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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 24 24 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 4 4 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 2 2 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 2 2 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 2 2 Browse Search
Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 2 2 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 2 2 Browse Search
Xenophon, Minor Works (ed. E. C. Marchant, G. W. Bowersock, tr. Constitution of the Athenians.) 1 1 Browse Search
Plato, Hippias Major, Hippias Minor, Ion, Menexenus, Cleitophon, Timaeus, Critias, Minos, Epinomis 1 1 Browse Search
Lysias, Speeches 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 413 BC or search for 413 BC in all documents.

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Agatharchus (*)Aga/qarxos), a Syracusan, who was placed by the Syracusans over a fleet of twelve ships in B. C. 413, to visit their allies and harass the Athenians. He was afterwards, in the same year, one of the Syracusan commanders in the decisive battle fought in the harbour of Syracuse. (Thuc. 7.25, 70; Diod. 13.13
ensued, in which the Spartans were victorious. This was one of the most important battles ever fought between Grecian states. (Thuc. 5.71-73.) In B. C. 417, when news reached Sparta of the counter-revolution at Argos, in which the oligarchical and Spartan faction was overthrown, an army was sent there under Agis. He was unable to restore the defeated party, but he destroyed the long walls which the Argives had begun to carry down to the sea, and took Hysiae. (Thuc. 5.83.) In the spring of B. C. 413, Agis entered Attica with a Peloponnesian army, and fortified Deceleia, a steep eminence about 15 miles northeast of Athens (Thuc. 7.19, 27); and in the winter of the same year, after the news of the disastrous fate of the Sicilian expedition had reached Greece, he marched northwards to levy contributions on the allies of Sparta, for the purpose of constructing a fleet. While at Deceleia he acted in a great measure independently of the Spartan government, and received embassies as well fro
Alexarchus 2. A Corinthian, who, while the Lacedaemonians were fortifying Deceleia in Attica, B. C. 413, and were sending an expedition to Sicily, was entrusted with the command of 600 hoplites, with whom he joined the Sicilian expedition. (Thuc. 7.19.) [L.S]
Amorges 3. The bastard son of Pissuthus, who revolted in Caria about B. C. 413. The Peloponnesians assisted Tissaphernes in putting down this revolt, and took Iasus, B. C. 412, which was held by Amorges. The latter fell into their hands on the capture of the place, and was surrendered by them to Tissaphernes. (Thuc. 8.5, 19, 28, 54.)
Archela'us (*)Arxe/laos), king of MACEDONIA from B. C. 413 to 399. According to Plato, he was an illegitimate son of Perdiccas II. and obtained the throne by the murder of his uncle Alcetas, his cousin, and his half-brother (Plat. Gory. p. 471; Athen. 5.217d.; Ael. VH 12.43), further strengthening himself by marriage with Cleopatra, his father's widow. (Plat. Gory. p. 471c.; Aristot. Pol. 5.10, ed. Bekk.) Nor does there appear to be any valid reason for rejecting this story in spite of the silence of Thueydides, who had no occasion to refer to it, and of the remarks of Athenaeus, who ascribes it to Plato's love of scandal. (Thuc.2.100; Athen. 11.506a. e.; Mitford, Gr. Hist. ch. 34, sec. 1; Thirlwall, Gr. Hist. vol. v. p. 157.) In B. C. 410 Pydna revolted from Archelaus, but he reduced it with the aid of an Athenian squadron under Theramenes, and the better to retain it, in subjection, rebuilt it at a distance of about two miles from the coast. (Diod. 13.49; Wess. ad loc.) In another
Artas or ARTUS (*)/Artas Thue.; *)/Artos, Demetr. and Suidas), a prince of the Messapians in the time of the Peloponnesian war. Thucydides (7.33) relates that Demosthenes in his passage to Sicily (B. C. 413) obtained from him a force of 150 dartmen, and renewed with him an old-existing friendly connexion. This connexion with Athens is explained by the long enmity, which, shortly before, was at its height, between the Messapians and the Lacedaemonian Tarentum. (Comp. Niebuhr, i. p. 148.) The visit of Demosthenes is, probably, what the comic poet Demetrius alluded to in the lines quoted from his " Sicily" by Athenaeus (iii. p. 108), who tells us further, that Polemon wrote a book about him. Possibly, however, as Polemon and Demetrius both flourished about 300 B. C., this may be a second Artas. The name is found also in Hesychius, who quotes from the lines of Demetrius, and in Suidas, who refers to Polemon. [A.H.C]
Calli'stratus (*Kalli/stratos), historical. 1. Son of Empedus, is mentioned by Pausanias as the commander of a body of Athenian cavalry in Sicily during the expedition of Nicias. When his countrymen were nearly cut to pieces at the river Assinarus, B. C. 413, Callistratus forced his way through the enemy and led his men safe to Catana. Thence returning to Syracuse, he attacked those who were plundering the Athenian camp, and fell, selling his life dearly. (Paus. 7.16; comp. Thuc. 7.84, 85
Cha'ricles (*Xariklh=s), an Athenian demagogue, son of Apollodorus, was one of the commissioners (*Zhthtai/) appointed to investigate the affair of the mutilation of the Hermae in B. C. 415, on which occasion he inflamed the passions of the with a plot for the destruction of the democracy. (Thuc. 6.27-29, 53, 60, &c.; Andoc. de Myst. p. 6.) In B. C. 413 he was sent in command of a squadron round the Peloponnesus together with Demosthenes, and succeeded with him in fortifying a small peninsula on the coast of Laconia, to serve as a position for annoying the enemy. (Thuc. 7.20, 26.) In B. C. 404 he was appointed one of the thirty tyrants; nor did he relinquish under the new government the coarse arts of the demagogue which had distinguished him under the democracy, violent and tyrannical measures. We may conelude, that he was one of the remnant of the Thirty who withdrew to Eleusis on the establishment of the council of Ten, and who, according to Xenophon, were treacherously murdered i
Cossus 5. A. Cornelius Cossus, A. F. M. N., brother of No. 4, consul in B. C. 413 with L. Furius Medullinus. (Liv. 4.51; Diod. 13.43.)
the late excavations at Athens, there was discovered in the wall of a cistern, before the western frontside of the Parthenon, the following inscription, which is doubtless the identical basement of the expiring warrior :--*H*E*R*M*O*L*U*K*O*S *D*I*E*I*T*R*E*F*O*U*S *A*P*A*R*X*E*N. *K*R*E*S*I*L*A*S *E*P*O*E*S*E*N. By this we learn, that the rival of Phidias was called Cresilas, as two manuscripts of Pliny exhibit, and that the statue praised by Pliny is the same as that which Pausanias (1.23.2) describes at great length. It was an excellent work of bronze, placed in the eastern portico within the Propylaea, and dedicated by Hermolycus to the memory of his father, Diitrephes, who fell pierced with arrows, B. C. 413, at the head of a body of Thracians, near Mycalessos in Boeotia. (Thuc. 7.29, 30.) Besides these two celebrated works, Cresilas executed a statue of Pericles the Olympian, from which, perhaps, the bust in the Vatican is a copy. (Ross, Kunstblatt, 1840, No. 12 and 38.) [L.U]
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