Xenophon, Anabasis (ed. Carleton L. Brownson), Book 1, chapter 2 (search)
arsyas, a Phrygian satyr, was so proud of his skill with the flute that he presumed to challenge Apollo, god of music and master of the lyre. The myth appears to be a record of the supersession of the flute by the lyre in Greek favour. after having defeated him in a contest of musical skill; he hung up his skin in the cave from which the sources issue, and it is for this reason that the river is called Marsyas.
It was here also, report has it, that Xerxes, when he was on his retreat from Greece after losing the famous battle,viz. of Salamis, in 480 B.C. built the palace just mentioned and likewise the citadel of Celaenae. Here Cyrus remained thirty days; and Clearchus, the Lacedaemonian exile, arrived, with a thousand hoplites, eight hundred Thracian peltasts, and two hundred Cretan bowmen. At the same time came also Sosis the Syracusan with three hundred hoplites and Agias the Arcadian with a thousand hoplites. And here Cyrus held a review and made an enumeration of the Greeks in
Xenophon, Anabasis (ed. Carleton L. Brownson), Book 1, chapter 3 (search)
various ways, but gave me ten thousand darics. And I, receiving this money, did not lay it up for my own personal use or squander it in pleasure, but I proceeded to expend it on you.
First I went to war with the Thracians, and for the sake of Greece I inflicted punishment upon them with your aid, driving them out of the Chersonese when they wanted to deprive the Greeks who dwelt there of their land. Then when Cyrus' summons came, I took you with me and set out, in order that, if he had need accord to express the opinions they held, but others at the instigation of Clearchus to make clear the difficulty of either remaining or departing without the consent of Cyrus.
One man in particular, pretending to be in a hurry to proceed back to Greece with all speed, proposed that they should choose other generals as quickly as possible, in case Clearchus did not wish to lead them back; secondly, that they should buy provisions—the market was in the barbarian army!—and pack up their baggage; t
Xenophon, Anabasis (ed. Carleton L. Brownson), Book 1, chapter 4 (search)
sangs, to Myriandus, a city on the sea coast, inhabited by Phoenicians; it was a trading place, and many merchant ships were lying at anchor there. There he remained seven days;
and Xenias the Arcadian and Pasion the Megarian embarked upon a ship, put on board their most valuable effects, and sailed away; they were moved to do this, as most people thought, by a feeling of jealous pride, because their soldiers had gone over to ClearchusSee Xen. Anab. 1.3.7. with the intention of going back to Greece again instead of proceeding against the King, and Cyrus had allowed Clearchus to keep them. After they had disappeared, a report went round that Cyrus was pursuing them with warships; and while some people prayed that they might be captured, because, as they said, they were cowards, yet others felt pity for them if they should be caught.
Cyrus, however, called the generals together and said: “Xenias and Pasion have deserted us. But let them, nevertheless, know full well that they have not es
Xenophon, Anabasis (ed. Carleton L. Brownson), Book 1, chapter 7 (search)
to Cyrus about his army.At this time Cyrus called together the generals and captains of the Greeks, and not only took counsel with them as to how he should fight the battle, but, for his own part, exhorted and encouraged them as follows:
“Men of Greece, it is not because I have not barbarians enough that I have brought you hither to fight for me; but because I believe that you are braver and stronger than many barbarians, for this reason I took you also. Be sure, therefore, to be men worthy of e victory, we must put our friends in control of these provinces. I fear, therefore, not that I shall not have enough to give to each of my friends, if success attends us, but that I shall not have enough friends to give to. And as for you men of Greece, I shall give each one of you a wreath of gold besides.”
When they heard these words, the officers were far more eager themselves and carried the news away with them to the other Greeks. Then some of the others also sought Cyrus' presence, demand
Xenophon, Anabasis (ed. Carleton L. Brownson), Book 2, chapter 1 (search)
n the point of setting out, and just as the sun was rising, came Procles, the ruler of Teuthrania, a descendant of Damaratus,A king of Sparta who was deposed in 491 B.C., fled to Persia, and afterwards accompanied Xerxes in his expedition against Greece. Teuthrania (in western Asia Minor) made part of the territory given him by Xerxes as a reward for this service. the Laconian, and with him Glus, the son of Tamos. They reported that Cyrus was dead, and that Ariaeus had fled and was now, along wi this way: `Once on a time Phalinus, when he was sent by the King to order the Greeks to surrender their arms, gave them, when they sought his counsel, the following advice.' And you know that any advice you may give will certainly be reported in Greece.”
