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Later from the North.

the siege of Vicksburg abandoned — death of Ex-President Van-Buren — from McClellan's army — a dangerous lady, &c.

We have received New York and Philadelphia papers to the 25th inst. The siege of Vicksburg is announced in Washington dispatches to have been given up, and the reason alleged is, that the army in the West could not ‘"spare the troops to make the attack by land."’ Senator Jim Lane, of Kansas, is engaged in that State raising white and black regiments. Ex- President Van Buren died at Kinderhook on the 24th inst. There are only three ex-Presidents of the United States now alive. They are Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, and James Buchanan.

The army of the Potomac.

There is little from McClellan's army. The only thing approaching news is the following paragraph from a letter dated Harrison's Landing, July 22d:

This morning early assembled for review the able, efficient, brave, and hard-working corps, commanded by that truly brave, gallant, talented, but plain and unassuming General, Edwin V. Sumner. The ‘"boys"’ looked as neat and tidy as though just coming out of a band box. Their arms and accoutrements were bright and shining as new dollars, and the masterly manner in which they performed the varied field manœuvres proved every man to be in the highest degree a true and worthy soldier.

We saw on the field as lookers on during the review Gens. McClellan. Sedgwick, Kearney, and a whole host of lesser lights, all of whom seemed delighted with the appearance and bearing of the men.

To show the amount of hard service this corps has seen, we will take two regiments from it as an example. The 31st Pennsylvania volunteers and the 61st New York each came on the Peninsula with near nine hundred men. This morning the first named, now under command of the Major, paraded one hundred and sixty men, while the latter, under Colonel Barlow, could not muster but one hundred and twenty.

Returning the Federal wounded.

A letter from Westover, July 23d, gives a Yankee view of the proceeding attendant on the transfer of wounded prisoners from Richmond to their boats there. It says:

‘ Upon the arrival of the boats at the landing, a corporal, with his guard, was seen wending their ways down from the bluff, and making for the wharf. They stopped at an old frame building, and after stacking their arms, came down to the wharf, and were stationed as sentries, to keep our folks from leaving the wharf. These rebel troops were well dressed, and presented a very neat appearance. Their uniform was a fac simile of the Gray Reserves in Philadelphia. On their caps was B. R. (Border Rifles.) They came from Norfolk and vicinity, and belonged to the one hundred and sixty-first Virginia, and, as yet, have not been in action, or have not seen much duty, hence their neat appearance. The first rebel commissioned officer that approached was Lieut. Green, a very gentlemanly and polite young man.

The corporal of the guard amused our party very much by his garrulity. His name is Wilkins, and was formerly a clerk in Norfolk. He stated that the Confederate army would be in Philadelphia, at the furthest, by Christmas. Washington would fall to them very shortly, and Baltimore was to be freed immediately after the occupation of Washington. He was fighting for Southern rights, but what these Southern rights consisted of, he was not quite prepared to say; but one thing he did know, we were stealing all their negroes, and this was unpardonable.

The wharves and surroundings at City Point are all destroyed. This was done some three weeks ago by our gunboats, in retaliation for the act of a Georgia regiment firing into a flag of truce boat landing here. Many of the dwellings on the hill show the effect of shot and shell. The inhabitants (some 400 in number) fled to Petersburg when the firing commenced. A railroad track yet remains, running along the shore in front of the village.--The remnants of a car, which has been burned, is on the end of the track. The dwellings are all built on a bluff above the railroad, some 30 feet high. The houses seen from the boats are old frames, much dilapidated. The guards would not allow us to cross the track, we being circumscribed to the river side of said track. The sentry, a good-hearted conscript, but very ignorant, formerly an overseer near Norfolk, said that a large hotel stood on the bank, but was burned by our folks. This sentry, like most of the Virginia soldiers, could not read.

Soon other Confederate troops began to toiler down, many of them in their dirty gray uniforms, and many in citizens' clothes. Two young dandies, from Petersburg, sported black coats and pants, white vests and the coarse gray military caps. In fact, none of the troops on this side have seen service.--A number of them belonged to the rebel signal corps service, who had ‘"S. C."’ on their caps. I first took them for South Carolinians. About half an hour after our arrival, the locomotive whistle was heard approaching. It was not long before a long train of burthen cars was seen approaching, with a large locomotive in the lead, and a small old fashioned machine behind. Our troops were in ecstasies to get once more under the folds of the old flag. They were in a most miserable plight, filthy and dirty in the extreme.

They stated that the Confederates had done the best they could for them, but they had not much to give them. They got a ration of bread and soup every day. Many complained it was not enough. The poor fellows were gotten on board the Spaulding and Knickerbocker at once, many of them taking a bath on board as soon as getting there. Old clothes and blankets, in numbers, were thrown overboard as they received clean clothing. Many had to be carried on board. Some had not had their broken limbs set. The rebels have so many wounded of their own they could not attend to all. Richmond is full to overflowing with them. Many have been sent down to Petersburg.

