Translator's Preface

THE completion of this VIIIth volume closes a longstanding gap between the early years of the Second Punic War and the beginning of the Fourth Decade in Vol. IX, published in 1935. Events narrated in Books XXVIII-XXX fall within the years 207-201 B.C. A few chapters only in Book XXVIII are given to campaigns in Greece against Philip, much more space to Scipio's success in driving the Carthaginians out of Spain, not without a mutiny in his own army; and in the next year comes the threat of another invasion of Italy, this time by Mago from the Ligurian coast. Book XXIX, completing the conquest of Spain, includes the introduction of the worship of Cybele, the brutal treatment of Locri by Pleminius, Scipio's sailing from Sicily, his landing on African soil, together with a digression on the adventures of Masinissa in exile. In Book XXX we have preliminary engagements resulting in defeat for Hasdrubal son of Gisgo, and in captivity for Syphax, with a tragic end for Sophoniba; then the failure of Mago's plans, followed by his death on shipboard; Hannibal's departure at last from Italy and landing in Africa; the disastrous “Battle of Zama,” and his flight to the coast; finally the peace, and Scipio's return in triumph to Rome-a triumph for which Livy can spare but two words of description. So ends the Third Decade.

The publishers of the Cambridge Ancient History have again kindly permitted us to base several maps upon theirs in Vols. VIII and IX, with such alterations as were required for our purposes. As for Africa and Numidia, the campaign of 1943 has so stimulated interest in the geography of Tunisia that it seemed only proper to use a map with modern names, many of them still fresh in memory, and to add ancient names only where required by readers of Livy, or for other reasons desirable. We have accordingly depended chiefly upon French originals, military and archaeological, including the Atlas archéologique, cited several times in the Appendix. To the Director of the American Geographical Society, Dr. John K. Wright, we are indebted for the friendly help of a specialist. On this map, in place of Livy's unsupported Maesulii for Masinissa's people, we have followed the usual practice of substituting the Massylii of Polybius, Appian and the Periochae of Livy's Books XXIV, XXVIII, XXIX, reinforced by Strabo's μασυλιεῖς, and μασυλεῖς cited from a fragment of Polybius, not to mention poets from Virgil to Claudian. It is to be regretted that military operations in Tunisia could not have shed some ray of light upon the problem of Zama-Margaron-Naraggara, which is here relegated to an Appendix.

Book 29 has been edited by T. A. Dorey and C. W.F. Lydall, Havant, 1968, 1969; a sixth edition of Book 30 by H. E. Butler and H. Scullard (1939) appeared in 1954; and a corrected reprint of the Oxford text(1935) of Books 26-30, R. S. Conway and S. K. Johnson, in 1953. The War with Hannibal, A. deSélincourt (Penguin Classics, Harmondsworth 1965), is a translation of Books 21-30.

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