（*)Ale/candros), the eldest son of ARISTOBULUS II., king of Judaea, was taken prisoner, with his father and brother, by Pompey, on the capture of Jerusalem (B. C. 63), but made his escape as they were being conveyed to Rome. In B. C. 57, he appeared in Judaea, raised an army of 10,000 foot and 1500 horse, and fortified Alexandreion and other strong posts. Hyrcanus applied for aid to Gabinius, who brought a large army against Alexander, and sent M. Antonius with a body of troops in advance.
In a battle fought near Jerusalem, Alexander was defeated with great loss, and took refuge in the fortress of Alexandreion, which was forthwith invested. Through the mediation of his mother he was permitted to depart, on condition of surrendering all the fortresses still in his power.
In the following year, during the expedition of Gabinius into Egypt, Alexander again excited the Jews to revolt, and collected an army.
He massacred all the Romans who fell in his way, and besieged the rest,
to save them from the vengeance of the Pharisees. (J. AJ 13.16, 14.1.2; Bell. Jud. 1.5, 6.1.) In B. C. 65 Judaea was invaded by Aretas, king of Arabia Petraea, with whom, at the instigation of Antipater the Idumaean, Hyrcanus had taken refuge.
By him Aristobulus was defeated in a battle and besieged in Jerusalem but Aretas was obliged to raise the siege by Scaurus and Gabinius, Pompey's lieutenants, whose intervention Aristobulus had purchased. (J. AJ 14.2, 3.2; Bell. Jud. 1.6. §§ 2, 3.) In B. C. 63, he pleaded his cause before Pompey at Damascus, but, finding him disposed to favour Hyrcanus, he returned to Judaea and prepared for war. On Pompey's approach, Aristobulus, who had fled to the fortress of Alexandreion, was persuaded to obey his summons and appear before him; and, being compelled to sign an order for the surrender of his garrisons, he withdrew in impotent discontent to Jerusalem. Pompey still advanced, and Aristobulus again met him and made submission; but, his friends in t