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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 20 20 Browse Search
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Athana'sius (*)Aqana/sios), of Alexandria, a presbyter of the church in that city, was a son of Isidora, the sister of Cyril of Alexandria. He was deprived of his office and driven out of Alexandria and Egypt by the bishop, Dioscurus, from whom he suffered much persecution. There is extant a small work of his, in Greek, against Dioscurus, which he presented to the council of Chalcedon, A. D. 451. (Cocil. vol. iv. p. 405.) There were various other ecclesiastical writers of the name of Athanasius, of whom a list is given in Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. p. 17
and in which there fell 252,000 (Jornandes, Reb. Get. 42) or 300,000 men. (Idatius and Isidore.) He retired by way of Troyes, Cologne, and Thuringia, to one of his cities on the Danube, and having there recruited his forces, crossed the Alps in A. D. 451, laid siege to Aquileia, then the second city in Italy, and at length took and utterly destroyed it. After ravaging the whole of Lombardy, he was then preparing to march upon Rome, when he was suddenly diverted from his purpose, partly perhaps the great mound which he raised for the defence of his army during the siege of Aquileia, and which still remains at Udine (Herbert, Attila, p. 489); and indirectly in the foundation of Venice by the Italian nobles who fled from his ravages in A. D. 451. The partial descent of the Hungarians from the remnant of his army, though maintained strenuously by Hungarian historians, has been generally doubted by later writers, as resting on insufficient evidence. The chief historical authority for h
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
a church in honour of the proto-martyr Stephen on the spot where he was said to have been stoned; enriched existing churches with valuable offerings, and bestowed great sums in charity on the priests and the poor. But she was, for some years, obnoxious to the imputation of heresy. The opinion of Eutyches on the union of the two natures in Christ, which she held, and which had triumphed in the " council of robbers" at Ephesus (A. D. 449), was condemned in another council held at Chalcedon (A. D. 451), soon after the death of Theodosius. The decrees of this latter council Eudocia for some years rejected. When, however, she heard of the captivity of her daughter Eudoxia [EUDOXIA], whom, with her two daughters, Genseric, king of the Vandals, had carried into Africa (A. D. 455), sle sought to be reconciled to Pulcheria, that she might interest her and her husband, the emperor Marcian, in behalf of the captives. By the intervention of Olybrius, to whom one of the captive princesses was bet
D. 449 under the presidency of Dioscurus, bishop of Alexandria, a partizan of Eutyches. It was disgraced by scenes of the greatest violence, which gained for it the title of su/nodos lh|strikh/, and besides sanctioning the monophysite doctrine, it decreed the deposition of Eusebius. But Leo the Great, bishop of Rome, interfered and prevailed upon Marcian, the successor of Theodosius, to convene another general council to revise the decrees of this disorderly assembly. It met at Chalcedon, A. D. 451, and Eusebius presented a petition at it addressed to Marcian and his colleague Valentinian. He was restored to his see, and the doctrine of Eutyches finally condemned. A Contesltaio adverusus Nestorium by Eusebius is extant in a Latin translation amongst the works of Marius Mercator, part ii. p. 18. There are also a Libellsus adversns Eutycheten Synodo Contantinopolitano oblatus (Concil. vol. iv. p. 151), Libellus adversus Dioscurum Synodo Chalcedonensi oblatus (ib. p. 380), and Epistola
Eusta'thius 2. Bishop of BERYTUS, was present at the council of Chalcedon in A. D. 451, and had been one of the presidents at the council of Berytus, held in A. D. 448. (Acta Concil. ii. p. 281. ed. Binian.; Zacharias Mitylen.de Mund. Opif p. 166, ed. Barth.)