The wounded wanted new clothes at once, those who had their limbs amputated still wore their blood-stained clothes; some, again, had no clothes at all, but a poncho thrown around them. On one litter carried on board the Spaulding was a boy not over fourteen years old, badly wounded. Tea sells in Richmond at $28 per pound, coffee $5. Necessaries are getting very, very scarce, hence our troops do not complain.

The old and solid men I met at the Point seemed very bitter at our Government. Nigger was their only cry. I suppose they have lost slaves. They boast loudly of making us leave the swamps before Richmond. They all intend to die in the last ditch, and then the women will continue the fight. Such braggadocio is sickening. I never saw or heard so much brag from troops. But these fellows are excusable; they are green. Troops who have been in action do not brag. The enemy have a wholesome dread of our gunboats. They say they can not stand the fire of such heavy pieces.

Views of an escaped Yankee.

The Boston Traveller, of the 23d, contains the story of a Massachusetts Yankee, who, after ‘"performing the duties of his profession for several months"’ in Richmond, escaped from here on the 10th inst., in company with other Northern men.--They went to Charlottesville and walked from there to the Valley:

The whole of the negro population look forward to the coming of a Northern army with the hope and expectation that it will prove a day of deliverance to them. The slave girls have become more independent than usual, and frequently tell their mistresses that they will soon change conditions with them, and play upon pianos, and be ladies, while their mistresses will be compelled to cook and scrub.

The people of Richmond profess to believe that ‘"cotton will be king yet."’ They think England must soon interfere in their behalf, in order to obtain cotton. France they believe to be more friendly to the Confederacy than England.

The gentleman knows nothing definitely of the number of the rebel army at Richmond when the attack was made on McClellan's lines, but it was his opinion, formed from conversation with well informed men, that the force consisted of from one hundred and fifty thousand to two hundred thousand men. He thinks none of Beauregard's army, from Corinth, was there. The army had been in creased by conscripts, and reinforcements continued to come in during the six days that the contest was going on.

He knew nothing of the rebel loss in the battles, except that it was large. At the time of the battle of Fair Oaks, or Seven Pines, as the rebels call it, their numerous hospitals were all filled with wounded, and many were taken to private houses. The mortality among the wounded was large. Those who were able to be removed were sent to their homes, and many of the sick had also been sent off. New hospitals were provided in anticipation of the late battles, and all were filled.

Many well known and influential citizens of Richmond were killed. Purcell's battery, composed of men of the first-families, had but one man left unhurt. Major Walker, who was killed, was a leading citizen. No Generals of note were killed or wounded. He heard a rebel General say, that in Tuesday's battle there was a perfect road of their army, the cavalry in their retreat riding over the infantry, and killing and wounding many of their own men.

The people of Richmond were quite confident that McClellan's army could not reach that city. --Early in the spring some of the wealthiest citizens removed their families, but when the Federal army moved toward the city after the battle of Williamsburg, no alarm was manifested, and nobody ranaway. There are no very extensive works near the city for its defence. On the side toward Fair Oaks there are some batteries, but the most powerful fortifications are at Manchester, on the south side of the river, commanding the approach to the city from that direction.

He has not seen the new iron-clad vessel being built at Richmond, but judging from the statements of those who have worked upon her, the steamer must be a formidable affair. She is a new vessel, and it was said that she would be completed within a few weeks.

He had never heard any talk of a scarcity of ammunition for the rebel armies. They were constantly receiving powder from Europe, and they had several powder mills in operation. He had heard that the powder made at these mills was of an inferior character.

He knows nothing about the amount of commissary stores at Richmond, but thinks it is not large. In the spring considerable quantities of pork were removed to Danville, but it was brought back to feed the army after reinforcements arrived. Supplies came mostly from the Shenandoah Valley by railroad. Formerly the canal was used for this purpose to a considerable extent, but a break occurred at the time of the great freshet, and it had been of little use since. There are no vessels in James river above the city.

Large quantities of tobacco are stored in the city, most of last year's crop being still on hand. Some time since experiments were made to ascertain what way it could be quickest destroyed in case of a successful attack upon the city. Both burning and immersion in the water were tried. The first method proved a failure, and the other promises but little better. It seems to be the last resort, however, and slides have been made from the warehouses to the river, by means of which they intend to dump it into the stream, if necessary, to save it from seizure.

The citizens of Richmond still retain their character as a generous, kind-hearted and refined people. The private schools for the children of the wealthier classes were kept open as usual last winter. Two or three did not close till recently, when the usual summer vacation commenced.

Experience of Father Hagan.

A letter in the New York Herald, dated Harrison's Landing, July 23, gives the following experience of a Chaplain in the notorious Sickles brigade:

Father Hagan, Chaplain of the 4th Excelsior regiment, Sickles's brigade, who was taken prisoner' has returned, and makes an interesting statement. When he was carried to Richmond he was taken before the Military Governor, General Winder. The General asked him what regiment he belonged to, assailed him bitterly, saying he had disgraced his cloth by ministering to New York thieves, who had come to kill and plunder an innocent community, who were defending their rights and their soil.--Father Hagan simply replied that he was a noncombatant, and he thought Winder took an unmanly advantage of his condition as a prisoner to assail him. He was sent to the prison, where he received a piece of bread and meat, and was kept until next day.

