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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 63 63 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 19 19 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 5 5 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 23-25 (ed. Frank Gardener Moore, Professor Emeritus in Columbia University) 3 3 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 31-34 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. Professor of Latin and Head of the Department of Classics in the University of Pittsburgh) 2 2 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 26-27 (ed. Frank Gardner Moore, Professor Emeritus in Columbia University) 2 2 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 23-25 (ed. Frank Gardener Moore, Professor Emeritus in Columbia University) 2 2 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 2 2 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 2 2 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 28-30 (ed. Frank Gardener Moore, Professor Emeritus in Columbia University) 1 1 Browse Search
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Appian, Hannibalic War (ed. Horace White), CHAPTER II (search)
e to the sea. The country on the right-hand side of the Apennines is Italy proper. The other side, extending to the Adriatic, is now called Italy also, just as Etruria is now called Italy, but is inhabited by people of Greek descent, along the Adriatic shore, the remainder being occupied by Gauls, the same people who at an early period attacked and burned Rome. When Camillus drove them out and pursued them to the Apennines, Y.R. 537 it is my opinion that they crossed over these mountains B.C. 217 and made a settlement near the Adriatic instead of their former abode. Hence this part of the country is still called Gallic Italy. Thus had the Romans divided their large armies at this juncture for many campaigns. Hannibal, learning this fact, moved secretly in the early spring, devastated Etruria, and advanced toward Rome. The citizens became greatly alarmed as he drew near, for they had no force at hand fit for battle. Nevertheless, 8000 of those who remained were brought together,
Polybius, Histories, book 3, Better Success in Spain (search)
this news was believed at Rome; but when soon afterwards it became known that the Carthaginians were in possession of the Roman camp, and that all the Celts had joined them: while their own troops had abandoned their camp, and, after retiring from the field of battle, were all collected in the neighbouring cities; and were besides being supplied with necessary provisions by sea up the Padus, the Roman people became only too certain of what had really happened in the battle. Winter of B.C. 218-217. Great exertions at Rome to meet the danger. It was a most unexpected reverse, and it forced them at once to urge on with energy the remaining preparations for the war. They reinforced those positions which lay in the way of the enemy's advance; sent legions to Sardinia and Sicily, as well as garrisons to Tarentum, and other places of strategical importance; and, moreover, fitted out a fleet of sixty quinqueremes. The Consuls designate, Gnaeus Servilius and Gaius Flaminius, were collecting th
Polybius, Histories, book 3, Hannibal's Treatment of Roman Prisoners (search)
Hannibal's Treatment of Roman Prisoners At the beginning of the following spring, Gaius Flaminius marched his army through Etruria, and B. C. 217. pitched his camp at Arretium; while his colleague Gnaeus Servilius on the other hand went to Ariminum, to await the advance of the enemy in that direction. Passing the winter in the Celtic territory, Hannibal keptHannibal conciliates the Italians. his Roman prisoners in close confinement, supplying them very sparingly with food; while he treated their allies with great kindness from the first, and finally called them together and addressed them, alleging, "that he had not come to fight against them, but against Rome in their behalf; and that, therefore, if they were wise, they would attach themselves to him: because he had come to restore freedom to the Italians, and to assist them to recover their cities and territory which they had severally lost to Rome." With these words he dismissed them without ransom to their own homes: wishing by t
Polybius, Histories, book 3, Hannibal Goes Through the Marsh (search)
Hannibal Goes Through the Marsh But after a careful inquiry as to what part of the road Hannibal starts for Etruria. Spring of B. C. 217. was firm or boggy, Hannibal broke up his camp and marched out. He placed the Libyans and Iberians and all his best soldiers in the van, and the baggage within their lines, that there might be plenty of provisions for their immediate needs. Provisions for the future he entirely neglected. Because he calculated that on reaching the enemy's territory, if he were beaten he should not require them, and if he were victorious he would find abundance in the open country. Behind this vanguard he placed the Celts, and in the rear of all the cavalry. He entrusted the command of the rear-guard to his brother Mago, that he might see to the security of all, and especially to guard against the cowardice and impatience of hard labour which characterised the Celts; in order that, if the difficulty of the route should induce them to turn back, he might intercept th
Polybius, Histories, book 3, Fabius Returns to Rome (search)
