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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 61 61 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 6 6 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 3 3 Browse Search
Appian, The Foreign Wars (ed. Horace White) 2 2 Browse Search
Strabo, Geography 1 1 Browse Search
Demosthenes, Letters (ed. Norman W. DeWitt, Norman J. DeWitt) 1 1 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 8-10 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 1 1 Browse Search
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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
d for that purpose sailed down the Euphrates to inspect the canal called Pallacopas. On his return to Babylon, he found the preparations for the Arabian expedition nearly complete; but almost immediately afterwards he was attacked by a fever, probably brought on by his recent exertions in the marshy districts around Babylon, and aggravated by the quantity of wine he had drunk at a banquet given to his principal officers. He died after an illness of eleven days, in the month of May or June, B. C. 323. He died at the age of thirty-two, after a reign of twelve years and eight months. He appointed no one as his successor, but just before his death he gave his ring to Perdiccas. Roxana was with child at the time of his death, and afterwards bore a son, who is known by the name of Alexander Aegus. The history of Alexander forms an important epoch in the history of mankind. Unlike other Asiatic conquerors, his progress was marked by something more than devastation and ruin; at every step o
Alexander Iv. (*)Ale/candros), king of MACEDONIA, the son of Alexander the Great and Roxana, was born shortly after the death of his father, in B. C. 323. He was acknowledged as the partner of Philip Arrhidaeus in the empire, and was under the guardianship of Perdiccas, the regent, till the death of the latter in B. C. 321. He was then for a short time placed under the guardianship of Pithon and the general Arrhidaeus, and subsequently under that of Antipater, who conveyed him with his mother Roxana, and the king Philip Arrhidaeus and his wife to Macedonia in 320. (Diod. 18.36, 39.) On the death of Antipater in 319, the government fell into the hands of Polysperchon; but Eurydice, the wife of Philip Arrhidaeus, began to form a powerful party in Macedonia in opposition to Polysperchon; and Roxana, dreading her influence, fled with her son Alexander into Epeirus, where Olympias had lived for a long time. At the instigation of Olympias, Aeacides, king of Epeirus, made common cause with
Androcy'des (*)Androku/dhs), a Greek physician, who lived in the reign of Alexander the Great, B. C. 336-323. There is a story told of him by Pliny (Plin. Nat. 14.7), that he wrote a letter to that prince cautioning him against the immoderate use of wine, which he called "the blood of the earth." It is mentioned also by the same author (17.37.10), that he ordered his patients to eat a radish as a preservative against intoxication, from having observed (it is said) that the vine always turned away from a radish if growing near it. It is very possible that this Androcydes may be the same person who is mentioned by Theophrastus (Hist. Plant. 4.16 [al. 20] 20), and also by Athenaeus. (vi. p. 258b.) [W.A.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Anti'gonus the One-eyed (search)
Anti'gonus the One-eyed (*)Anti/gonos), king of ASIA, surnamed the One-eyed (Lucian, Macrob. 11; Plut. de Pueror. Educ. 14), was the son of Philip of Elymiotis. He was born about B. C. 382, and was one of the generals of Alexander the Great, and in the division of the empire after his death (B. C. 323), he received the provinces of the Greater Phrygia, Lycia, and Pamphylia. Perdiccas, who had been appointed regent, had formed the plan of obtaining the sovereignty of the whole of Alexander's dominions, and therefore resolved upon the ruin of Antigonus, who was likely to stand in the way of his ambitious projects. Perceiving the danger which threatened him, Antigonus fled with his son Demetrius to Antipater in Macedonia (321); but the death of Perdiccas in Egypt in the same year put an end to the apprehensions of Antigonus. Antipater was now declared regent; he restored to Antigonus his former provinces with the addition of Susiana, and gave him the commission of carrying on the war ag
