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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 73 73 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 9 9 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 6 6 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 6 6 Browse Search
Diodorus Siculus, Library 6 6 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 4 4 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 3 3 Browse Search
Plato, Hippias Major, Hippias Minor, Ion, Menexenus, Cleitophon, Timaeus, Critias, Minos, Epinomis 2 2 Browse Search
Demosthenes, Speeches 11-20 2 2 Browse Search
Xenophon, Anabasis (ed. Carleton L. Brownson) 2 2 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 480 BC or search for 480 BC in all documents.

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s, dressed in female attire, who slew the Persians. As the Persians did not return, Megabazus sent Bubares with some troops into Macedonia; but Alexander escaped the danger by giving his sister Gygaea in marriage to the Persian general. According to Justin, Alexander succeeded his father in the kingdom soon after these events. (Hdt. 5.17-21, 8.136 ; Justin, 7.2-4.) In B. C. 492, Macedonia was obliged to submit to the Persian general Mardonius (Hdt. 6.44); and in Xerxes' invasion of Greece (B. C. 480), Alexander accompanied the Persian army. He gained the confidence of Mardonius, and was sent by him to Athens after the battle of Salamis, to propose peace to the Athenians, which he strongly recommended, under the conviction that it was impossible to contend with the Persians. He was unsuccessful in his mission ; but though he continued in the Persian army, he was always secretly inclined to the cause of the Greeks, and informed them the night before the battle of Plataeae of the intenti
Amei'nias (*)Ameini/as), a younger brother of Aeschylus, of the Attic demos of Pallene according to Herodotus (8.84, 93), or of that of Decelea according to Plutarch (Plut. Them. 4), distinguished himself at the battle of Salamis (B. C. 480) by making the first attack upon the Persian ships, and also by his pursuit of Artemisia. He and Eumenes were judged to have been the bravest on this occasion among all the Athenians. (Herod., Plut. ll. cc. ; Diod. 11.27.) Aelian mentions (V. H. 5.19), that Ameinias prevented the condemnation of his brother Aeschylus by the Areiopagus. [AESCHYLUS, p. 41a
Amyclaeus (*)Amuklai=os), a Corinthian sculptor, who, in conjunction with Diylius, executed in bronze a group which the Phocians dedicated at Delphi, after their victory over the Thessalians at the beginning of the Persian war, B. C. 480. (Paus. 10.1.4, 13.4; Hdt. 8.27.) The subject of this piece of sculpture was the contest of Heracles with Apollo for the sacred tripod. Heracles and Apollo were represented as both having hold of the tripod, while Leto and Artemis supported Apollo, and Heracles was encouraged by Athene. The legend to which the group referred is related by Pausanias (10.13.4); the reason for such a subject being chosen by the Phocians on this occasion, seems to be their own connexion with Apollo as guardians of the Delphic oracle, and, on the other hand, because the Thessalian chiefs were Heracleidae, and their war-cry "Athene Itonia." (Müller, Archäol. der Kunst, § 89, an. 3.) The attempt of Heracles to carry off the tripod seems to have been a favourite subject with
Anaxa'goras (*)Anacago/ras), of Aegina, a sculptor, flourished about B. C. 480, and executed the statue of Jupiter in bronze set up at Olympia by the states which had united in repelling the invasion of Xerxes. (Paus. 5.23.2.) He is supposed to be the same person as the sculptor mentioned in an epigram by Anacreon (Anthol. Graec. i. p. 55, No. 6, Jacobs), but not the same as the writer on scene-painting mentioned by Vitruvius. [AGATHARCHUS.] [P.