rounds, and from the notion, which had already begun to take root, that to him, as the successor of St. Peter, belonged a sort of oversight over the whole church. Things were changed too at Constantinople: Chrysaphius was disgraced and banished, and Pulcheria restored to her brother's favour. In the year 450, Theodosius II. died; Pulcheria married Marcian, and procured for him the succession to the throne. A new general council was summoned at Nicaea, and afterwards adjourned to Chalcedon, A. D. 451, which 630 bishops attended. The proceedings were not altogether worthy of a body met to decide on such subjects; yet, on the whole, something like decorum was observed. The result was that Dioscurus and Eutyches were condemned, and the doctrine of Christ in one person and two natures finally declared to be the faith of the church. We know nothing of the subsequent fate of Eutyches, except that Leo wrote to beg Marcian and Pulcheria to send him into banishment, with what success does not a
anensis," from the see which he held in the province of Byzacium, in Africa Propria, lived about the middle of the sixth century. When Justinian (A. D. 544) published an edict condemning, 1st, the Epistle of Ibas, bishop of Edessa; 2d, the doctrine of Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia; and 3d, certain writings of Theodoret, bishop of Cyrus or Cyrrus; and anathematising all who approved of them, his edict was resisted by many, as impugning the judgment of the general council of Chalcedon (held A. D. 451), at which the prelates whose sentiments or writings were obnoxious were not only not condemned, but two of them, Ibas and Theodore, restored to their sees, from which they had been expelled. Facundus was one of those who rejected the Emperor's edict; and was requested by his brethren (apparently the other bishops of Africa) to prepare a defence of the Council on the three points (currently termed by ecclesiastical writers the " tria capitula ") on which its judgment was impugned. He was
Lucianus 2. Of BYZA, apparently the BIZYA of the classical writers, an episcopal city of Thrace, lived in the fifth century. Works Letter to Leo I. A Latin version of a letter of his to the emperor Leo I. Thrax (who reigned from A. D. 457 to 474), is given in the various editions of the Concilia. It recognises the authority of the three councils of Nice, A. D. 325, Ephesus A. D. 431, and Chalcedon A. D. 451, and declares Timotheus (Aelurus) patriarch of Alexandria, to be deserving of deposition. From the reference to this last matter, on which Leo seems to have required the judgment of various prelates, the letter appears to have been written in or soon after A. D. 457. In the superscription to the letter he is called " Byzae Metropolitanus ;" but if we are correct in identifying Byza with Bizya, this title must not be understood as implying archiepiscopal rank, for Bizya does not appear to have been an archiepiscopal see, but a simple bishoprick, under the metropolitan of Hera
inst Valentinian, who had likewise affronted him, by refusing to give up his sister Honoria, whom Attila claimed as his betrothed wife. Without disclosing his intention as to the countries he had chosen for an invasion, Attila sent messengers at once to Rome and Constantinople, who addressed each of the emperors with the haughty and insulting words: " Attila, my lord and thy lord, commands thee to provide a palace for his immediate reception." Upon this he set out for the invasion of Gaul, A. D. 451. In the same year Marcian assembled the council of Chalcedon, where the doctrines of the Eutychians were condemned. In the following year, 452, the celebrated Ardaharius, then dux Orientis, defeated the Arabs near Damascus, and made them sue for pence; and Maximin met with similar success against the Blemmyes, who had invaded the Thebais in Upper Egypt. A strong army was also sent towards the frontiers of the Western empire to assist Valentinian against Attila, who was then invading Ital
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Ma'ximus Taurinensis so called because he was bishop of Turin, flourished about the middle of the fifth century. He subscribed in A. D. 451 the synodic epistle of Eusebius, bishop of Milan, to Leo the Great; and from the circumstance that in the acts of the council of Rome, held in A. D. 465, by Hilarius, the successor of Leo, the signature of Maximus immediately follows that of the chief pontiff, taking precedence of the metropolitans of Milan and Embrun, we may conclude that he was the oldest prelate present. It has been inferred from different passages in his works that he was born about the close of the fourth century, at Vercelli, that he was educated in that city, that he there discharged the first duties of the sacred office, and that he lived to a great age; but it is impossible to speak with certainty upon these points. Works Gennadius, who is followed by Trithemius, states that Maximus composed a great number of tracts and homilies upon various subjects, several of whi
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