Sober second thought prompted General Winder to send for Father Hagan, and apologize to him for his rude treatment on the previous day. The good father's horse was restored to him, and he was allowed to lodge with the Archbishop, and to perambulate the city at pleasure.--He visited the hospitals, and found our wounded men receiving the same attention as their own. All the sick in Richmond — our prisoners with the others — are suffering from a scarcity of medicines, and the Confederates complain bitterly of the action of our Government in declaring medicines contraband of war. Quinine is worth sixty dollars an ounce in Richmond; in New York, five dollars or less.

The Confederates admit freely that their lessees were tremendous in the late battles. No attempt to conceal this fact from the people is made. They also acknowledge that the recent change made in the position of the Federal army was executed in a masterly manner, and was essential for its salvation. They were in no hurry to drive us from Fair Oaks, as they, knew that another enemy was insidiously weakening our force day by day. The popular impression in Richmond was, that McClellan's army would certainly be bagged whenever their Generals should make the attempt; and when the battle of Gaines's Mill took place, the people confidently expected to see our army marched in there as prisoners. Great was their disappointment on learning that McClellan had escaped them and gained a position much better than he occupied before.

The city of Richmond and its environs are one great camp. Father Hagan learned much about the spirit that animates the army, and enjoyed opportunities for judging of its extent. He says that merit is the only avenue to promotion. There are men in the ranks worth large fortunes serving under officers who have not a dollar. Money and political interference are of no advantage, but military knowledge and skill everything. Father Hagan, who has travelled in the South and formed some acquaintances there, found one of them serving as a private who is quite wealthy. A private in the same company was shot in one of the late battles near Richmond, leaving a destitute family, and his wealthy neighbor and comrade drew his check for five hundred dollars on a Richmond bank and presented it to the family. The camps about Richmond are kept scrupulously clean, as well as the streets of the city, an epidemic or pestilence being feared in consequence of massing so many men there. The most rigid discipline is maintained, and the reverend gentleman says that a sight of the troops in and around Richmond would give the Northern people a different idea of the magnitude of the job they have undertaken from that entertained by them at present. They would also see the necessity of going into the contest with the same united and self-sacrificing spirit that animates the South, who feel that they are struggling, as they believe, for their very existence.

What Happened to Charles Denny.

Charles Denny, a member of the Sickles brigade, who was paroled at Richmond, has arrived at New York, and gives a very highly-colored ‘"experience:"’

As he approached Richmond, the prisoner witnessed many of the rebel fortifications. He compared them in appearance to the rebel fortifications at Yorktown — works erected on high eminences, mounted with numerous heavy guns, and supplied with all the natural and artificial auxiliaries of modern warfare. Colonel Brewster, of his regiment; Father Hagan, the chaplain of his regiment; Captain Burn and Michael Burns, of company A, of the same regiment, were his fellow-prisoners. Colonel Brewster was taken to private quarters. Denny remained three days in confinement, and was summoned by an order from Lieut. Thomas P. Turner, C. S. Army, commander of the Libby Hospital, to come to that institution as a nurse, on the recommendation of Dr. Barrum, a Union Surgeon and a prisoner, who was in charge of the post hospital for prisoners. While here the rebel commander administered a parole to Denny in those words: ‘ "Charles P. Denny, you are now paroled, not to take up arms against the Confederate States, nor perform any of the business of a soldier, until regularly exchanged. You are hereby released"’ While in Richmond Denny was permitted to go out into the city. He says it wears a mournful aspect; stores are closed after an early hour in the afternoon; every house is a hospital, and the people go about the streets wearing very elongated and downcast faces. The main body of the rebel army is encamped outside the city. A few regiments only of the conscripts, performing Provost Guard duty, are kept within the city limits. This portion of the rebel troops are represented as a motley looking mass of Falstaff fellows, many of them possessing very unintelligent countenances, which betoken their subserviency to the rebel taskmasters. Denny had an opportunity to converse with many Irishmen in Richmond, who, sub rose, declare their loyalty to the Union and entire willingness to help her cause when the opportunity presents itself. They style the rebel government the ‘ "biggest despotism in the world."’--Father Hagan, (before mentioned,) of the Second Excelsior regiment, thinking that, as he was a non-combatant, he was entitled to a little more leniency than other prisoners, went to General Winder's quarters and made the request that he might be allowed to retain his horse. Winder replied, ‘"D — you and your horse; you damned ministers come down here to raise hell. I would give a common soldier more privileges than you."’ Winder finally modified his tone and granted the request of the reverend gentleman prisoner.

