king of Sparta, 20th of the Eurypontids, was son of Agesilaus II. We first hear of him as interceding with his father in behalf of Sphodrias, to whose son Cleonymus he was attached, and who was thus saved, through the weak affection of Agesilaus, from the punishment which his unwarrantable invasion of Attica had deserved, B. C. 378. (Xen. Hell. 5.4. §§ 25-33 ; Diod. 15.29; Plut. Ages. 100.25; comp. Plut. Pel. 100.14.) In B. C. 371, he was sent, in consequence of the illness of Agesilaus (Xen. Hell. 5.4.58; Plut. Ages. 100.27), to succour the defeated Spartans at Leuctra; but Jason of Pherae had already mediated between them and the Thebans, and Archidanmus, meeting his countrymen on their return at Aegosthena in Megara, dismissed the allies, and led the Spartans home. (Xen. Hell. 6.4. §§ 17-26; comp. Diod. 15.54, 55; Wess. ad loc.; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. v. p. 78, note.) In 367, with the aid of the auxiliaries furnished by Dionysius I. of Syracuse, he defeated the
l. 4.5.19.) In B. C. 388, on his way to Cyprus to aid Evagoras against the Persians, Chabrias landed in Aegina, and gained by an ambuscade a decisive victory over the Spartans, who lost their commander Gorgopas in the engagement.
The consequence of his success was, that the Athenians were delivered for a time from the annoyance to which they had been subjected from Aegina by the Spartans and Aeginetans. (Xen. Hell. 5.1.10, &c.; comp. 4.8.24; Polyaen. 3.10; Dem. c. Lept. p. 479, ad fin.) In B. C. 378 he was joined with Timotheus and Callistratus in the command of the forces which were despatched to the aid of Thebes against Agesilaus, and it was in the course of this campaign that he adopted for the first time that manœuvre for which he became so celebrated,-- ordering, his men to await the attack with their spears pointed against the enemy and their shields resting on one knee.
The attitude was a formidable one, and the Spartans did not venture to charge.
A statue was afterwards erect