hey were puzzled by the lights, imagining them to be something more dangerous than they really were; and when the Carthaginian light-armed troops came on to the ground, after some slight skirmishing between the two parties, upon the oxen rushing in among them, they separated and took up their positions on different heights and waited for daybreak, not being able to comprehend what was taking place. Partly because he was at a loss to understand whatHannibal gets through the pass. Autumn, B. C. 217. was happening, and, in the words of the poet, "some deep design suspecting;"Homer, Odyss. 10, 230. and partly that, in accordance with his original plan, he was determined not to risk a general engagement, Fabius remained quietly within his camp: while Hannibal, finding everything going as he designed, led his army and booty in safety through the gorge, the men who had been set to guard the narrow road having abandoned their post. At daybreak, seeing the two troops fronting each other on the
Polybius, Histories, book 3, Hasdrubal Equips a Fleet (search)
Hasdrubal Equips a Fleet While these things were going on in Italy, Hasdrubal, who was in command in Iberia, having during the winter repaired the thirty ships left him by his brother, and manned ten additional ones, got a fleet of forty decked vessels to sea, at the beginning of the summer, from New Carthage, under the command of Hamilcar; and at the same time collected his land forces, and led them out of their winter quarters. Spain, B. C. 217. The fleet coasted up the country, and the troops marched along the shore towards the Iber. Suspecting their design, Gnaeus Scipio was for issuing from his winter quarters and meeting them both by land and sea. But hearing of the number of their troops, and the great scale on which their preparations had been made, he gave up the idea of meeting them by land; and manning thirty-five ships, and taking on board the best men he could get from his land forces to serve as marines, he put to sea, and arrived on the second day near the mouth of th
Polybius, Histories, book 3, Spanish Hostages Given Up To the Scipios (search)
Spanish Hostages Given Up To the Scipios When the Senate heard of Gnaeus Scipio's naval success, believing it to be advantageous or rather Publius Scipio, whose imperium is prolonged after his Consulship of the previous year, with Spain assigned as his province, is sent to join his brother there with 20 ships: early in B.C. 217. essential not to relax their hold on Iberia, but to press on the war there against Carthage with redoubled vigour, they prepared a fleet of twenty ships, and put them under the command of Publius Scipio; and in accordance with arrangements already made, despatched him with all speed to join his brother Gnaeus, and carry on the Iberian campaign in conjunction with him. Their great anxiety was lest the Carthaginians should get the upper hand in Iberia, and thus possessing themselves of abundant supplies and recruits, should get a more complete mastery of the sea, and assist the invasion of Italy, by sending troops and money to Hannibal. Regarding therefore the
Polybius, Histories, book 4, Philip Returns To the Peloponnese (search)
Philip Returns To the Peloponnese And so the first year of this Olympiad was drawing Midsummer B. C. 217. Dorimachus Aetolian Strategus, Sept. B. C. 119. to a close. In Aetolia, the time of the elections having come round, Dorimachus was elected Strategus. He was no sooner invested with his office, than, summoning the Aetolian forces, he made an armed foray upon the highlands of Epirus, and began wasting the country with an even stronger passion for destruction than usual; for his object in everything he did was not so much to secure booty for himself, as to damage theDestroys Dodona. Epirotes. And having come to DodonaThe position of Dodona, long a subject of doubt, was settled by the discovery of the numerous inscriptions found about seven miles from Jannina, and published by Constantine Caraponos in 1878, Dodon et ses Ruines. See also Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. i. p. 228. he burnt the colonnades, destroyed the sacred offerings, and even demolished the sacred building; so t
Polybius, Histories, book 5, Aratus Elected Strategus (search)
Aratus Elected Strategus When the next winter came, Philip having departed Winter of B. C. 218-217. to Macedonia, and the Achaean Strategus Eperatus having incurred the contempt of the Achaean soldiers and the complete disregard of the mercenaries, no one would obey his orders, and no preparation was made for the defence of the country. This was observed by Pyrrhias, who had been sent by the Aetolians to command the Eleans. Disorder in Achaia owing to the incompetence of the Strategus Eperatus. He had under him a force of thirteen hundred Aetolians, and the mercenaries hired by the Eleans, as well as a thousand Elean infantry and two hundred Elean cavalry, amounting in all to three thousand: and he now began committing frequent raids, not only upon the territories of Dyme and Pharae, but upon that of Patrae also. Finally he pitched his camp on what is called the Panachaean Mountain, which commands the town of Patrae, and began wasting the whole district towards Rhium and Aegium. The
Polybius, Histories, book 5, Forces Available to Antiochus and Ptolemy (search)
Forces Available to Antiochus and Ptolemy At the beginning of the following spring, having all B. C. 217. Antiochus and Ptolemy recommence hostilities in the spring. Ptolemy's army: 70,000 infantry, 5000 cavalry, 73 elephants. preparations for war completed, Antiochus and Ptolemy determined to bring their claims to Coele-Syria to the decision of a battle. Ptolemy accordingly set out from Alexandria with seventy thousand infantry, five thousand cavalry, and seventy-three elephants. Being informed of his approach, Antiochus drew his forces together. These consisted of Daae, Carmani, and Cilicians, equipped as light-armed troops to the number of about five thousand, under the charge and command of Byttacus the Macedonian. The army of Antiochus: 62,000 infantry, 6000 cavalry, 102 elephants. Under Theodotus, the Aetolian, who had deserted from Ptolemy, were ten thousand picked men from the whole kingdom, armed in the Macedonian fashion, most of whom had silver shields. The number of the p
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