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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 63 63 Browse Search
Frank Frost Abbott, Commentary on Selected Letters of Cicero 13 13 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, Letters to Atticus (ed. L. C. Purser) 8 8 Browse Search
Frank Frost Abbott, Commentary on Selected Letters of Cicero 5 5 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares (ed. L. C. Purser) 5 5 Browse Search
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome 4 4 Browse Search
E. T. Merrill, Commentary on Catullus (ed. E. T. Merrill) 3 3 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War 3 3 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, Letters to and from Quintus (ed. L. C. Purser) 2 2 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 2 2 Browse Search
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which were directed against Pompey, who was purchasing votes for Afranius. The political opinions of Ahenobarbus coincided with those of Cato; he was throughout his life one of the strongest supporters of the aristocratical party. He took an active part in opposing the measures of Caesar and Pompey after their coalition, and in 59 was accused by Vettius, at the instigation of Caesar, of being an accomplice to the pretended conspiracy against the life of Pompey. Ahenobarbus was praetor in B. C. 58, and proposed an investigation into the validity of the Julian laws of the preceding year; but the senate dared not entertain his propositions. He was candidate for the consulship of 55, and threatened that he would in his consulship carry into execution the measures he had proposed in his praetorship, and deprive Caesar of his province. He was defeated, however, by Pompey and Crassus, who also became candidates, and was driven from the Campus Martius on the day of election by force of arms
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), Androni'cus of RHODES (search)
Androni'cus of RHODES (*)Andro/nikos), of RHODES, a Peripatetic philosopher, who is reckoned as the tenth of Aristotle's successors, was at the head of the Peripatetic school at Rome, about B. C. 58, and was the teacher of Boethus of Sidon, with whom Strabo studied. (Strab. xiv. pp. 655, 757; Ammon. in Aristot. Categ. p. 8a., ed. Ald.) We know little more of the life of Andronicus, but he is of special interest in the history of philosophy, from the statement of Plutarch (Plut. Sull. 100.26), that he published a new edition of the works of Aristotle and Theophrastus, which formerly belonged to the library of Apellicon, and were brought to Rome by Sulla with the rest of Apellicon's library in B. C. 84. Tyrannio commenced this task, but apparently did not do much towards it. (Comp. Porphyr. vit. Plotin. 100.24; Boethius, ad Aristot. de Interpret. p. 292, ed. Basil. 1570.) The arrangement which Andronicus made of Aristotle's writings seems to be the one which forms the basis of our prese
Ariovistus a German chief, who engaged in war against C. Julius Caesar in Gaul, B. C. 58. For some time before that year, Gaul had been distracted by the quarrels and wars of two parties, the one headed by the Aedui (in the modern Burgundy), the other by the Arverni (Auvergne), and Sequani (to the W. of Jura). The latter called in the aid of the Germans, of whom at first about 15,000 crossed the Rhine, and their report of the wealth and fertility of Gaul soon attracted large bodies of fresh invaders. The number of the Germans in that country at length amounted to 120,000 : a mixed multitude, consisting of members of the following tribes :--the Harudes, Marcomanni, Triboci, Vangiones, Nemetes, Sedusii, and Suevi, most of whom had lately occupied the country stretching from the right bank of the Rhine to the Danube, and northwards to the Riesengebirge and Erzgebirge, or even beyond them. At their head was Ariovistus, whose name is supposed to have been Latinized from Heer, " a host," an
e Mithridatic war. From this time, he became one of Caesar's most intimate friends, and accompanied him to Spain in B. C. 61, in the capacity of praefectus fabrum, when Caesar went into that province after his praetorship. Soon after his return to Rome, the first triumvirate was formed, B. C. 60; and though he was ostensibly the friend both of Pompey and Caesar, he seems to have attached himself more closely to the interests of the latter than of the former. On Caesar's departure to Gaul in B. C. 58, Balbus again received the appointment of praefectus fabrum, and from this time to the breaking out of the civil war, he passed his time alternately in Gaul and at Rome, but principally at the latter. He was the manager and steward of Caesar's private property in the city, and a great part of the Gallic booty passed through his hands. But his increasing wealth and influence raised him many enemies among the nobles, who were still more anxious to ruin him, as he was the favourite of the triu