Father Hagan was permitted to enjoy the hospitalities of Bishop Magill, Roman Catholic Bishop of Richmond; as also Father Tissot, another Union chaplain. The latter gentleman was captured, with one hundred and fifty others, on the day of the last battle. Denney says there is a young man, a Union prisoner, who was captured about eight months ago, and has been in custody ever since.--His name is Isaac Slater, a citizen of Washington, D. C., where his parents reside. His father holds a position in one of the Governmental burnsus. This young man is detailed at one of the hospitals to take account of the number and disposal of the Union prisoners. Denny speaks in terms of the highest praise of Gen. McClellan, and hopes that his (Denny's) exchange may soon be consummated, that he may once more join his regiment end serve under that General. He represents this feeling as general among the Union prisoners at Richmond.

A dangerous lady.

Letters to Northern papers from the Valley contain very little of importance. One thus describes a very ‘"dangerous"’ lady:

Mrs. Charles J. Faulkner is the wildest and most experienced diplomat in the Valley of Virginia.--She is more dangerous than Belle Boyd, because she is more adroit, and has larger social influence and greater means of accomplishing her purposes. She is even now almost nightly inviting calories of our young officers to her house. She and her two daughters lavish their most courtly blandishments upon them, and, are they know it, are they have perceived their purpose, all the intelligence they desire is extracted. As a matter of course, our plans, our movements, the number of our troops, and the direction of their march, or the number in garrison, are duly transmitted to Richmond by the by-way post-routes which the rebels have all through this Valley.

Ought not these dangerous women, with their precious freight of intelligence, skill and Secession proclivities, be sent, under honorable escort, through our lines as far as Gordonsville, and be kindly permitted to join their relatives at Richmond. Many a valuable item of information which now finds its way to ‘"Stonewall"’ Jackson would never be sent in else they were quietly forwarded, per express, to those with whom they so deeply sympathize.

A negro regiment raising in Kansas.

The following advertisement appears in the Leavenworth (Kansas) Conservative:

One Thousand Colored Men Wanted--To form the First regiment of Kansas Zouaves d'afrique, and join General Blunt's Southern expedition. All able-bodied colored young men who wish to enlist, will leave their names with W. D. Mathews. Waverly House, Leavenworth. As soon as instructions are received from the War Department, (application having been made for them,) the regiment will be regularly enlisted, mustered into service, and received the advance bounty and clothing. Companies forming in other towns in this State will notify the undersigned.

Ethan Harle,

First regiment Kansas Zouaves. Leavenworth, July 18.

Negroes as witnesses in courts.

A great deal of astonishment and indignation is expressed in Washington on the discovery that a section was smuggled into the act supplementary to the act for the release of certain persons held to service or labor in the District of Columbia, which places the negro upon an equality with a white man in the courts of justice there. The section alluded to provides that, in all judicial proceedings in the District of Columbia, there shall be no exclusion of any witness on account of color. Even in Ohio, where there are few negroes, in conferring upon them the right to testify in the courts it was decreed that their testimony should go to the jury for only what it was worth.

Withholding the news at the North.

The Boston Herald (says the Baltimore News Sheet) takes the Government to task for oppressing such intelligence in regard to the access the Herald assumes ought to be frankly and promptly made public, whether the news be disastrous or otherwise. ‘"The Government,"’ says the Herald, ‘"seems to be getting decidedly into the Bagstock way"tough, sir, tough and devilish sly."’ Not content with flinging this sarcasm at the heads of Departments at Washington, the Herald actually has the audacity to compare the perfect knowledge of the movements of the army which the Confederates acquire, with the entire ignorance of the Northern public in regard to what is so well known at the South. The Herald charges that nothing was own of the weakening of Banks army until Stonewall Jackson imparted that interesting piece of information; that no one ‘"had the faintest idea what part of the Peninsula was to be spaded up until the Confederates appeared at York town,"’ that McClellan's projected change of base did not enter the Northern thought until Stonewall Jackson hurried up the movement, and that ‘"it is almost impossible now to learn whether our brothers and sons and neighbors remain alive in the army of the Potomac,"’ although it is presumed that the Confederates know how many men there are in that army. ‘"If,"’ continues the Herald, ‘"the President wants to be supported by an intelligent people, let him treat them as they deserve. Let him remove the Censorship of the Press, which has produced no good result. Let him dare to tell the truth."’

‘"We are not disposed to volunteer to go it blind."’ Such sentiments as these, emanating as they do from the ‘"hub of the universe,"’ as Boston has been styled by Holmes, indicate a recalcitrant disposition which may yet require the services of the Provost Marshal to effectually subdue. Concerning McClellan's army — which correspondents from headquarters assert to be in excellent condition and eager for another advance upon Richmond — the Herald states, on the authority of a gentleman just arrived from Harrison's Landing, ‘"and probably the only independent observer who has visited that corps for some weeks,"’ that the force is ‘"in a deplorable condition;"’ that there are ‘"twice as many civilians on James river as there are soldiers,"’ and that no hope seems to be entertained, either by officers or men, of reaching Richmond in that direction before spring even if reinforced by one hundred thousand men.

From New Orleans — Butler Recognizes the British Consul.

