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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 203 203 Browse Search
Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight) 56 56 Browse Search
Lucius R. Paige, History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, with a genealogical register 46 46 Browse Search
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.) 30 30 Browse Search
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia. 21 21 Browse Search
George P. Rowell and Company's American Newspaper Directory, containing accurate lists of all the newspapers and periodicals published in the United States and territories, and the dominion of Canada, and British Colonies of North America., together with a description of the towns and cities in which they are published. (ed. George P. Rowell and company) 16 16 Browse Search
HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF MEDFORD, Middlesex County, Massachusetts, FROM ITS FIRST SETTLEMENT, IN 1630, TO THE PRESENT TIME, 1855. (ed. Charles Brooks) 15 15 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 1, Colonial and Revolutionary Literature: Early National Literature: Part I (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 12 12 Browse Search
Francis Jackson Garrison, William Lloyd Garrison, 1805-1879; the story of his life told by his children: volume 2 12 12 Browse Search
Cambridge History of American Literature: volume 2 (ed. Trent, William Peterfield, 1862-1939., Erskine, John, 1879-1951., Sherman, Stuart Pratt, 1881-1926., Van Doren, Carl, 1885-1950.) 10 10 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in Knight's Mechanical Encyclopedia (ed. Knight). You can also browse the collection for 1800 AD or search for 1800 AD in all documents.

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ntact of the atmosphere, and as the flame is also thinner its temperature is more uniform, and the vapor from the center of the wick is consumed equally with that from its exterior. The combustion is also greatly aided by the draft caused by the glass chimney, continually bringing fresh supplies of oxygen in contact with the flame and protecting it from currents of air. The chimney was the invention of L'Ange. Argand died in 1803. A French mechanic named Carcel patented an improvement in 1800, in which the oil is pumped from the reservoir to the wick by power derived from a spring or by the ascending column of air above the chimney. This is called the Mechanical Lamp, and is used in the large lamps for the Dioptric system in lighthouses. The Argand burner as modified by Fresnel for the Dioptric system in lighthouses has four concentric wicks, the outer one 3 1/4 inches in diameter, and the great heat produced is carried off by two means, — overflowing the wicks with oil, and b
angement with regard to each other constitutes what is called the bond. There are two kinds of bond made use of in England and America, — English or old English, and Flemish, — the former, however, being much more commonly employed than the latter. See bond. See Mason's and bricklayer's tools, etc. Brick-ma-chine′. Bricks have been made by machinery for many years. Some of the early United States patents, of which the record was unfortunately burned in 1836, are dated 1792, 1793, 1800, 1802, 1806, 1807, and a tolerably constant stream has followed them. About 122 patents were granted in the United States previous to June, 1836, for brick and tile machines, and more than 500 patents have since that time been granted for brick-machines. The number is rapidly increasing. In England, probably over half that number are on record for making brick. It will be impossible in the space which can be devoted to that subject to do more than present a few examples of the different<
th the exception of that beginning each fourth century. Thus the years 1700 and 1800 were not bissextile, nor will 1900 be, but the year 2,000 will be a leap-year. North Seas at Kiel was opened 1785. That from the Cattegat to the Baltic, 1794-1800. The main line of the Ganges Canal, 525 miles long, for irrigating the country t preparatory to the chisels, gouges, and scorpers of the carver. As early as 1800, a Mr. Watt, of London, built a machine that carved medallions and figures in iv, and the process is stated to have been kept secret at Coalbrookdale till about 1800. From the terms of the account, it would seem to have been hollow-ware that parstraw, lime, and earth. Cob′web-mi-crom′e-ter. Invented by Ramsden (1735 – 1800). A micrometer in which cobwebs are substituted for wires. By turning the screwcrayon in 1540. Sir Thomas Lawrence excelled in this style of portrait-painting, 1800 – 1830. 2. (Lithography.) A composition formed as a pencil, and used for d
tion a. The rays striking above and below were bent so as to assume a position parallel to those proceeding from the hoop, as seen in the section b. Di-op′tric mi-crom′e-ter. A form of the double image micrometer, introduced by Ramsden (1735-1800), in which the divided lens is in the eye-tube. In the ordinary form it is the objectglass which is divided. Dio-ra′ma. A mode of scenic representation in which the spectator and picture are placed in separate rooms, and the picture viewed A bricklayer's bench having a cast-iron plate on which the sun-dried brick is rubbed, polished, and beaten with a paddle to make it symmetrical. Dressing-bench. Dress′ing—machine′. (For yarn.) A machine invented by Johnson, England, in 1800. The hardtwisted yarn is sized, scraped, brushed, and dried by heat and a blast of air. The object is to remove the fuzz and give it a slight gloss. Dressings. The moldings and sculptured decorations used on a wall or ceiling. Dri
