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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing) 54 0 Browse Search
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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Huron Indians. (search)
Huron Indians. See Iroquois Indians.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hutchinson, Thomas 1711-1780 (search)
er application. But he was relieved from his suspense, the same evening, by intelligence from town of the total destruction of the tea. It was not expected that the governor would comply with the demand; and, before it was possible for the owner of the ship to return from the country with an answer, about fifty men had prepared themselves, and passed by the house where the people were assembled to the wharf where the vessels lay, being covered with blankets, and making the appearance of Indians. The body of the people remained until they had received the governor's answer; and then, after it had been observed to them that, everything else in their power having been done, it now remained to proceed in the only way left, and that, the owner of the ship having behaved like a man of honor, no injury ought to be offered to his person or property, the meeting was declared to be dissolved, and the body of the people repaired to the wharf, and surrounded the immediate actors, as a guard
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Illinois Indians, (search)
Illinois Indians, A family of the Algonquian nation that comprised several clans—Peorias, Moingwenas, Kaskaskias, Tamnaroas, and Cahokias. At a very early period they drove a Dakota tribe, whom they called the Arkansas, to the country on the southern Mississippi. These were the Quapaws. In 1640 they almost exterminated the Winnebagoes; and soon afterwards they waged war with the Iroquois and Sioux. Their domain was between Lakes Michigan and Superior and the Mississippi River. Marquette found some of them (the Peorias and Moingwenas) near Des Moines, west of the Mississippi, in 1672; also the Peorias and Kaskaskias on the Illinois River. The Tamaroas and Cahokias were on the Mississippi. The Jesuits found the chief Illinois town consisting of 8,000 people, in nearly 400 large cabins, covered with water-proof mats, with, generally, four fires to a cabin. In 1679 they were badly defeated by the Iroquois, losing about 1,300, of whom 900 were prisoners: and they retaliated by
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Imperialism. (search)
ing nearly, if not quite, 16 per cent. of the population, were not reckoned among the political forces to be respected. Indians, likewise, were excluded. The Constitution of the United States opens thus: We, the people of the United Stateswas formed, and, hence, national territories under the sole jurisdiction of the national government, though inhabited by Indians, whose rights to the soil had never been questioned. What has been our policy with respect to this subject race in ourkilled and an unknown number of wounded. The Black Hawk War, in 1832, cost the lives of twenty-five Americans and 150 Indians. The Florida War began in 1835 and lasted seven years, ending with the final defeat of the Indians. Since the conc, in which it is estimated that 1,500 whites and 7,000 Indians were killed. In the actions between regular troops and Indians, from 1866 to 1891, the number of whites killed was 1,452; wounded, 1,101. The number of Indians killed was 4,363; woun
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Indian problem, the (search)
Indian administration. Sometimes the appointments have been made by the commissioner of Indian affairs, sometimes by the Secretary of the Interior, sometimes practically by local politicians; but in all cases alike, not for expert knowledge of Indians, but for political service rendered or to be rendered, or from reasons of personal friendship. The notion that there is a continuous and consistent policy to be pursued towards the Indians, and that this requires continuity of service and experonsibility not by governing them as conquered territory from Washington, but by protecting and guiding, but not controlling them, while they attempt the experiment of local self-government for themselves. We have tried the first method with our Indians, and it has been a continuous and unbroken failure. We have tried the second method with the territory west of the Mississippi River, ours by conquest or by purchase, and it has been an unexampled success. If the Indian is the ward of the nati
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Indian Territory. (search)
