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the area of the apertures; for there is no solid surface at the apertures to receive the lateral pressure which acts with full force on the opposite side of the arm. According to Dr. Robinson, this unbalanced pressure is equal to the weight of a column having the orifice for its base, and double the depth of the water in the trunk for its hight. The machine has, for one hundred years, been a favorite subject with writers on dynamics, and has been modified by mechanicians. De la Cour (1777) proposed to bring down a pipe from an elevated reservoir, and, recurving its lower end upwardly, introduce the water into a short pipe with ten arms which revolved in a horizontal plane in the manner described. The revolving arms may be mounted on a horizontal axis so as to obtain the requisite direction of motion without intermediate gearing. In 1841, Whitelaw obtained a patent for an improvement, in which the horizontal arms assumed the form of the letter S. In this machine the water
′gine. A name conferred by Ericsson upon his hot-air engine. See air-engine. Ca-lor′i-fere. A French heating-apparatus, invented by Bonnemain, of Paris, 1777, in which an ascending current of hot water proceeds from a boiler, and, after coursing through the system of heating-pipes in the various stories and apartments, ow two small ones across the Isthmus of Holstein, — the Streckenitz Canal, 1390 – 98, between the Elbe and the Trave; and the Schleswick Holstein, or Eyder Canal, 1777 — 84, between Kiel, on the Baltic, and Rendsburg, on the Eyder. Ca-nal — boat. A large boat, generally decked, and towed by horses; they vary in capacity, acies that attended the first attempt, or withhold the meed of praise due to the success of the man and his boy. An Abraham Darby erected the first iron bridge in 1777; it spanned the Severn near Coalbrookdale with a single arch. It is believed that at these works coke and coal were first successfully used in smelting iron.
g screws, which is closely connected with the dividing-engine, may be pursued in Holtzapffel (Vol. II. pp. 635 – 655). The methods of graduating instruments received much attention from Tompion (1660), Sharp (1689), the Sissons, and Bird (1745), the latter receiving pound 500 from the Board of Longitude for his method of dividing. Hindley, in 1740, constructed an engine for dividing circles, which also served to cut clock-wheels. Ramsden, in 1766, contrived his dividing-engine, and in 1777 received a reward of pound 615 from the Board of Longitude. Following Ramsden were the Troughtons, father and son, the latter of whom received the Copley medal of the Royal Society of England for his improved method of graduation. Ramsden's circular dividing-engine consisted of a large wheel moved by a tangent screw. The wheel was 45 inches in diameter, and had 2,160 teeth, so that six turns of the tangent-screw moved the circle one degree. The screw had a micrometer and also a ratchet-
a casemate. 2. (Nautical.) A balcony projecting from the after part of a ship, as the quarter-gallery, stern-gallery. 3. A corridor; a partial story in a room for auditors or musicians. 4. (Mining.) An adit or drift in a mine, either as a means of working, of drainage, or of ventilation. The great drainage-gallery of the mines of Clausthal, in the Hartz, is 11,377 yards, equal to 6 1/2 miles long, and passes 300 yards below the church of Clausthal. Its excavation occupied from 1777 to 1800, and cost about $330,000. See adit. Gallery-furnace. Gal′ler-y-fur′nace. A furnace used in the distillation of green vitriol, consisting of a long gallery containing two or three tiers of retorts, 100 in each row. The gallery is a flue traversed by the flame of a fire. The neck of each retort projects through the walls of the gallery and enters an exterior receiver. Gal′ley. 1. (Nautical.) a. A low, flat-built vessel with one or more rows (banks) (see bank, 5, a) of <
eing conducted by earthen pipes or caliducts in the walls, and discharged into the apartments. Heating by a circulation of hot water, proceeding from a boiler and returning thereto in a comparatively cool condition, was invented by Bonnemain in 1777. (See Incurator.) In 1816 a conservatory at Brompton, England, was thus warmed. See calorifere; hot-water heating-apparatus. James Watt, in 1784, heated his study by a steam box or heater made of sheet-iron, the plates 2 1/2 by 3 1/2 feet an A means of heating by the passage of hot water through pipes in rooms. Bonnemain appears to have been the first to introduce the circulation of hot water in a system of pipes, as a means of warming apartments and buildings. He devised it in 1777, in connection with his incubator. See Calorifere; incubator. The egg-chamber had several stories, and each was traversed by one or more bends of the pipes, which were so arranged as to have a constant inclination, by which the cooler water desce