hborough, England, 1789. They were of cast-iron in 3 or 4 feet lengths, and had vertical holes near each end by which they were wooden-pinned to the sleepers. They were fishbellied, and subsequently laid on cast-iron chairs. Wyatt's patent in 1800 was an oval east-iron rail. The upper surface was afterwards flattened. Rolled-iron edge-rails were made in 1820 under Birkenshaw's patent. See rail; Railway. b. A rail placed by the side of the main rail at a switch to prevent the trai tons. See blasting. E-lec′tro-chem′i-cal Tel′e-graph. A telegraph which records signals upon paper imbued with a chemical solution, which is discharged or caused to change color by electric action. Nicholson and Carlisle discovered, in 1800, that water was decomposed by the voltaic pile, hydrogen being evolved at the negative and oxygen at the positive end of the wire. Davy, afterwards Sir Humphry Davy, by the aid of the apparatus of the Royal Institution at London, the most powerfu<
emoved by a hard brush; the warmth evaporates the moisture. File-cut′ting ma-chine′. A machine by which files are cut automatically. The usual form has a table to which the blank is secured, and on which it is fed beneath the chisel, which receives the blows of a trip-hammer above. Many attempts have been made in this direction in France, England, and the United States. Among these may be mentioned Duverger, 1699; Fardouet, 1725; Thiout, 1740; Brachal and Gamain, 1756, 1778; Raoul, 1800; Ericsson, 1836; Robison, 1843. See also Skilton's machine, Ure's Dictionary, Vol. II. pp. 202-204, edition of 1860. See also Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. II., in which a machine is described in which the file is fixed on a bed of lead, and a chisel fixed at the end of a lever is struck down by a hammer. The lever is again raised by means of a spring, and during its rise moves a ratchet-wheel connected with the support of the bed, which is shifted, together wi
s of Clausthal, in the Hartz, is 11,377 yards, equal to 6 1/2 miles long, and passes 300 yards below the church of Clausthal. Its excavation occupied from 1777 to 1800, and cost about $330,000. See adit. Gallery-furnace. Gal′ler-y-fur′nace. A furnace used in the distillation of green vitriol, consisting of a long gallery a steel scalpel, exciting an electric current. He pursued the subject by specific experiments. Volta, of Como, repeated them, and originated the voltaic pile in 1800; also demonstrating that the influence was incident to the action of the metals, and did not abide in nerves; in fact that it was a current of electricity passing 1651. He remarked, very truly, that they have the effect of making the powder burn more slowly. The practice has been again and again introduced, in Brazil about 1800; by Thurnagel in Germany; Thomassin and Leblanc in France; Firzoo in Russia. Dr. Gale has shown that by the addition of sand in certain proportions the powder i
ment which also swings the crane arm toward the stack in unloading and back again as the fork descends. Hay-Stacker. Hay-tedder. Hay—ted′der. (Husbandry.) A machine to scatter hay to the sun and air. The hay-tedder was invented about 1800 by Salmon of Woburn, England, and is more useful in the humid climate of that country than in the United States. It consists of a pair of wheels supporting a reel consisting of an open cylindrical frame, formed by arms proceeding from it, and cart, while a similar mass of brick-work is being heated, ready for use as soon as the first shall have become partially cooled. Whitwell makes his brickwork into large compartments instead of cellular. It is claimed that the blast can be heated to 1800° by this stove, and a regular working heat of 1400° be steadily maintained. To estimate properly the great importance of improved devices for heating the blast, it should be remembered that for every ton of materials charged in at the tunnel-hea
, — the blast being strong enough to furnish rapid combustion of the carbon, and thereby retain the temperature and fluidity of the molten metal until sufficiently refined, without the use of other fuel. Bessemer worked as an original inventor in the same line, and much improved the process in general and in detail. Holley gave it its American form. See Bessemer process. The process of decarbonizing the molten iron by addition of manganese is found in Reynolds's English patent, about 1800. Mushet's patent consisted in the introduction of manganese or other highly oxidizable metals, during the process of melting the crude iron, for the purpose of detaching and removing oxidized substances. Krupp uses spiegeleisen. Schmit, of the Troy Bessemer works, recommends ferro-manganese in small quantities and in solid pieces, as a recarburizer. Clay's process of making wrought-iron direct from the ore (English, 1843) consists in sifting rich ground ore, mixed with 4/10 weight
enefelder discovered and developed to perfection a totally new method, in which the chemical constitution of the materials employed plays a vital part. The history of this invention, which occupied him three or four years, viz. from 1796 to about 1800, is interesting and instructive, but too lengthy for our space. It will be found fully given in his own work upon this subject, which has been translated into English. The invention was the result of earnest, persistent, and highly intelligenaving a piece of cotton cloth 25 inches wide, 29 yards long, and 11 picks per 1/4 inch, is estimated at 10 1/4 cents. One person can attend to two or three looms, and each loom produces 26 pieces of such cloth per day. On the old hand-loom of 1800, one man would attend to one loom, and would produce 4 pieces at an expense of 66 cents each. In plain cloths the warp and weft threads are of about equal fineness. Yarns of two different sizes introduced into the web produce a sort of stripin
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