Bereni'ce 5. Daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, and eldest sister of the famous Cleopatra (Strab. xii. p.558), was placed on the throne by the Alexandrines when they drove out her father, B. C. 58. (D. C. 39.12, &c.; Liv. Epit. 104; Plut. Cat. Mi. 35; Strab. xvii. p.796.) She married first Seleucus Cybiosactes, brother of Antiochus XIII. (Asiaticus) of Syria, who had some claim to the throne of Egypt through his mother Selene, the sister of Lathyrus. Berenice, however, was soon disgusted with the sordid character of Seleucus, and caused him to be put to death. (Strab. l.c.; D. C. 39.57; comp. Sueton. Vespas. 19.) She next married Archelaus, whom Pompey had made priest and king of Comana in Pontus, or, according to another account, in Cappadocia; but, six months after this, Auletes was restored to his kingdom by the Romans under Gabinius, and Archelaus and Berenice were slain, B. C. 55. (Liv. Epit. 105; D. C. 39.55-58; Strab. xvii. p.796, xii. p. 558; Hirt. de Bell. Alex. 66; Plut. Ant. 3; c
Brogita'rus a Gallo-Grecian, a son-in-law of king Deiotarus. He was an unworthy and nefarious person, who has become known only through the fact, that P. Clodius, in his tribuneship, B. C. 58, sold to him, by a lex tribunicia, for a large sum of money, the office of high priest of the Magna Mater at Pessinus, and the title of king. (Cic. pro Sest. 26, de Harusp. Resp. 13, coimp. ad Q. Fratr. 2.9.) [L.S]
shewed that he possessed, and also by the ambition of subduing for ever that nation which had once sacked Rome, and which had been, from the earliest times, more or less an object of dread to the Roman state. The consuls of the following year (B. C. 58), L. Calpurnius Piso and A. Gabinius, were devoted to Caesar's interests; but among the praetors, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus and C. Memmius attempted to invalidate the acts of Caesar's consulship, but without success. Caesar remained a short time iconsuls Pompey and Crassus, and the other prolonged Caesar's provincial government for five additional years. By the law of Vatinius, passed in B. C. 59, Gaul and Illyricum were assigned to Caesar for five years, namely, from the 1st of January, B. C. 58 to the end of December, B. C. 54 ; and now, by the law of Trebonius, the provinces were continued to him for five years more, namely, from the 1st of January, B. C. 53 to the end of the year 49. In B. C. 55, Caesar left Italy earlier than usua
Calpu'rnia 2. The daughter of L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, consul in B. C. 58, and the last wife of the dictator Caesar, whom he married in B. C. 59. (Suet. Jul. 21; Plut. Caes. 14, Pomp. 47, Cat. Min. 33; Appian, App. BC 2.14; Caes. Gal. 1.12.) Calpurnia seems not to have intermeddled in political affairs, and to have borne quietly the favours which her husband bestowed upon Cleopatra, when she came to Rome in B. C. 46. The reports that had got abroad respecting the conspiracy against Caesar's life filled Calpurnia with the liveliest apprehensions; she was haunted by dreams in the night, and entreated her husband, but in vain, not to leave home on the fatal Ides of March, B. C. 44. (Appian, App. BC 2.115; D. C. 44.17; Vell. 2.57; Suet. Jul. 81; Plut. Caes. 63.)
Calve'ntius an Insubrian Gaul, of the town of Placentia, and a merchant, whose daughter married L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, the father of L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, consul in B. C. 58. In his speech against the latter, Cicero upbraids him with the low origin of his mother, and calls him Caesoninus Semiplacentinus Calventius (in Pison, 6, 23; Ascon. in Pison, p. 5, ed. Orelli ; comp. Cic. de prove. Cons. 4, pro Sext. 9); and in a letter to his brother Quintus (3.1.4), Piso is also meant by the name of Calventius Marius.
pleased. The rabble were infuriated by the incessant harangues of their tribune; nothing was to be hoped from Crassus; the good offices of Caesar had been already rejected; and Pompey, the last and only safeguard, contrary to all expectations, and in violation of the most solemn engagements, kept aloof, and from real or pretended fear of some outbreak refused to interpose. Upon this, Cicero, giving way to despair, resolved to yield to the storm, and quitting Rome at the beginning of April, (B. C. 58), reached Brundisium about the middle of the month. From thence he crossed over to Greece, and taking up his residence at Thessalonica, where he was hospitably received by Plancius, quaestor of Macedonia, remained at that place until the end of November, when he removed to Dyrrachium. His correspondence during the whole of this period presents the melancholy picture of a mind crushed and paralyzed by a sudden reverse of fortune. Never did divine philosophy fail more signally in procuring c
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