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TUDER (Τοῦδερ: Eth. Tudertinus: Todi), one of the most considerable cities of Umbria, situated on a lofty hill, rising above the left bank of the Tiber, about 26 miles S. of Perusia and 18 W. of Spoletium. There is no doubt that it was an ancient Umbrian city, but no mention of the name occurs in history previous to the Roman conquest. Silius Italicus tells us that it was celebrated for the worship of Mars (Sil. Ital. 4.222, 8.462), and notices its position on a lofty hill. (Id. 6.645.) The first notice of it in history is on occasion of a prodigy which occurred there at the time of the invasion of the Cimbri and Teutones (Plut. Mar. 17; Plin. Nat. 2.57. s. 58); and shortly after we learn that it was taken by Crassus, as the lieutenant of Sulla, during the wars of the latter with the partisans of Marius. (Plut. Crass. 6.) It received a colony under Augustus, and assumed the title of “Colonia Fida Tuder,” probably in consequence of some services rendered during the Perusian War, though its nameis not mentioned by Appian. (Plin. Nat. 3.14. s. 19; Lib. Colon. p. 214; Murat. Inscr. pp. 1111. 4, 1120. 3; Orell. Inscr. 3726.) It appears from inscriptions to have been a flourishing and important town under the Roman Empire, and is mentioned by all the geographers among the chief towns of Umbria. (Strab. v. p.227; Plin. l.c.; Ptol. 3.1.54.) It was not situated on the Flaminian Way, but the Tabula gives a line of road, which led from Ameria to Tuder, and thence to Perusia. (Tab. Peut.) Its great strength as a fortress, arising from its elevated position, is already alluded to by Strabo (l.c.), and rendered it a place of importance during the Gothic Wars, after the fall of the Western Empire. (Procop. B. G. 2.10, 13.) It is again mentioned as a city under the Lombards (P. Diac. 4.8); and there can be no doubt that it continued throughout the middle ages to be a considerable city. It is now much decayed, and has only about 2500 inhabitants, but still retains the title of a city.

Considerable ancient remains still attest its former consideration. Among these the most remarkable are the walls of the city, some portions of which are apparently of great antiquity, resembling those of Perusia, Volaterrae, and other Etruscan cities, but they are in general more regular and less rude. Other parts of the walls, of which three distinct circuits may be traced, are of regular masonry and built of travertine. These are certainly of Roman date. There are also the remains of an ancient building, called by local antiquarians the temple of Mars, but more probably a basilica of Roman date. Numerous coins and other small objects have been found at Todi: among the latter the most interesting is a bronze statue of Mars, now in the Museo Gregoriano at Rome. The coins of Tuder, which are numerous, belong to the class called Aes Grave, being of brass and of large size, resembling the earliest coinage of Volaterrae, Iguvium, &c. They all have the name written in Etruscan characters TVTERE, which we thus learn to have been the native form of the name.


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