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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 26 26 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 2 2 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2 2 Browse Search
Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 1 1 Browse Search
Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 1 1 Browse Search
Demosthenes, Speeches 41-50 1 1 Browse Search
Epictetus, Works (ed. George Long) 1 1 Browse Search
Aristotle, Politics 1 1 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 43-45 (ed. Alfred C. Schlesinger, Ph.D.) 1 1 Browse Search
Aristotle, Economics 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 356 BC or search for 356 BC in all documents.

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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Alexander Iii. or Alexander the Great (*)Ale/candros), king of MACEDONIA, surnamed the Great, was born at Pella, in the autumn of B. C. 356. He was the son of Philip II. and Olympias, and he inherited much of the natural disposition of both of his parents--the cool forethought and practical wisdom of his father, and the ardent enthusiasm and ungovernable passions of his mother. His mother belonged to the royal house of Epeirus, and through her he traced his descent from the great hero Achilles. His early education was committed to Leonidas and Lysimachus, the former of whom was a relation of his mother's, and the latter an Acarnanian. Leonidas early accustomed him to endure toil and hardship, but Lysimachus recommended himself to his royal pupil by obsequious flattery. But Alexander was also placed under the care of Aristotle, who acquired an influence over his mind and character, which is manifest to the latest period of his life. Aristotle wrote for his use a treatise on the art of
t philosophy, and looked upon the accomplished man of the world and the clever rhetorician as the true philosophers. On this occasion Aristotle published his first rhetorical writings. That during this time he continued to maintain his connexion with the Macedonian court, is intimated by his going on an embassy to Philip of Macedonia on some business of the Athenians. (D. L. 5.2.) Moreover, we have still the letter in which his royal friend announces to him the birth of his son Alexander. (B. C. 356; Gel. 9.3; Dion Chrysost. Orat. xix.) After the death of Plato, which occurred during the above-mentioned embassy of Aristotle (B. C. 347), the latter left Athens, though we do not exactly know for what reason. Perhaps he was offended by Plato's having appointed Speusippus as his successor in the Academy. (D. L. 5.2, 4.1.) At the same time, it is more probable that, after the notions of the ancient philosophers, he esteemed travels in foreign parts as a necessary completion of his educat
Artaba'zus 4. A Persian general, who was sent in B. C. 362, in the reign of Artaxerxes II., against the revolted Datames, satrap of Cappadocia, but was defeated by the bravery and resolution of the latter. (Diod. 15.91; comp. Thirlwall, Hist. of Greece, vi. p. 129.) In the reign of Artaxerxes III., Artabazus was satrap of western Asia, but in B. C. 356 he refused obedience to the king, which involved him in a war with the other satraps, who acknowledged the authority of Artaxerxes. He was at first supported by Chares, the Athenian, and his mercenaries, whom he rewarded very generously. Afterwards he was also supported by the Thebans, who sent him 5000 men under Pammenes. With the assistance of these and other allies, Artabazus defeated his enemies in two great battles. Artaxerxes, however, succeeded in depriving him of his Athenian and Boeotian allies, whereupon Artabazus was defeated by the king's general, Autophradates, and was even taken prisoner. The Rhodians, Mentor and Memnon,
time. The younger Carcinus was a con either of Theodectes or of Xenoeles: and if the latter statement be true, he is a grandson of Carcinus the elder. (Comp. Harpocrat. s. v. *Karki/nos.) He is in all probability the same as the one who spent a great part of his life at the court of Dionysius II. at Syracuse. (D. L. 2.7.) This supposition agrees with the statement of Suidas, according to whom Carcinus the son of Xenocles lived about B. C. 380; for Dionysius was expelled from Syracuse in B. C. 356. (Comp. Diod. 5.5, where Wesseling is thinking of the fictitious Carcinus of Agrigentum.) The tragedies which are referred to by the ancients under the name of Carcinus, probably all belong to the younger Carcinus. Suidas attributes to him 160 tragedies, but we possess the titles and fragments of nine only and some fragments of uncertain dramas. The following titles are known: Alope (Aristot. EN 7.7), Achilles (Athen. 5.189), Thyestes (Aristot. Poet. 16), Semele (Athen. 13.559), Amphiaraus
Censori'nus 1. C. Marcius Rutilus Censorinus, C. F. L. N., was the son of C. Marcius Rutilus, the first plebeian dictator (B. C. 356) and censor (B. C. 351). He was consul in B. C. 310 with Q. Fabius Maximus, and while his colleague was engaged in his brilliant campaign in Etruria, Rutilus conducted the war in Samnium and took the town of Allifae. He afterwards fought a battle with the Samnites, in which he was probably defeated; for the statement of Livy, that the battle was a drawn one, is almost outweighed by his confession, that the consul himself was wounded and a legate and several tribunes of the soldiers killed. (Liv. 9.33, 38; Diod. 20.27.) On the admission of the plebs to the priestly colleges by the Ogulnian law in B. C. 300, by which also the number of their members was increased, Rutilus was elected one of the pontiffs. (Liv. 10.9.) He was censor with P. Cornelius Arvina in 294 (Liv. 10.47), and a second time with Cn. Cornelius Blasio in 265, the only instance in which