ed by the king, B. C. 324, while Craterus, under whom the discharged veterans were sent home, was appointed to the regency in Macedonia. (Arr. vii. p. 155; Pseudo-Curt. 10.4.9, &c.; Just. 12.12.) The story which ascribes the death of Alexander, B. C. 323, to poison, and implicates Antipater and even Aristotle in the plot, is perhaps sufficiently refuted by its own intrinsic absurdity, and is set aside as false by Arrian and Plutarch. (Diod. 17.118; Paus. 8.18; Tac. Ann. 2.73; Curt. 10.10.14, &cc. pp. 753, 754, Demosth. p. 858; Paus. 7.10; Thirlw. Gr. Hist. vol. vii. p. 187, note 1; Böckh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, 1.7, 4.3.) Returning now to Macedonia, he gave his daughter Phila in marriage to Craterus, with whom, at the end of the year B. C. 323, he invaded the Aetolians, the only party in the Lamian war who had not yet submitted. (Diod. 18.24.) But the intelligence brought him by Antigonus of the treachery of Perdiccas, and of his intention of putting away Nicaea, Antipater's daughter
Anti'philus (*)Anti/filos), an ATHENIAN general, was appointed as the successor of Leosthenes in the Lamian war, B. C. 323, and gained a victory over Leonnatus. (Diod. 18.13-15 ; Plut. Phocion, 24.) [C.P.
Arcesila'us 3. A painter, the son of the sculptor Tisicrates, flourished about 280 or 270 B. C. (Plin. Nat. 35.40.42.) Pausanias (1.1.3) mentions a painter of the same name, whose picture of Leosthenes and his sons was to be seen in the Peiraeeus. Though Leosthenes was killed in the war of Athens against Lamia, B. C. 323, Sillig argues, that the fact of his sons being included in the picture favours the supposition that it was painted after his death, and that we may therefore safely refer the passages of Pausanias and of Pliny to the same person. (Catal. Artif s. v.
Archon (*)/Arxwn). 1. The Pellaean, appointed satrap of Babylonia after the death of Alexander, B. C. 323 (Justin, 13.4; Diod. 18.3), is probably the same as the son of Cleinias mentioned in the Indian expedition of Alexander. (Arrian, Ind. chap. 18
. (H. N. 30.53.) Nay, even the passage of Pliny has been wrongly understood by the biographers of Aristotle (by Stahr as well, i. p. 139); for, far from regarding Aristotle as guilty of such a crime, the Roman naturalist, who everywhere shews that he cherished the deepest respect for Aristotle, says, on the contrary, just the reverse,--that the rumour had been " mnagna cum infamia Aristotelis excogitatum." The movements which commenced in Grecce against Macedonia after Alexander's death, B. C. 323, endangered also the peace and security of Aristotle, who was regarded as a friend of Macedonia. To bring a political accusation against him was not easy, for Aristotle was so spotless in this respect, that not even his name is mentioned by Demosthenes, or any other contemporary orator, as implicated in those relations. He was accordingly accused of impiety (a)sebei/as) by the hierophant Eurymedon, whose accusation was supported by an Athenian of some note, named Demophilus. Such accusatio
daeus (*)Arridai=os) or ARIDAEUS (*)Aridai=os). 1. A half-brother of Alexander the Great, son of Philip and a female dancer, Philinna of Larissa, was of imbecile understanding, which was said to have been occasioned by a potion administered to him when a boy by the jealous Olympias. Alexander had removed Arrhidaeus from Macedonia, perhaps through fear of his mother Olympias, but had not entrusted him with any civil or military command. He was at Babylon at the time of Alexander's death, B. C. 323, and was elected king under the name of Philip. The young Alexander, the infant son of Roxana, who was born shortly afterwards, was associated with him in the government. [ALEXANDER IV., p. 122b.] In the following year, B. C. 322, Arrhidaeus married Eurydice [EURYDICE], and was from this time completely under the direction of his wife. On their return to Macedonia, Eurydice attempted to obtain the supreme power in opposition to Polysperchon. Roxana and her infant son fled to Epeirus, and O
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