On the morning of the 5th, Commander Hewett, of her Britannic Majesty's sloop-of-war Rinaldo, called upon General Butler, and stated that he had been instructed by Lord Lyons to recognize Mr. George Coppell as Acting British Consul, and expressed the wish that General Butler would now withdraw his objections to recognizing him as such.

The General replied that he had new, since Mr. Coppell's recognition by the agent of Lord Lyons, but one objection to official communication with him, and that was, that at present there is a letter in existence from Mr. Coppell to him, dated June 14, in which there are expressions offensive and insulting. This letter, which has been printed in the Herald, concludes with the following remarks:

‘"Objections have also been very generally urged against the oath prescribed to duly registers on the ground that it imposes upon them (in words, at least) the office of a spy, and forces them to acts inconsistent with the ordinary obligations of probity, honor and neutrality."’

Gen. Butler contended that while there might be differences of opinion on questions of neutrality or courtesy, (such for instance as the difference between himself and Lord Palmerston on Order No. 28, relative to women,) on questions of probity and honor there could be but one opinion between gentlemen; and Mr. Coppell's remarks on those subjects implied that he (Gen. Butler) required acts of British subjects inconsistent with the honor of a gentleman, and thereby placed himself on a par with those guilty of such acts. Capt. Hewett said that Mr. Coppell had told him that he had no intention of conveying insult or offence, and he thought Mr. Coppell would be willing to withdraw the expressions. Capt. Hewett was very anxious that the matter should be amicably settled, as there were a great many British residents who wish to get passes to Havana, New York and Europe.

He then went to see Mr. Coppell, and a few hours later the General received the following letter from that gentleman:

British Consulate, New Orleans, July 5.

Captain Hewett, of H. B. M. ship Rinaldo, has informed me that in conversation with you on the subject of a letter which I had the honor to address to you on 14th of June, you stated the letter contained an offensive expression. Whilst under this impression you caused a reply to be made to that letter which threw doubt on my official position and temporarily suspended official communication between yourself and this consulate. I have now the honor to inform you that I had no idea that such a construction as insulting could or would have been placed upon the letter in question, and as there was no such intention on my part, I willingly withdraw any expressions in that letter which you may consider offensive.

I have the honor to be, sir,
Your most obd't serv't,
Geo. Coppell, H. B. M., Acting Consul,
Major-Gen. B. F. Batler, Com. Dept. of the Gulf.

To this Gen. Butler replied as follows:
Headquarters Departm't of the Gulf, New Orleans, La., July 7, 1862.
Your note received Saturday removes all difficulty of personal intercourse. The withdrawal of the offensive expressions is sufficient and accepted. Commander Hewett, of H. B. M. sloop-of- war Rinaldo, now in this harbor, informs me that he is instructed by Lord Lyons to recognize you as Acting Consul of her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, and that Commander Hewett does recognize you in that official capacity. This seems sufficient for the re-establishment of official relations. To your inquiry whether all neutrals (British subjects) wishing to go to New York or abroad, furnished with proper passports from their Government, will be required to take the oath prescribed for aliens in General Orders Nos. 41 and 42, it is answered that a pass differs from a passport, as I had the honor to explain in my letter to the Consuls upon this subject, and that as a rule the oath would not be required. Such persons will be allowed to pass on board ships to go abroad or to New York whom, in my judgment, it is not necessary to retain here, from some act either done or contemplated to be done, in favor of the Confederate States--for example, by bearing arms, forwarding, money or intelligence. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant.

Benj. F. Butler,
Major-General Commanding.
Gen. Coppell, Esq., Her Britannic Majesty's Acting Consul.

Arrival of the Hon. Reverdy Johnson.

Among the passengers by the Fulton were the Hon. Reverdy Johnson, Commissioner for the State Department, and Cuthbert Bullitt, Esq., of New Orleans, who has been an exile from the city during the war on account of his Union sentiments. Gen. Butler has assigned Mr. Johnson rooms in the Custom House, and he is now engaged in investigating the seizure of money at the Consulate of the Netherlands, and other financial questions which have arisen since the national occupation of New Orleans. It is supposed by Mr. Bullitt's friends here that he is to be Collector of the Port.

The news of the recent battles on the Peninsula.

We have received all sorts of rumors within the last few days, none of which are positively authentic. One hour we hear through secesh sources that McClellan has been all cut to pieces, himself and forty thousand soldiers, including two Major-Generals, (I would like to know who they can be,) an unlimited number of Brigadiers, and an immense quantity of stores and ordnance captured. Then Gen. Butler gets a note from Flag Officer Farragut, stating that Commodore Davis has received a telegram from General Grant, as follows; ‘"Richmond is ours, with fifty thousand prisoners; so says rumor."’ These stories have worked the citizens here into a great state of excitement. Secesh believes that we have been defeated, and has consequently been on a tremendous ‘"rampage"’ for several days.

The desperate fortunes of the rebellion and the overwhelming forces and resources of our loyal States.

[From the New York Herald.]

