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CHAPTER VIII Cato the Censor -- His Victory in Spain -- Revolt of the Lusones -- The Elder Gracchus in Spain Subsequently, when the Romans were at war with the Gauls on the Po, and with Philip of Macedon, the Spaniards Y.R. 557 attempted another revolution, thinking the Romans now too B.C. 197 distracted to heed them. Sempronius Tuditanus and Marcus Helvius were sent from Rome as generals against them, and after them Minucius. As the disturbance became greater, Y.R. 559 Cato was sent in addition, with larger forces. He was still B.C. 195 a very young man, austere, laborious, and of such solid understanding and superb eloquence that the Romans called him Demosthenes for his speeches, for they learned that Demosthenes had been the greatest orator of Greece. When Cato arrived in Spain at the place called Emporia, the enemy from all quarters assembled against him to the number of 40,000. He took a short time to discipline his forces. When he was about to fight he
Greece Assigned to Flamininus The Senate then, as I have said before, assigned Gaul B. C. 197 Coss. G. Cornelius Cathagus, Q. Minucius Rufus. to both the consuls as their province, and ordered that the war against Philip should go on, assigning to Titus Flamininus the entire control of Greek affairs. These decrees having been quickly made known in Greece, Flamininus found everything settled to his mind, partly no doubt by the assistance of chance, but for the most part by his own foresight in the management of the whole business. For he was exceedingly acute, if ever Roman was. The skill and good sense with which he conducted public business and private negotiations could not be surpassed, and yet he was quite a young man, not yet more than thirty, and the first Roman who had crossed to Greece with an army.
Attalus in Sicyon King Attalus had for some time past been held in Attalus in Sicyon, B. C. 198. extraordinary honour by the Sicyonians, ever since the time that he ransomed the sacred land of Apollo for them at the cost of a large sum of money; in return for which they set up the colossal statue of him, ten cubits high, near the temple of Apollo in the market-place. But on this occasion, on his presenting them with ten talents and ten thousand medimni of wheat, their devotion to him was immensely increased; and they accordingly voted him a statue of gold, and passed a law to offer sacrifice in his honour every year. With these honours, then, Attalus departed to Cenchreae.Attalus spent the winter of B.C. 198-197 at Aegina, in the course of which he seems to have visited Sicyon. . . .
Attalus and the Boeotians The tyrant Nabis, leaving Timocrates of Pellene at The cruelty of Apega, wife of Nabis. Argos,—because he trusted him more than any one else and employed him in his most important undertakings,—returned to Sparta: and thence, after some few days, despatched his wife with instructions to go to Argos and raise money. On her arrival she far surpassed Nabis himself in cruelty. For she summoned women to her presence either privately or in families, and inflicted every kind of torture and violence upon them, until she had extorted from almost all of them, not only their gold ornaments, but also the most valuable parts of their clothing. . . . In a speech of considerable length AttalusB.C. 197. King Attalus before the assembled Boeotians. See Livy, 33, 2. reminded them of the ancient valour of their ancestors. .
Roman and Greek Palisading Flamininus being unable to ascertain where the enemy B. C. 197, at the beginning of spring. Livy, 33, 1. were encamped, but yet being clearly informed that they had entered Thessaly, gave orders to all his men to cut stakes to carry with them, ready for use at any moment. This seems impossible to Greek habits, but to those of Rome it is easy. The methods of forming palisades among the Greeks and Romans. For the Greeks find it difficult to hold even their sarissae on the march, and can scarcely bear the fatigue of them; but the Romans strap their shields to their shoulders with leathern thongs, and, having nothing but their javelins in their hands, can stand the additional burden of a stake. There is also a great difference between the stakes employed by the two peoples. The Greeks hold that the best stake is that which has the largest and most numerous shoots growing round the stem; but the Roman stakes have only two or three side shoots, or at most four;
Both Sides Advance on Scotusa Dissatisfied with the country near Pherae, as being Autumn of B. C. 197 Both Philip and Flamininus advance towards Scotusa, on opposite sides of a range of hills. thickly wooded and full of walls and gardens, both parties broke up their camps next day. Philip directed his march towards Scotusa, because he desired to supply himself with provisions from that town, and thus, with all his preparations complete, to find a district more suitable to his army: while Flamininus, divining his intention, got his army on the march at the same time as Philip, in great haste to anticipate him in securing the corn in the territory of Scotusa. A range of hills intervening between their two lines of march, the Romans could not see in what direction the Macedonians were marching, nor the Macedonians the Romans. Both armies, however, continued their march during this day, Flamininus to Eretria in Phthiotis, and Philip to the river Onchestus; and there they respectively pit