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prepared to take advantage of the impending crisis. The amiable, but inexperienced men who formed the active ministry of England, were less discerning. The names of Rockingham, and Grafton, and Conway, must be pronounced with respect; yet suddenly and unexpectedly brought to the administration of an empire, they knew not what to propose. Of the men on whose support they were compelled to rely, many were among the loudest and ablest supporters of the Stamp tax. So orders were given Grey Cooper to Bernard, 8 Oct, 1765. Same to Shirley, 10 Oct. Treasury Letter Book. to Bernard, in Massachusetts, and elsewhere to governors, in cases of a vacancy, to act as stamp-distributors; and the resolves of Virginia were reserved for the consideration of that very parliament which had passed the Stamp Act by a majority of five to one. Rockingham had promised nothing to the friends of America but relief to trade, where it was improperly curbed. To rouse the ministry from its indifference, T
espondence of Lyttelton, 743. as proofs of treason, and to bring him to trial in England on an impeachment by the House of Commons, the Attorney and Solicitor General of England, established his opinion that the Writs themselves, which had begun the controversy, were not warranted by law. The opinion of the Attorney and Solicitor General, I could not find in the State Paper office, nor at the Treasury; but that it was adverse to the views of Charles Townshend appears from a letter of Mr. Grey Cooper to Mr. Nuthall, 14 Feb. 1767, in Treasury Letter Book, XXIII. 416, directing him forthwith to lay this matter before Mr. Attorney and Mr. Solicitor General, together with the case and their opinion, for their reconsideration. That there was in the reconsideration no change of the adverse opinion, may be inferred from the fact, that the Treasury gave up the question, took no step against Malcom, and introduced into the American Revenue Bill just the clause which, from Townshend's point
h statesmen were blindly adopting measures to carry out their restrictive policy; Thomas Bradshaw to John Pownall, 8 July, 1768. Circular of Hillsborough, of 11 July, 1768. establishing in America Courts of Vice Admiralty at Halifax, Boston, Philadelphia, and Charleston, Treasury Minute of 30 June, 1768. on the system of Grenville; taking an account of the cost to Chap. XXXIV.} 1768. July. the Exchequer of the Stamp Act, so as to draw on the sinking fund to liquidate the loss; Grey Cooper to Auditor of the Revenue, 1 July, 1768. Same to Same. 5 July, 1768. or meditating to offer the Colonies some partial and inadequate representation in Parliament; George Grenville to Gov. Pownal, 17 July, 1768, in Pownall's Administration of the Colonies: ii. 113, in Ed. of 1777. inattentive to the character of events which were leading to the renovation of the world. Not so the Americans. Village theologians studied the Book of Revelation The Revelation of St. John the Divine,
tories respecting Boston; had been told, and had believed that Hutchinson had needed a guard for his personal safety; that the New England ministers, for the sake of promoting liberty, preached a toleration for any immoralities; that Hancock's bills, to a large amount, had been dishonored. He had himself given close attention to the appointments to office in Massa- Chap. V.} 1774. July. chusetts. He knew something of the political opinions even of the Boston ministers, not of Chauncy and Cooper only, but also of Pemberton, whom, as a friend to government, he esteemed a very good man, though a dissenter. The name of John Adams, who had only in June commenced his active public career, had not yet been heard in the palace which he was so soon to enter as the minister of a republic. Of Cushing, he estimated the importance too highly. Aware of the controlling power of Samuel Adams, he asked, What gives him his influence? and Hutchinson answered, A great pretended zeal for liberty, a
ir sympathy for the insurgents sprung mainly from a recollection of their own sufferings under the twelve years tyranny which had gone by; and could be revived and sustained by nothing less than a total separation from English rule. The day after the adoption of Jay's address to the Canadians, Willing of Philadelphia, one of those who most struggled to thwart every step towards independence, brought before congress a paper, containing propositions from Lord North, in the handwriting of Grey Cooper, his under secretary of the treasury. As the king had refused to treat with an American congress, the writing had no signature; but its authenticity was not questioned. By an appeal to affection for the king and country, it pressed earnestly the acceptance of the overture contained in the resolution of the house of commons. It was declared that the terms were honorable for Great Britain and safe for the colonies; and that neither king, nor ministry, nor parliament, nor the nation, Ch