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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 10 10 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2 2 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
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Pausanias, Description of Greece, Attica, chapter 10 (search)
devolved upon Demetrius, son of Antigonus, Lysimachus, henceforth expecting that war would be declared upon him by Demetrius, resolved to take aggressive action. He was aware that Demetrius inherited a tendency to aggrandise, and he also knew that he visited Macedonia at the summons of Alexander and Cassander, and on his arrival murdered Alexander himself294 B.C. and ruled the Macedonians in his stead. Therefore encountering Demetrius at Amphipolis he came near to being expelled from Thrace288 B.C., but on Pyrrhus' coming to his aid he mastered Thrace and afterwards extended his empire at the expense of the Nestians and Macedonians. The greater part of Macedonia was under the control of Pyrrhus himself, who came from Epeirus with an army and was at that time on friendly terms with Lysimachus. When however Demetrius crossed over into Asia and made war on Seleucus, the alliance between Pyrrhus and Lysimachus lasted only as long as Demetrius continued hostilities; when Demetrius submitt
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Attica, chapter 26 (search)
But afterwards a few men called to mind their forefathers, and the contrast between their present position and the ancient glory of Athens, and without more ado forth with elected Olympiodorus to be their general. He led them against the Macedonians288 B.C., both the old men and the youths, and trusted for military success more to enthusiasm than to strength. The Macedonians came out to meet him, but he over came them, pursued them to the Museum, and captured the position. So Athens was delivered from the Macedonians, and though all the Athenians fought memorably, Leocritus the son of Protarchus is said to have displayed most daring in the engagement. For he was the first to scale the fortification, and the first to rush into the Museum; and when he fell fighting, the Athenians did him great honor, dedicating his shield to Zeus of Freedom and in scribing on it the name of Leocritus and his exploit. This is the greatest achievement of Olympiodorus, not to mention his success in recov
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.), BOOK VII. We here enter upon the third division of Pliny's Natural History, which treats of Zoology, from the 7th to the 11th inclusive. Cuvier has illustrated this part by many valuable notes, which originally appeared in Lemaire's Bibliotheque Classique, 1827, and were afterwards incorporated, with some additions, by Ajasson, in his translation of Pliny, published in 1829; Ajasson is the editor of this portion of Pliny's Natural History, in Lemaire's Edition.—B. MAN, HIS BIRTH, HIS ORGANIZATION, AND THE INVENTION OF THE ARTS., CHAP. 60.—WHEN THE FIRST TIME-PIECES WERE MADE. (search)
iastical writers. Petosiris,See end of B. ii. Necepsos,See end of B. ii. Alexander Polyhistor,See end of B. iii. Xenophon,See end of B. iv. Callimachus,See end of B. iv. Democritus,See end of B. ii. DiyllusAn Athenian, who wrote a history of Greece and Sicily in twenty-six or twenty-seven books, coming down to B.C. 298, from which time Psaon of Platæa continued it. the historian, Strabo,Of Lampsacus, a Peripatetic philosopher, and tutor of Ptolemy Philadelphus. He succeeded Theophrastus, B.C. 288, as head of that school. He devoted himself to the study of natural science, and appears to have held a pantheistic system of philosophy. By Cudworth, Leibnitz, and others, he has been charged with atheism. The "Euremata" of Ephorus, here mentioned, was a book which treated of inventions. who wrote against the Euremata of Ephorus, Heraclides Ponticus,See end of B. iv. Aclepiades,Of Tragilus, in Thrace, a disciple and contemporary of Isocrates. His book, here mentioned, treated on the subjects
Alexis (*)/Alecis). 1. A comic poet, born at Thurii, in Magna Graecia (Suidas s. v. *)/Al.), but admitted subsequently to the privileges of an Athenian citizen, and enrolled in the deme *Oi)=on, belonging to the tribe Leontis. (Steph. Byz. s. v.) He was the uncle and instructor of Menander. (Suidas s. v. *)/Alecis; Proleg. Aristoph. p. xxx.) When he was born we are not expressly told, but he lived to the age of 106 (Plut. Defect. Orac. p. 420e.), and was living at least as late as B. C. 288. Now the town of Thurii was destroyed by the Lucanians about B. C. 390. It is therefore not at all unlikely that the parents of Alexis, in order to escape from the threatened destruction of their city, removed shortly before with their little son to Athens. Perhaps therefore we may assign about B. C. 394 as the date of the birth of Alexis. He had a son Stephanus, who also wrote comedies. (Suidas l.c.) He appears to have been rather addicted to the pleasures of the table. (Athen. 8.344.) Accordi
Amastris 3. Also called Amastrine (*)Amastrinh/), the daughter of Oxyartes, the brother of Darius, was given by Alexander in marriage to Craterus. (Arrian. Anab. 7.4.) Craterus having fallen in love with Phila, the daughter of Antipater, Amastris married Dionysius, tyrant of Heracleia, in Bithynia, B. C. 322. After he death of Dionysius, In B. C. 306, who left her guardian of their children, Clearchus, Oxyathres, and Amastris, she married Lysimachus, B. C. 302. Lysimachus, however, abandoned her shortly afterwards, and married Arsinoe, the daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus ; whereupon Amastris retired to Heracleia, which she governed in her own right. She also founded a city, called after her own name, on the sea-coast of Paphlagonia. She was drowned by her two sons about B. C. 288. (Memnon, 100.4, 5 ; Diod. 20.109.) The head figured below probably represents Amastris: the woman on the reverse holds a small figure of victory in her hand. (Eckhel, ii. p. 421.)
