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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 18 18 Browse Search
Xenophon, Hellenica (ed. Carleton L. Brownson) 9 9 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 2 2 Browse Search
Titus Livius (Livy), Ab Urbe Condita, books 5-7 (ed. Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D.) 2 2 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 1 1 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1 1 Browse Search
Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 1 1 Browse Search
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Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 1 1 Browse Search
Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 378 BC or search for 378 BC in all documents.

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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Archida'mus Iii. king of Sparta, 20th of the Eurypontids, was son of Agesilaus II. We first hear of him as interceding with his father in behalf of Sphodrias, to whose son Cleonymus he was attached, and who was thus saved, through the weak affection of Agesilaus, from the punishment which his unwarrantable invasion of Attica had deserved, B. C. 378. (Xen. Hell. 5.4. §§ 25-33 ; Diod. 15.29; Plut. Ages. 100.25; comp. Plut. Pel. 100.14.) In B. C. 371, he was sent, in consequence of the illness of Agesilaus (Xen. Hell. 5.4.58; Plut. Ages. 100.27), to succour the defeated Spartans at Leuctra; but Jason of Pherae had already mediated between them and the Thebans, and Archidanmus, meeting his countrymen on their return at Aegosthena in Megara, dismissed the allies, and led the Spartans home. (Xen. Hell. 6.4. §§ 17-26; comp. Diod. 15.54, 55; Wess. ad loc.; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. v. p. 78, note.) In 367, with the aid of the auxiliaries furnished by Dionysius I. of Syracuse, he defeated the
l. 4.5.19.) In B. C. 388, on his way to Cyprus to aid Evagoras against the Persians, Chabrias landed in Aegina, and gained by an ambuscade a decisive victory over the Spartans, who lost their commander Gorgopas in the engagement. The consequence of his success was, that the Athenians were delivered for a time from the annoyance to which they had been subjected from Aegina by the Spartans and Aeginetans. (Xen. Hell. 5.1.10, &c.; comp. 4.8.24; Polyaen. 3.10; Dem. c. Lept. p. 479, ad fin.) In B. C. 378 he was joined with Timotheus and Callistratus in the command of the forces which were despatched to the aid of Thebes against Agesilaus, and it was in the course of this campaign that he adopted for the first time that manœuvre for which he became so celebrated,-- ordering, his men to await the attack with their spears pointed against the enemy and their shields resting on one knee. The attitude was a formidable one, and the Spartans did not venture to charge. A statue was afterwards erect
Cleo'nymus 2. A Spartan, son of Sphodrias, was much beloved by Archidamus, the son of Agesilaus. When Sphodrias was brought to trial for his incursion into Attica in B. C. 378, the tears of Cleonymus prevailed on the prince to intercede with Agesilaus on his behalf. The king, to gratify his son, used all his influence to save the accused, who was accordingly acquitted. Cleonymus was extremely grateful, and assured Archidamus that he would do his best to give him no cause to be ashamed of their friendship. He kept his promise well, acting ever up to the Spartan standard of virtue, and fell at Leuctra, B. C. 371, bravely fighting in the foremost ranks. (Xen. Hell. 5.4. §§ 25-33; Plut. Ages. 25, 28
Etymocles (*)Etumoklh=s) was one of the three Spartan envoys who, happening to be at Athens at the time of the incursion of Sphodrias into Attica (B. C. 378), were arrested by the Athenians on suspicion of having been privy to the attempt Their assurances, however, to the contrary were believed, and they were allowed to depart. Etymocles is mentioned by Xenophon and Plutarch as a friend of Agesilaus, and we hear of him again as one of the ambassadors sent to negotiate an alliance with Athens in B. C. 369. (Xen. Hell. 5.4. §§ 22, 23, 32, 6.5.33; Plut. Ages. 25.) [
Go'rgidas (*Gorgi/das), a Theban, of the party of Epameinondas and Pelopidas. When the first step had been taken towards the recovery of the Cadmeia from the Spartan garrison in B. C. 379, and Archias and Leontiades were slain, Epameinondas and Gorgidas came forward and joined Pelopidas and his confederates, solemnly introducing them into the Theban assembly, and calling on the people to fight for their country and their gods. (Plut. Pel. 12.) In the next year, B. C. 378, Gorgidas and Pelopidas were Boeotarchs together, and Plutarch ascribes to them the plan of tampering with Sphodrias, the Spartan harmost, whom Cleombrotus had left at Thespiae, to induce him to invade Attica, and so to embroil the Athenians with Lacedaemon. (Plut. Pel. 14, Ages. 24; Xen. Hell. 5.4. §§ 20, &c.; comp. Diod. 15.29.) [
ully sacrificed all that yet remained of his fortune, for he sent the patriots 2000 drachmas and 200 shields, and engaged a band of 302 mercenaries. Thrasybulus procured him the Athenian franchise, as a reward for his generosity; but Archinus afterwards induced the people to declare it void, because it had been conferred without a probuleuma; and Lysias henceforth lived at Athens as an isoteles, occupying himself, as it appears, solely with writing judicial speeches for others, and died in B. C. 378, at the age of eighty. (Dionys. Lys. 12; Plut. l.c. p. 836; Phot. l.c. p. 490.) Works Lysias was one of the most fertile writers of orations that Athens ever produced, for there were in antiquity no less than 425 orations which were current under his name, though the ancient critics were of opinion that only 230 of them were genuine productions of Lysias. (Dionys. Lys. 17; Plut. l.c. p. 836; Phot. l.c. p. 488; Cic. Brut. 16.) Of these orations 35 only are extant, and even among these so
Maceri'nus 5. L. Geganius Macerinus, consular tribune B. C. 378. (Liv. 6.31; Diod. 15.57.)
Medulli'nus 13. SP. FURIUS SP. F. L. N. MEDULLINUS, brother of the preceding, was military tribune B. C. 378. He commanded in the war with the Volscians of Antium. (Liv. 6.31.) [W.B.D]
Ocellus (*)/Wkellos, *)/Wkullos), or OCYLLUS, a Lacedaemonian, was one of the three ambassadors who happened to be at Athens when Sphodrias invaded Attica, in B. C. 378. They were apprehended as having been privy to his design, but were released on their pointing out the groundlessness of the suspicion, and on their assurances that the Spartan government would be found to look with disapproval on the attempt of Sphodrias. In B. C. 369, we find Ocellus again at Athens, as one of the ambassadors who were negotiating an alliance between the Athenians and Spartans against Thebes. (Xen. Hell. 5.4. §§ 22, &c., 6.5. §§ 33, &c.; comp. Diod. 15.29, 63 ; Plut. Pel. 14.)
prise by which democracy was restored to Thebes, and which Plutarch tells us the Greeks called "sister to that of Thrasybulus." In the execution of it also he bore a prominent part: it was by his hand that LEONTIADES fell; and, being made Boeotarch with Mellon and Charon, he succeeded in gaining possession of the Cadmeia before the arrival of succours from Sparta (B. C. 379). From this period until his death there was not a year in which he was not entrusted with some important command. In B. C. 378, he and Gorgidas, his fellow-Boeotarch, induced Sphodrias, the Spartan harmost at Thespiae, to invade Attica, and thus succeeded in embroiling Athens with Lacedaemon [GORGIDAS]; and in the campaigns against the Lacedaemonians in that and the two following years he was actively occupied, gradually teaching his countrymen to cope fearlessly with the forces of Sparta, which had ever been deemed so formidable. The successes occasionally gained by the Thebans during this period (slight in thems
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