square miles. The population in 1890 was 180,182; in 1900, 391,960. This aggregate population, however, is only partially Indian, as many squawmen, other whites, and negroes are included therein. In 1900 there were seven reservations in the Territory, and five civilized nations, the Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles, and over 97 per cent. of the entire population was in the first four nations. It was estimated that the population of the five nations included 84,750 Indians. The reservation Indians include Quapaws, Peorias, Kaskaskias, Ottawas, Wyandottes, Miamis, Shawnees, Modocs, Senecas, Cayugas, Sacs and Foxes, Pottawattomies, Osages, Kaws, Kiowas, Comanches, Apaches, Arapahoes, Cheyennes, Piankeshaws, and Weas, and the affiliated bands of Wichitas, Keechies, Wacoes, Tawacanies, Caddoes, Ioneis, Delawares, and Penetethka Comanches. In the latter part of 1873 the Modocs (a remnant of Captain Jack's band) and about 400 Kickapoos and Pottawattomies, from t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Indians, (search)
Indians, The name commonly applied to the people found by Columbus in America; by many authorities believed to have been the aboriginal inhabitants. The following remarks and tables refer to Indians within the present area of the United States. In manners, customs, and general features the difference between the Indians of the Gulf States and those of the shores of the Northern Lakes is scarcely perceptible; it is only by languages that they can be grouped into great families. East of the Mississippi there were not more than eight radically distinct languages, four of which are still in existence, while the others have disappeared. Names and location of the principal tribes of the eight Great families at the time of the first settlements. Name.Location. I. Algonquian tribes: MicmacsEast of the State of Maine. Etchemins or Canoe menMaine. AbenakisNew Hampshire and Maine. NarragansetsEastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Pokanokets or Wampanoags PequotsCentral M
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Indians, American (search)
Indians, American Believing the earth to be a globe, Columbus expected to find India or Eastern Asia by sailing westward from Spain. The first land discovered by him—one of the Bahama A modern Comanche. Islands—he supposed to be a part of India, and he called the inhabitants Indians. This name was afterwards applied to alIndians. This name was afterwards applied to all the nations of the adjacent islands and the continent. Origin. There is no positive knowledge concerning the origin of the aborigines of America; their own traditions widely vary, and conjecture is unsatisfying. Recent investigations favor a theory that, if they be not indigenous, they came from two great Asiatic families Shoshones comprise tribes inhabiting the territory around the headwaters of the Columbia and Missouri rivers; the Comanches, extending from A group of educated Indians. the head-waters of the Brazos to those of the Arkansas; families in Utah and Texas, and several tribes in California. The Attakapas and Chitemachas, in Texas, h
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Iroquois Confederacy, the (search)
Iroquois Confederacy, the Was originally composed of five related families or nations of Indians, in the present State of New York. These were called, respectively, Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. Tradition says the confederacy was founded by Hiawatha, the incarnation of wisdom, at about the beginning of the fifteenth century. He came from his celestial home and dwelt with the Onondagas, where he taught the related tribes the knowledge of good living. Fierce warrioion upon the courage of warriors if, at the call of the matrons, they withdrew from the war-path. These women wielded great influence in the councils, but they modestly delegated the duties of speech-making to some masculine orator. With these Indians, woman was man's coworker in legislation—a thing unheard of among civilized people. So much did the Iroquois reverence the inalienable rights of man, that they never made slaves of their fellow-men, not even of captives taken in war. By unity t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Jackson, Andrew 1767-1845 (search)
1 was made a prisoner. He was admitted to the practice of the law in western North Carolina in 1786; removed to Nashville in 1788; was United States attorney for that district in 1790; member of the convention that framed the State constitution of Tennessee in 1796; member of the United States Senate in 1797; and judge of the Tennessee Supreme Court from 1798 to 1804. From 1798 until 1814 he was major-general of the Tennessee militia, and conducted the principal campaign against the Creek Indians, which resulted in the complete subjugation of that nation in the spring of 1814. On May 31, 1814, he was appointed a major-general in the regular army and given command of the Department of the South. His victory at New Orleans, Jan. 8, 1815, gave him great renown. On Jan. 21, with the main body of his army, he entered the city. He was met in the suburbs by almost the entire population, who greeted the victors as their saviors. Two days afterwards there was an imposing spectacle in
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