Arsi'noe 2. The daughter of Ptolemy I. and Berenice, born about B. C. 316, was married in B. C. 300 to Lysimachus, king of Thrace, who was then far advanced in years. Lysimachus had put away Amastris in order to marry Arsinoe, and upon the death of the former in B. C. 288 [AMASTRIS], Arsinoe received from Lysimachus the cities of Heracleia, Amastris, and Dium, as a present. (Plut. Demtr. 31; Paus. 1.10.3; Menmon, apud Phot. p. 225a. 30, ed. Bekker.) Arsinoe, who was anxious to secure the succession to the throne for her own children, was jealous of her step-son Agathocles, who was married to her half-sister Lysandra, the daughter of Ptolemy I. and Eurydice. Through the intrigues of Arsinoe, Agathocles was eventually put to death in B. C. 284. [AGATHOCLES, p. 65a.] This crime, however, led to the death of Lysimachus; for Lysandra fled with her children to Seleucus in Asia, who was glad of the pretext to march against Lysimachus. In the war which followed, Lysimachus lost his life (B
d. Wess., Exc. Vat. xxi. p. 49, ed. Dind.; Strab. vii. pp. 302, 305; Paus. 1.9.6; Plut. Demetr. 39, 52; Polyaen. 7.25; Memnon, 100.5, ed. Orell.) On his return to his own dominions Lysimachus found that Demetrius had taken advantage of his absence and captivity to invade the cities of Thrace, but that prince had been already recalled by the news of a fresh insurrection in Greece, and Lysimachus apparently found himself too weak to avenge the aggression at the moment. (Plat. Demetr. 39.) In B. C. 288, however, he once more united with Ptolemy and Seleucus in a common league against Demetrius, to which the accession of Pyrrhus was easily obtained, and early in the following spring Lysimachus invaded Macedonia on the one side, and Pyrrhus on the other. The success of their arms was owing not so much to their own exertions as to the disaffection of the Macedonian soldiers. Demetrius, abandoned by his own troops, was compelled to seek safety in flight, and the conquerors obtained undispute
for which he was sent, are also equally uncertain. Clinton (Fasti Hell. vol. iii. p. 482, note z) places the embassy a little before B. C. 302, since it was about this time that Seleucus concluded an alliance with Sandracottus ; but it is no where stated that it was through the means of Megasthenes that the alliance was concluded ; and as the latter resided some time at the court of Sandracottus, he may have been sent into India at a subsequent period. Since, however, Sandracottus died in B. C. 288, the mission of Megasthenes must be placed previous to that year. We have more certain information respecting the parts of India which Megasthenes visited. He entered the country through the district of the Pentapotamia, of the rivers of which he gave a full account (Arrian, Ind. cc. 4, 8, &c.), and proceeded thence by the royal road to Palibothra, but appears not to have visited any other parts of India. (Comp. Strab. xv. p.689.) Most modern writers, from the time of Robertson, have suppo
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
t is, however, certain from Appian (App. Mith. 10), that Nicomedes III., who was expelled by Mithridates, was the grandson of Prusias II.; nor is there any reasonable doubt that he was the same who bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans, and was consequently the last king of Bithynia. A passage of Appian (App. Mith. 7) which seems to assert the contrary, is certainly either erroneous or corrupt; and Syncellns (p. 276c.), who reckons eight kings of Bithynia, beginning with Zipoetes, probably included Socrates, the brother of Nicomedes III., in his enumeration. (See on this subject Eckhel, vol. ii. pp. 444, 445; Visconti, Iconographie Grecque, vol. ii. p.191; Orelli, Onomast. Tull. p. 420; and Clinton, F. H. vol. iii. p. 418-420.) Nicomedes III., as well as his father, takes on his coins the title of Epiphanes. They can be distinguished only by the difference of physiognomy, and by the dates, which refer to an era commencing B. C. 288, during the reign of Zipoetes [ZIPOETES]. [E.H.B]
er an Illyrian, and a third Lanassa, the daughter of Agathocles of Syracuse, who brought him the island of Corcyra as a dowry But Lanassa, offended with the attention which Pyrrhus paid to his barbarian wives, had withdrawn to her principality of Corcyra, which she now bestowed upon Demetrius together with her hand. Pyrrhus accordingly returned to Epeirus more incensed than ever against Demetrius. The latter had previously withdrawn into Macedonia. At the beginning of the following year, B. C. 288, Pyrrhus took advantage of a dangerous illness of Demetrius to invade Macedonia. He advanced as far as Edessa without meeting with any opposition ; but when Demetrius was able to put himself at the head of his troops, he drove his rival out of the country without difficulty. But as he had now formed the vast design of recovering tire whole of his father's dominions in Asia, he hastened to conclude a peace with Pyrrhus, in order to continue his preparations undisturbed. His old enemies, Sel
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