duce the temperature to the freezing-point, and the liquid will be converted into ice. In 1755, Dr. Cullen discovered that removing the pressure of air facilitated evaporation to a degree which enabled him to freeze water even in summer. In 1777, Mr. Nairne discovered that introducing sulphuric acid into an exhausted receiver absorbed an aqueous vapor from and thereby dried rarefied air; and by an arrangement on these principles, in 1810, by which he got rid of the vapor that rose from thtions, the entrances to the egg-chambers showing in the upper view at c′. The upper chambers are connected. The ancient Egyptian incubators are referred to by Aristotle, Diodorus Siculus, and Flavius Vopiscus. Bonnemain's incubator B (A. D. 1777) is heated by hot water. a is the boiler; b, a building for holding the eggs on shelves; c, a coop for holding the chickens; d, tube for circulating the hot water; e, a supply funnel; f, a safety tube. The hot water rises from the boiler into tu
wrought and ornamented by machinery, comprising trimming laces of every description, veils, falls, scarfs, shawls, lappets, curtains, etc. The dates of some of the inventions connected with lace-making are as follows: — Bobbin-lace invented by Barbara Huttman of St. Annaberg, Germany1561. Pillow-lace making taught at Gt. Marlow, England1626. Strutt's machine for making open work stockings1758. Crane's Vandyke machine1758. Else and Harvey's pin machine1770. Frost's point-net machine1777. Dawson's point-net machine1791. Heathcoat's bobbin-net machine1801. Hill's plain ground net machine1816. Limerick lace made1829. Laced-stocking. A bandage support for varicose veins, weak legs, etc. Lace-mak′ing ma-chine′. Lace is a delicate kind of network composed of silk, flax, or cotton threads, twisted or plaited together. See lace. The meshes are of an hexagonal figure, in which thick threads are also interwoven to form the pattern, according to some design; and<
nently so, and are used practically to the exclusion of all others. The fact was noticed by the alchemists, that horn silver (fused chloride of silver) suffered discoloration by exposure to the sun's rays; but the Pomeranian chemist, Sheele, in 1777, was the first to consider philosophically the action of sunlight upon certain compounds of silver, and especially to draw attention to the activity of the violet and blue rays as compared with the rest of the spectrum. Ritter, in 1801, provegarded them as too coarse, and preferred the clavichord, which was, as Forkel says in his Life of Bach, poor in tone, but on a small scale extremely flexible. After Silbermann came his pupil Stein, upon whose piano-fortes Mozart so loved to play (1777). Frederici, a fellow-pupil of Stein's, made the first square piano. The farther history of the piano introduces the name of Sebastian Erard of Strasburg, who invented the escapement, which effected precision in the stroke of the hammer. He di
sawing-machines. Saw for irregular forms with tracer-guide.Double-grooving saws. The circular saw is well described in Miller's English patent, No. 1,152, of 1777. The band-saw is described in Newberry's English patent, 1808. See also wood-working machine and list under saw, infra. A circular saw was made with blackose. This guarded expression is adopted because circular saws or disks have been used for many centuries in lathes and lapidary work. Miller's English patent of 1777 describes the circular saw, and such were made at the commencement of the century by General Sir Samuel Bentham for the British Admiralty. At present the circular, and the palaces of the Spinish Saracens. Heating by hot water is older than steam-heating, and probably originated with Bonnemain, who contrived an incubator in 1777, in which the different stories were traversed by pipes leading the hot water upward from the boiler, and the colder current hy a return pipe to the boiler. (See
ied by Dr. Ure to an instrument patented by him in 1831, in which the bending of a spring composed of two unequally expansible metals, as steel and brass, was made to control a valve or damper. A thermostat was applied by Bonncmain of Paris, in 1777, to his calorifore. by which he heated buildings. The heater consisted of a boiler with an ascending hot-water pipe, which coursed through the stories or apartments of the house, and then descended again to the boiler with its contents comparatisversely rounded shape. See cylindrical saw; barrel-saw. Tub′u-lar-arch bridge. A bridge supported by a tubular archway of iron or steel. The first arched iron bridge was one over the Severn at Colebrooke Dale, erected by Abraham Darby in 1777; the arch- ribs were in two pieces, each 70 feet in length and meeting at the keys, the clear span being 100 feet 6 inches, and the rise 45 feet; the ribs were solid, not tubular. Tubular-arch bridge over rock Creek, D. C. The aqueduct bri
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