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d, in consequence of the importance of its situation, the Romans settled there a colony of 2,500 men. Corvus obtained the honour of a triumph, and also the surname of Calenus from the conquest of the town. (Liv. 8.16.) With the exception of the years B. C. 332 and 320, in which he acted as interrex (8.17, 9.7), we do not hear of Corvus again for several years. The M. Valerius, who was one of the legates of the dictator L. Papirius Cursor in the great battle fought against the Samnites in B. C. 309, is probably the same as our Corvus, since Livy says, that he was created praetor for the fourth time as a reward for his services in this battle, and we know that Corvus held curule dignities twenty-one times. (9.40, 41.) In B. C. 301, in consequence of the dangers which threatened Rome, Corvus, who was then in his 70th year, was again summoned to the dictatorship. Etruria was in arms, and the Marsi, one of the most warlike of the neighboring people, had also risen. But the genius of Co
which were conducted by dictators, while the consuls are said to have remained at home. It is difficult to account for this state of things. In B. C. 313 Papirius was invested with his fifth (or sixth) consulship. The war against the Samnites was still going on, but no battle was fought, although the Romans made permanent conquests, and thus gave the war a decided turn in their favour. It was, as Livy states, again doubtful as to who had the command of the Roman armies in that year. In B. C. 309 Papirius was made dictator to conduct the war against the Samnites, to save the army of C. Marcius, who was in great distress in Apulia, and to wipe off the disgrace of Caudium, which Rome had suffered the year before. His appointment to the dictatorship was a matter of some difficulty. Q. Fabius, who had once been his magister equitum, and had nearly been sacrificed by him, was ordered to nominate Papirius. The recollection of what had happened sixteen years before rendered it hard to the
Eume'lus (*Eu)/mhlos), one of the three sons of Parysades, King of Bosporus. After his father's death he engaged in a war for the crown with llis brothers Satyrus and Prytanis, who were successively killed in battle. Eumnelus reigned most prosperously for five years nd five months, B. C. 309-304. (Diod. 20.22-26; Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. pp. 282, 285.) [P.
use itself, contenting himself with blockading it by sea, while he himself was engaged in reducing other parts of Sicily. On receiving intelligence from Carthage of the destruction of the fleet of Agathocles, he made an attempt to terrify the Syracusans into submission; but having been frustrated in this as well as in the attempt to carry the walls by surprise, he again withdrew from before the city. (Diod. 20.15, 16.) At length, having made himself master of almost all the rest of Sicily (B. C. 309), he determined to direct his efforts in earnest against Syracuse; but being misled by an ambiguous prophecy, he was induced to attempt to surprise the city by a night attack, in which his troops were thrown into disorder and repulsed. He himself, in the confusion, fell into the hands of the enemy, by whom he was put to death in the most ignominious manner, and his head sent to Agathocles in Africa as a token of their victory (Diod. 20.29, 30; Just. 22.7; Cic. de Div. 1.44; V. Max. 1.7, ex
vanced towards Macedonia. Cassander met him at Trarmpyae, in the district of Stymphaea, but, alarmed at the disposition which he perceived in his own troops to espouse the cause of a son of Alexander, he would not risk a battle, and entered into secret negotiations with Polysperchon, by which he succeeded in inducing him to put the unhappy youth to death. Polysperchon, accordingly, invited the young prince to a banquet, which he at first declined, as if apprehensive of his fate, but was ultimately induced to accept the invitation, and was strangled immediately after the feast, B. C. 309. (Diod. 20.20, 28; Just. 15.2; Plut. de fals. Pud. 4. p. 530; Paus. 9.7.2; Lycophron. Alex. 5.800-804; and Tzetz. ad loc.) According to Diodorus, he was about seventeen years old when sent for by Polysperchon from Pergamus, and consequently about eighteen at the time of his death: the statement of Justin that he was only fourteen is certainly erroneous. (See Droysen, Hellenism. vol. i. p. 22.) [E.H.B]
Lyciscus 4. An officer of Agathocles, by whom he was much esteemed for his military talents. During the expedition of Agathocles to Africa (B. C. 309), Lyciscus, being heated with wine at a banquet, assailed his master with abuse, which the latter met only with good-humoured jesting. But Archagathus, the son of Agathocles, was greatly exasperated ; and when Lyciscus, in answer to his threats after the banquet, threw in his teeth his suspected intrigue with his step-mother Alcia, he seized a spear and slew him. The consequence was a formidable mutiny in the army, which it required all the boldness and prudence of Agathocles to quell. (Diod. 20.33, 34.)
