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[1350a] [1] he made proclamation that each should bring him, under pain of death, one-half of what he had; the remainder of their takings they might keep. On the understanding that if they brought in half their plunder they would retain the rest in security, they obeyed. But when Dionysius had got the treasure into his hands, he commanded them to bring him the other half as well.

The people of Mende used to meet the expenses of administration from harbor and other duties, but refrained from collecting the imposts on land and on houses. They kept, however, a register of the owners, and when the state was in need of funds, they collected the arrears. Meanwhile the owners had the advantage of trafficking with their whole property undiminished by any payment of percentages.

The same city being at war with Olynthus and needing funds, passed a resolution that all the slaves they possessed, with the exception of one male and one female apiece, should be sold on behalf of the State, which was thus enabled to raise a loan from private citizens.1

Callistratus, when in Macedonia, caused the harbor-dues, which were usually sold for twenty talents, to produce twice as much. For noticing that only the wealthier men were accustomed to buy them because the sureties for the twenty talents were obliged to show talent for talent, [20] he issued a proclamation that anyone might buy the dues on furnishing securities for one-third of the amount, or as much more as could be procured in each case.

Timotheus of Athens during his campaign against Olynthus was short of silver, and issued to his men a copper coinage instead. On their complaining, he told them that all the merchants and retailers would accept it in lieu of silver. But the merchants he instructed to buy in turn with the copper they received such produce of the land as was for sale, as well as any booty brought to them; such copper as remained on their hands he would exchange for silver.

During the campaign of Corcyra2 this same Timotheus was reduced to sore straits. His men demanded their pay; refused to obey his orders; and declared they would desert to the enemy. Accordingly he summoned a meeting and told them that the stormy weather was delaying the arrival of the silver he expected; meanwhile, as he had on hand such abundance of provisions, he would charge them nothing for the three months' ration of grain already advanced.

1 Or: "that citizens should sell to the state what slaves they possessed . . . as the equivalent of a loan from private persons to the city <of the slaves' value>."

2 Apparently in 375 B.C. See the end of Xenophon's fifth Book ofHellenicaXen. Hell. 5.

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