and as having been his own teacher. In the other, he congratulates Pythagoras on his removal to Crotona from Samos, while he was himself at the mercy of the tyrants of Miletus, and was looking forward with fear to the approaching war with the Persians, in which he foresaw that the Ionians must be subdued. (D. L. 2.3, &c.) There is no safe testimony as to the exact periods of the birth and death of Anaximenes : but since there is sufficient evidence that he was the teacher of Anaxagoras, B. C. 480, and he was in repute in B. C. 544, he must have lived to a great age. (Strab. xiv. p.645; Cic. de Nat. Deor. 1.11 ; Origen, vol. iv. p. 238.) The question is discussed by Clinton in the Philological Museum. (Vol. i. p. 86, &c.) Like the other early Greek philosophers, he employed himself in speculating upon the origin, and accounting for the phenomena, of the universe: and as Thales held water to be the material cause out of which the world was made, so Anaximenes considered air to be t
A'ntiphon (*)Antifw=n). 1. The most ancient among the ten Attic orators contained in the Alexandrine canon, was a son of Sophilus the Sophist, and born at Rhamnus in Attica in B. C. 480. (Plut. Vit. X. Orat. p. 832b.; Philostrat. Vit. Soph. 1.15.1; Phot. Cod. p. 485; Suid. s.v. Eudoc. p. 59.) He was a man of eminent talent and a firm character (Thuc. 8.68; Plut. Nic. 6), and is said to have been educated partly by his father and partly by Pythodorus, while according to others he owed his education to none but himself. When he was a young man, the fame of Gorgias was at its height. The object of Gorgias' sophistical school of oratory was more to dazzle and captivate the hearer by brilliancy of diction and rhetorical artifices than to produce a solid conviction based upon sound arguments; it was, in short, a school for show-speeches, and the practical purposes of oratory in the courts of justice and the popular assembly lay beyond its sphere. Antiphon perceived this deficiency, and f
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Archaeana'ctidae (search)
Archaeana'ctidae (*)Arxaianakti/dai), the name of a race of kings who reigned in the Cimmerian Bosporus forty-two years,, B. C. 480-438. (Diod. 12.31, with Wesseling's note
Ariabignes (*)Ariabi/gnhs), the son of Dareius, and one of the commanders of the fleet of his brother Xerxes, fell in the battle of Salamis, B. C. 480. (Hdt. 7.97, 8.89.) Plutarch calls him (Them. 100.14) Ariamenes, and speaks of him as a brave man and the justest of the brothers of Xerxes. The same writer relates (de Fratern. Am. p. 448; comp. Apophth. p. 173), that this Ariamenes (called by Justin, 2.10, Artemenes) laid claim to the throne on the death of Dareius, as the eldest of his sons, but was opposed by Xerxes, who maintained that he had a right to the crown as the eldest of the sons born after Dareius had become king. The Persians appointed Artabanus to decide the dispute; and upon his declaring in favour of Xerxes, Ariamenes immediately saluted his brother as king, and was treated by him with great respect. According to Herodotus (7.2), who calls the eldest son of Dareius, Artabazanes, this dispute took place in the life-time of Dareiu
Arido'lis (*)Ari/dwlis), tyrant of Alabanda in Caria, accompanied Xerxes in his expedition against Greece, and was taken by the Greeks off Artemisium, B. C. 480, and sent to the isthmus of Corinth in chains. (Hdt. 7.195
Artaba'zus 2. A distinguished Persian, a son of Pharnaces, who lived in the reign of Xerxes. In the expedition of this king to Greece, B. C. 480, Artabazus commanded the Parthians and Choasmians. (Hdt. 7.66.) When Xerxes quitted Greece, Artabazus accompanied him as far as the Hellespont, and then returned with his forces to Pallene. As Potidaea and the other towns of Pallene had revolted from the king after the battle of Salamis, Artabazus determined to reduce them. He first laid siege to Olynthus, which he took; he butchered the inhabitants whom he had compelled to quit the town, and gave the place and the town to the Chalcidians. After this Artabazus began the siege of Potidaea, and endeavoured to gain his end by bribes; but the treachery was discovered and his plans thwarted. The siege lasted for three months, and when at last the town seemed to be lost by the low waters of the sea, which enabled his troops to approach the walls from the sea-side, an almost wonderful event saved i
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