sion of a war with the Etruscans; but Aurelius Victor, on the contrary, tells us that Decius gained a triumph over the Samnites in his first consulship, and dedicated to Ceres the booty he had obtained in the war. An inscription recording the victory of Decius in his first consulship has been supposed by some to be genuine, but it is evidently a forgery concocted from the words of Aurelius Victor. (Liv. 9.28, 29; Diod. 19.105 ; Aurel. Vict. de Vir. Ill. 27; Orelli, Inscript. No. 546.) In B. C. 309 Decius served as legate under the dictator L. Papirius Cursor, in the war with the Samnites; and in the following year, B. C. 303, he was consul a second time with Q. Fabins Maximus. While his colleague marched against the Samnites, Decius had the conduct of the war against the Etruscans, which he prosecuted with so much vigour that the Etruscans were contented to purchase a year's truce by paying and clothing the Roman army for that year. In B. C. 306 he was magister equitum to the dictat
ward from Antigonus ; and when, therefore, in B. C. 310 the kings of Macedonia and Egypt were preparing to renew the war, Ptolemy suddenly abandoned the cause of his uncle and concluded a treaty with Cassander and the son of Lagus. Probably his object was to establish himself in the chief command in the Peloponnese : but the reconciliation of Polysperchon with Cassander must have frustrated this object : and on the arrival of the Egyptian king with a fleet at Cos, Ptolemy repaired from Chalcis to join him. He was received at first with the utmost favour, but soon gave offence to. his new patron by his intrigues and ambitious demonstrations, and was in consequence thrown into prison and compelled to put an end to his life by poison, B. C. 309. (Id. 20.19,27.) Schlosser has represented this general as an enthusiast in the cause of the liberty of Greece, but there seems no reason to suppose that his professions to that effect were more earnest or sincere than those of his contemporaries.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Ptolemaeus Soter (search)
Of the motives which led to this treaty we have no information, but the probability is that all parties regarded it as little more than a truce. Ptolemy appears to have been the first to recommnence hostilities, and, under pretence that Antigonus had not, pursuant to the treaty, withdrawn his garrisons from the Greek cities in Asia, he sent a fleet to Cilicia under Leonidas, who reduced many towns on the coast, but was again compelled to withdraw by the arrival of Demetrius. The next year (B. C. 309) Ptolemy in person sailed with a large fleet to Lycia, took the important city of Xanthus, as well as Caunus and other places in Caria, and laid siege to Halicarnassus, which was, however, relieved by the sudden arrival of Demetrius. Ptolemy now withdrew to Myndus where he wintered, and the next spring (308) repaired in person to the Peloponnese, where he announced himself as the liberator of Greece, but effected little, beyond the taking possession of the two strongholds of Corinth and Si
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), or Ptolemaeus Philadelphus (search)
Ptolemaeus Ii. or Ptolemaeus Philadelphus (*Ptolemai=os) king of EGYPT, surnamed PHILADELPHUS, was the son of Ptolemy I. by his wife Berenice. He was born in the island of Cos, whither his mother had accompanied her husband during the naval campaign of B. C. 309. (Theocr. Idyll. 17.58; et Schol. ad loc. ; Callim. H. ad Del. 165-190; Droysen, Hellenism. vol. i. p. 418.) We have scarcely any information concerning the period of his boyhood or youth, though we learn that he received a careful education ; and Philetas, the elegiac poet of Cos, and Zenodotus the grammarian, are mentioned as his literary preceptors (Suid. s.v. *Filhta=s and *Zhni/dotos). But it is probable that his own promising character and disposition combined with the partiality of his father for Berenice, to induce the aged monarch to set aside the offspring of his former marriage in favour of Philadelphus. In order to carry this project into execution, and secure the succession to this his favourite son, the king at
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