We are entering upon a new campaign. That which was commenced in Virginia with the rebel evacuation of Manassas was ended with General McClellan's abandonment of the line of the Chickahominy. We have discovered that Jeff. Davis and his confederates have staked the desperate fortunes of their Southern Confederacy upon Rich-; mond that, in their late seven days onslaught upon our brave and indomitable army, they counted not only upon its destruction, but upon a triumphal march to Washington and the dictation of a peace from the White House. In these calculations they have been signally defeated. The army of Gen. McClellan, stronger and in a more formidable position than before, still menaces their capital, and they know that unless they quickly again assume the offensive their cause is lost.

What, then, are we called upon to do? Driven into a corner at Richmond, and threatened with the accumulation of an overwhelming army around them, the rebels will undoubtedly watch their opportunity for a sortie, and seize upon the first opening, whether in the direction of Washington or Harrison's Landing, for another desperate struggle for deliverance. They have at Richmond a powerful army — the elite of all the military forces of the rebel States. They have exhausted their means of reinforcement by their sweeping conscription act, and have nothing to gain from inactivity, but everything to fear. We of the loyal States are, therefore, called upon to reinforce the army of Gen. McClellan and the army of Gen. Pope as rapidly as possible; and, with proper energy on the part of our Federal and State authorities, each of those armies may be strengthened to the extent of fifty thousand men before the expiration of the present month, and we may yet bring this rebellion to an end before the first frost of October.

We published yesterday some returns of the census of 1860, which exhibit the material resources and capabilities of our loyal States in a very strong light, for peace or war. In agricultural and manufactured products of all kinds it is the loyal section of the Union which possesses all the elements of a self-sustaining and powerful nation. On the other hand, our rebellious section, as now curtailed, has been more dependent upon the products of other States and countries for its subsistence than any other community of the same extent on the face of the earth. Excepting inland North Carolina, and Old Virginia and Texas, the States still adhering to this rebellion have heretofore depended almost entirely upon their cotton, rice and sugar, to supply them their food and clothing, essentials and luxuries, and manufactured articles of all descriptions. But all these exchanges are now cut off by our Southern blockade, involving a positive loss to the rebellion of two hundred millions a year of substantial wealth in the great products of Southern slave labor.

During the first nine or ten months of their experimental Southern Confederacy, the rebels went on swimmingly; for they had the abundant granaries of our border slave States and of Texas still at their command. But all these resources, excepting Virginia, are now cut off, and, form the numerous Southern families in Northern Mississippi and Alabama found in a starving condition by the advancing army of General Halleck, we may form some opinion of the general exhaustion of our revolted States, and of the desperate necessities of Davis to bring all his available military forces forward into Virginia for a decisive settlement at Richmond or Washington. It is reported, too, that his conscription act has given him an army of seven hundred thousand men, embracing every white man liable to militia duty within his military control. We must therefore act promptly, if we do not intend again to be pushed to act upon the defensive.

In this view of the question we frankly say to the President, that, having the power, it is his duty to call out the militia of the loyal States and of the States occupied by our troops, in order to make short and decisive work with this great rebel army of Virginia. Gen. Lee, the rebel Commander-in-Chief at Richmond, is calling in all his ‘"stragglers;"’ for he desires to make an advance upon Washington. He understands his position. It is to lose no time in delay. President Lincoln has called for three hundred thousand fresh volunteers to reinforce our armies. But volunteering does not fill up our reduced regiments as fast as could be desired. We have a militia force in reserve of over two millions of men. From this immense force three hundred or five hundred thousand men may be mustered in a month. Why not call them out? The people of our loyal States will respond to this demand with cheerfulness and alacrity. Knowing that they have the men and the means required for the work, they are ready to bring them all to bear en masse to put down this rebellion.

The powers of the President, in this and every other respect, for the vigorous prosecution of this war, are almost as ample as the absolute power of the Emperor of Russia. Mr. Lincoln has, like Cincinnatus, been invested with what we may call a temporary dictatorship to save the country. We are gratified, too, with certain manifestations of a wise and energetic exercise of this comprehensive authority. The country looks to President Lincoln for the most vigorous war measures against the great rebel army of Virginia; and we look to him not only to employ all the needful men and means at his command, but we expect him to enforce unity, order, harmony and active co-operation between the Cabinet and the army and between all the various divisions of the army. Let him not hesitate in this great duty, should it require a change or two in the Cabinet, as well as some changes and reconstructions in the army.

Whatever may be done or resolved upon in reference to confiscation, emancipation and negro employment in the public service, the first duty devolving upon the President is the speedy concentration of an overwhelming Union army in Virginia. To this end, if volunteering proves too slow for the emergency, let the President resort to the militia. We have the needful forces and the resources at his call to put down this rebellion without further trifling, and the country expects this to be done.

Affairs at Warrenton.

A correspondent of the Philadelphia Inquirer writing from Gen. Pope's army, July 19, says:

Warrenton is really a beautiful town. It has been incorporated for several years. Mr. Charles Bragg is the present Mayor, and is spoken of in the highest terms as a gentleman and an efficient public officer. Warrenton is the shire town of Fauquier county, and contains about two thousand inhabitants. The inhabitants are largely in favor of Secession, and although surrounded at the present by a large force of Union troops, yet I found hosts to-night who loudly proclaim their Secession sympathies, and hope that our forces may soon be driven back from here.