with Athens for the possession of the Chersonesus, Cersobleptes appearing throughout as a mere cipher. (Dem. c. Aristocr. pp. 623, &c., 674, &c.) The peninsula seems to have been finally ceded to the Athenians in B. C. 357, though they did not occupy it with their settlers till 353 (Diod. 16.34); nor perhaps is the language of Isocrates (de Pac. p. 163d. mh\ ga\r oi)/esqe mh/te *Kersoble/pthn, k. t. l.) so decisive against this early date as it may appear at first sight, and as Clinton (on B. C. 356) seems to think it. (Comp. Thirlwall's Greece, vol. v. pp. 229, 244.) For some time after the cession of the Chersonesus, Cersobleptes continued to court assiduously the favour of the Athenians, being perhaps restrained from aggression by the fear of their squadron in the Hellespont; but on the death of Berisades, before 352, he conceived, or rather Charidemus conceived for him, the design of excluding the children of the deceased prince from their inheritance, and obtaining possession of
Chaeron (*Xai/rwn), a man of Megalopolis, who, shortly before the birth of Alexander the Great, B. C. 356, was sent by Philip to consult the Delphic oracle about the snake which he had seen with Olympias in her chamber. (Plut. Alex. 3.) It was perhaps this same Chaeron who, in the speech (pepi\ tw=n pro\s *)Ale/c. p. 214) attributed by some to Demosthenes, is mentioned as having been made tyrant of Pellene by Alexander (comp. Fabric. Bibl. Graec. b. ii. ch. 26), and of whom we read in Athenaeus (xi. p. 509) as having been a pupil both of Plato and Xenocrates. He is said to have conducted himself very tyranically at Pellene, banishing the chief men of the state, and giving their property and wives to their slaves. Athenaeus, in a cool and off-hand way of his own, speaks of his cruelty and oppression as the natural effect of Plato's principles in the " Republic" and the " Laws." [E.
to conciliate the oligarchs. (Diod. 15.95.) The necessary consequence was the loss of the island to the Athenians when the Social war broke out. In 358 Chares was sent to Thrace as general with full power, and obliged Charidemus to ratify the treaty which he had made with Athenodorus. [CHARIDEMUS.] In the ensuing year he was appointed to the conduct of the Social war, in the second campaign of which, after the death of Chabrias, Iphicrates and Timotheus were joined with him in the command, B. C. 356. According to Diodorus, his colleagues having refused, in consequence of a storm, to risk an engagement for which he was eager. he accused them to the people, and they were recalled and subsequently brought to trial. As C. Nepos tells it, Chares actually attacked the enemy in spite of the weather, was worsted, and, in order to screen himself, charged his colleagues with not supporting him. In the prosecution he was aided by Aristophon, the Azenian. (Diod. 16.7, 21; Nep. Tim. 3; Arist. Rhet
n of the pillars and the architrave. Of course the plan could not be extended after the erection of the pillars; and therefore, when Strabo (xiv. p.640) says, that the temple was enlarged by another architect, he probably refers to the building of the courts round it. It was finally completed by Demetrius and Paeonius of Ephesus, about 220 years after the foundations were laid ; but it was shortly afterwards burnt down by HEROSTRATUS on the same night in which Alexander the Great was born, B. C. 356. It was rebuilt with greater magnificence by the contributions of all the states of Asia Minor. It is said, that Alexander the Great offered to pay the cost of the restoration on the condition that his name should be inscribed on the temple, but that the Ephesians evaded the offer by replying, that it was not right for a god to make offerings to gods. The architect of the new temple was DEINOCRATES. The edifice has now entirely disappeared, except some remnants of its foundations. Though P
afterwards joined in it under Phocion. (Dem. de Pace, p. 58, c. Meid. p. 558.) In the same year he delivered the oration peri\ summorw=n, in which he successfully dissuaded the Athenians from their foolish scheme of undertaking a war against Persia (Dem. de Rhod. lib. p. 192), and in B. C. 353 he spoke for the Megalopolitans (u(pe\r *Megalopoltw=n), and opposed the Spartans, who had solicited the aid of Athens to reduce Megalopolis. The one hundred and sixth Olympiad, or the period from B. C. 356, is the beginning of the career of Demosthenes as one of the leading statesmen of Athens, and henceforth the history of his life is closely mixed up with that of his country; for there is no question affecting the public good in which he did not take the most active part, and support with all the power of his oratory what he considered right and beneficial to the state. King Philip of Macedonia had commenced in B. C. 358 his encroachments upon the possessions of Athens in the north of the
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