section of Grant heading at Hellgate. The openings of other tunnels are seen to the left. Fig. 6023 is a section of East River at Hallett's Point, and of one heading of the excavation, showing a
Cone Point (Vermont, United States) (search for this): chapter 19
ric device of Admiral Fitzroy, consisting of a hollow cylinder and cone, either of which, or both simultaneously, may be suspended from a mast or staff; their positions denoting the probable direction of the wind in an approaching storm. Thus: Cone point upward, to the right of the staff, northerly gale. Cone point downward, to the left of the staff, southerly gale. Cylinder above: expect dangerous winds from both quarters successively. Upright cone above cylinder: dangerous wind expected frCone point downward, to the left of the staff, southerly gale. Cylinder above: expect dangerous winds from both quarters successively. Upright cone above cylinder: dangerous wind expected from north. Reversed cone below cylinder: dangerous wind expected from south. It took some time to inspire the sailors with confidence in the storm-signals of Admiral Fitzroy, but in 1864 it was found in England that fifty per cent, at least, of all the storm-warnings had proved correct, and in 1865 that seventy-three per cent had been fully verified. In France, during the years 1865, 1866. out of one hundred warnings sent, seventy-one were realized the first year, and seventy-six in the sec
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