The late Col. Ashby was an immense favorite in this place. Some of his admirers still wear mourning for him. One young lady passed me to-night who seemed to be particularly interested in mourning for some one. I asked her for whom she wore such an amount of crape. She answered, ‘"for Col Ashby, the best man that ever lived."’

The concentration of Gen. Pope's army, together with his late stringent but just orders, do not seem to agree very well with the Secessionists here. But the General has done just right, and his views are entirely in accord with those of the soldiers composing his army. There has been too much leniency exhibited by some of the commanders, which is meeting with wholesale condemnation by the army.

The town to-night is literally crowded with troops and officers. The ‘"Warren Green Hotel"’ and the ‘"Warrenton House"’ are refusing any farther ‘ "bed and board"’ to the crowd continually pouring in.--These places of accommodation for the public are about the first places your correspondent has met with worthy of the name of a ‘"hotel"’ since I have been in Virginia. Handsomely furnished, and kept in a style bordering on modern magnificence, your correspondent can scarcely realize that he is at the ‘"seat of war."’ ‘"Hail Columbia,"’ ‘"The Red, White, and Blue,"’ and other patriotic songs, are being performed by several of our officers, who are amateurs, upon the plane. Their patriotic efforts are echoed by the soldiers in the streets while I write, and the circumstances are inspiriting in the highest degree.

The recent rains have swollen the streams in this region, so much so that many of them are impassable. The Rappahannock is so swollen that at many of the usual fords it is entirely impossible to cross. The railroad leading from Alexandria has been completely repaired, and good time and connections are easily made between Washington and this place.

We have sufficient troops here to resist any effort that ‘"Stonewall"’ Jackson might make against us. The army manifests great enthusiasm in the appointment of General Pope to its command.--They are willing to fight, if they can be led in the right manner against the enemy.

After the War.

[From the New York Herald, July 22.]

One of the American characteristics which most surprises the good natured Mr. Trollope in his recent journey through this country, is the imperturbable good humor and hopefulness of the people. He meets frequently persons who are ruined by the calamities of the war. They never weep, or wring their hands, or tear their hair. One man, from whom the Secessionists of Missouri had taken cattle and crops and all the fruit of the labor of years, merely remarked in a quiet way, while he picked his teeth with a bowie-knife, ‘"Yes, they have been kinder rough with me!"’ That was all — he had nothing else to say. Mr. Trollope thinks a genuine American never complains and never despairs — Whatever happens in the external world, says Mr. T. ‘"The man is always there."’ In these qualities of hopefulness and independent manhood of our people lies the great confidence which we all possess of the speedy recovery of the country from the calamities of this civil war. Political economists have frequently presented it as one of the proofs that the wealth of a people is in labor, more than in accumulated goods — the remarkable recovery of countries which had been desolated by war. But with us there are various extrinsic circumstances which will aid this happy result and produce, we believe, a cancer of prosperity after this contest such as the country has never seen.

Our wealth is in labor, and we expect when peace finally comes, a new immigration of the best laboring population of Europe, such as we have never had. The free homestead bill is itself an inducement held out to the whole world to encourage emigration, and will have an immense effect upon the laboring population of Europe.

Whatever be the result of this contest, there is no question that the finest districts of this country, for climate and the temperate productions, will then he open to free labor. No Western Free State presents anywhere such attractive fields to the foreigner as the Eastern Tennessee, Kentucky, and Missouri. They are the land of corn and wine, many climate and healthy air, beautiful scenery, and the most favorable conditions on this continent for the development of the physical men. These have been closed to the emigrant by slavery. The war must inevitably open them and have fi- nished a new attraction to the foreigner for emigration Missouri is consecrated by heroic German blood. It will become known as never before, by every heartstone in the Fatherland. Our Eastern cities, too, will pour their superfluous labor over those new fields, and a new era of production begin in the West. A war of principles, like this, is a war stimulating enterprise, and we are not at all surprised at a gigantic commercial undertaking, commenced even in such times, which will be a channel of wealth to the whole country — the Pacific railroad. A few years after peace will see an immense and profitable stream of commerce winding through the defiles of the Rocky Mountains and emptying itself into St. Louis, then the great entropy of the West. Thither will come the teas and silks of China, the spices of the East, the lighter products of India, the gold of California, and of the new districts which the road itself will lay open to the world, and a thousand new articles of commerce of which we do not now think. Over this track, too, will pass the new in migration which is to settle the valleys of the Rocky Mountains and the slopes of the Pacific, and bring in new stores of wealth to the national Treasury.

Furthermore, the effect of the war and of the taxes consequent, will be to discourage much purchase of foreign luxuries. Our superfluous capital will be far more expended within ourselves. We shall become a manufacturing country as well as agricultural, and while supplying the deficient harvests of Europe with our crops. We shall receive in return gold, or articles which cannot be produced here. The nation will become independent of the world, and its war- taxes will be in part relieved by the protection they give to native industry. Whatever may be our abstract views of free trade, we must yield them under the pressure of circumstances, and obtain all the good possible from high tariffs. Peace will see a new creation of industrial wealth in the Union. The destruction of property which has taken place in this war will soon be balanced by a new creating industry; the taxes will be nothing to a vigorous young nation with a continent on which to labor; a new purity and patriotism will be infused in the people from this tremendous struggle, the Government will be a power of order and law as it never was before; the curse of some of our fairest lands will be removed — chattel slavery; and the whole country, under the inspiration of freedom and intelligence, will go forth, we are persuaded, upon a splendid career of material progress.

[from the N. Y. Herald. July 25.]
Thursday, July 24--6 P. M.

The money market is without material change to-day. Loans on call are quoted at 5a6 per cent., first-class commercial paper is done at about the same rates. The large deposits made yesterday and to-day with the Sub-Treasurer at four per cent, indicate a tendency towards lower rates.

Foreign exchange is lower again in sympathy with the fall in gold, the quotations are quite irregular, and fluctuate with the board prices of the precious metals. We quote at the close to-day bankers' sterling bills at 129a129½, francs, 4.35.

The feature of the stock market to-day is the great fall in gold, and the large transactions at the decline. Opening at 118¾ at the morning board, it sold to 118 at the close. Between the boards it was again lower, and at the second board the transactions were principally at 117 ¼. Just before the close of business, large sales were made at 117 regular, and more was offered on buyers' option at the same price. Altogether the transactions in gold to day probably exceed those of any day since the suspension, the printed sales at the board alone footing up nearly a million of dollars. Silver is quoted 110a111. Demand Treasury notes, old issue, are 107a107½. The market for railway shares and bonds is better, with but a limited amount of business. Speculation seems almost at a stand still, and an active market is hardly looked for until we have further news from Europe. Governments are steady at an advance of 3/8a½ per cent. Treasury notes, 7 3-10 per cent., sold as high as 102¼, and closed at 102 3/8 bid, an improvement of 3/8 per cent, as compared with yesterday. One year indebtedness certificates are in demand at 98a98¼ which is also an advance on yesterday's prices. State stocks were quiet, but steady at a slight advance, the sales being quite limited. All classes of bonds are better. Chicago and Northwesterns advanced 1a1¼; the general share rose ¼a¾ Central rose ¼, Erie ¼, preferred ¾, Michigan Central ¾, Gelena — which sells dividend off--5/8, Southern old ½. Pacific Mail is about steady. The market closed steady, the following being the last quotations; United States 6's, registered, 1881, 98¼a½ do. 6's, coupon, 1881, 98½a 5/8 do. 5's, 1874. 86a¾ Treasury notes, 7 3-10 per cent, 102 3/8a½; Tennessee 6's, 50a¼ North Carolina 6's, 66a68; Missouri 6's, 46 ½a47; American gold, 117aÊ.

Philadelphia, July 24.

In the money market there is nothing new of interest. Capital is offering in excess of the demand at 6 per cent on short loans, and transactions are being made at 4. Gold is weak, and late in the day could hardly be quoted above 117. The fluctuations in the latter are the foundation of a great deal of the speculation in the street, and to one who watches the transactions of the Bulls and Bears in it, and marks the comparative ease with which a change of one or two per cent. can be made in its market rate, the absurdity of all reasoning in reference to prices based upon the idea that every advance in gold notes a corresponding depreciation in currency becomes very manifest.

The New York Herald, of the 25th, says:

‘ The high premium on gold in this city has stimulated shipments of the precious metal from California. The Aspinwall steamer that arrived yesterday brought $837,000. and by telegraph from San Francisco we learn that the steamer which left that city on the 11th inst., has on board $950,000, and the steamer of the 21st has $1,114,000--making a total monthly shipment of nearly three millions of dollars consigned to this city. The next month may be expected to produce a still greater increase; so that the precious metal will soon find its level, the market being glutted, and the supply being in excess of the wants of commerce.

The New York Herald


Gen. Lewis Partridge, of Norwich, Vt., was arrested a few days since by United States Marshal Baldwin, on the charge of treason, and taken to Windsor, where the United States Circuit Court sits next week.

Hon. John J. Crittenden is in New York.

Mrs. Phillips and Judge Andrews, of New Orleans, who were sent to Ship Island by Gen. Butler, have been released.

At Harardsville, Ct., on the 22d instant, a powder mill exploded, killing 8 men and Miss Ceha Smith, who was struck by a flying timber.

The New Orleans Delta suggests to Gen. Butler that the females who ‘"flaunt secession badges in the faces of the defenders of New Orleans,"’ be sent to cotton factory at the Baton Rouge penitentiary.

Ex-Gov. Wm. D. Campbell, of Tennessee, has accepted the appointment of Brigadier-General, and taken command of the Federal troops in Tennessee.

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