Now Clearchus was making this crafty suggestion in the hope that the very man who was acting as the King's ambassador might advise them not to give up their arms, and that thus the Greeks might be made more hopeful. But, contrary to his expecta
Xenophon, Anabasis (ed. Carleton L. Brownson), Book 2, chapter 3 (search)
As for the dates themselves of the palm, the sort that one can see in Greece were set apart for the servants, while those laid away for the masters were sels, through an interpreter, began the speaking with the following words:
“Men of Greece, in my own home I am a neighbour of yours, and when I saw plunged into many difne if I could in any way gain permission from the King to take you back safe to Greece. For I fancy I should not go without thanks, both from you and from all Greece.Greece.
After reaching this conclusion I presented my request to the King, saying to him that it would be fair for him to do me a favour, because I was the first to report t territory you pass through shall be friendly and that we will lead you back to Greece without treachery, providing you with a market; and wherever it is impossible tback to the King; but when I have accomplished what I desire, I shall return, fully equipped to conduct you back to Greece and to go home myself to my own province.
Xenophon, Anabasis (ed. Carleton L. Brownson), Book 2, chapter 4 (search)
lected his forces again, there is no question but that he will attack us.
Or perhaps he is digging a trench or building a wall somewhere to cut us off and make our road impassable. For never, if he can help it, will he choose to let us go back to Greece and report that we, few as we are, were victorious over the King at his very gates, and then laughed in his face and came home again.”
To those who talked in this way Clearchus replied: “I too have in mind all these things; but I reflect that if other by a bridge made of seven boats. These canals issued from the Tigris river, and from them, again, ditches had been cut that ran into the country, at first large, then smaller, and finally little channels, such as run to the millet fields in Greece.Then they reached the Tigris river, near which was a large and populous city named Sittace, fifteen stadia from the river.
The Greeks accordingly encamped beside this city, near a large and beautiful park, thickly covered with all sorts of trees,
Xenophon, Anabasis (ed. Carleton L. Brownson), Book 2, chapter 5 (search)
l or captain there might be to come forward, in order that they might deliver a message from the King.
After this two generals went forth from the Greek lines under guard, Cleanor the Orchomenian and Sophaenetus the Stymphalian, and with them Xenophon the Athenian, who wished to learn the fate of Proxenus; Cheirisophus, however, chanced to be away in a village in company with others who were getting provisions.
And when the Greeks got within hearing distance, Ariaeus said: “Clearchus, men of Greece, inasmuch as he was shown to be perjuring himself and violating the truce, has received his deserts and is dead, but Proxenus and Menon, because they gave information about his plotting, are held in high honour. For yourselves, the King demands your arms; for he says that they belong to him, since they belonged to Cyrus, his slave.”
To this the Greeks replied as follows, Cleanor the Orchomenian acting as spokesman: “Ariaeus, you basest of men, and all you others who were friends of Cyrus, ar<
Xenophon, Anabasis (ed. Carleton L. Brownson), Book 3, chapter 1 (search)
's gates, that round about them on every side were many hostile tribes and cities, that no one would provide them a market any longer, that they were distant from Greece not less than ten thousand stadia, that they had no guide to show them the way, that they were cut off by impassable rivers which flowed across the homeward routee him of his captaincy, lay packs on his back, and treat him as that sort of a creature. For the fellow is a disgrace both to his native state and to the whole of Greece, since, being a Greek, he is still a man of this kind.”
Then Agasias, a Stymphalian, broke in and said: “For that matter, this fellow has nothing to do either with Boeotia or with any part of Greece at all, for I have noticed that he has both his ears bored,The Greeks considered it effeminate for a man to wear ear-rings. His bored ears, therefore, marked Apollonides as a barbarian. like a Lydian's.”The Lydians were proverbially effeminate.
In fact, it was so. He, therefore, was driven away<
Xenophon, Anabasis (ed. Carleton L. Brownson), Book 3, chapter 2 (search)
the perjury and impiety of the King; you see likewise the faithlessness of Tissaphernes. It was Tissaphernes who saidXen. Anab. 2.3.18. that he was a neighbour of Greece and that he would do his utmost to save us; it was none other than he who gave us his oaths to confirm these words; and then he, Tissaphernes, the very man who ha a later time gathered together that countlessHerodotus (Hdt. 7.185) puts the whole number of fighting men in Xerxes' armament at 2,641,610. host and came against Greece, then too our forefathers were victorious, both by land and by sea,By sea at Salamis (480 B.C.) and by land at Plataea (479 B.C.). over the forefathers of our eneto Hom. Od. 9.94 ff. forget our homeward way.
Therefore, I think it is right and proper that our first endeavour should be to return to our kindred and friends in Greece, and to point out to the Greeks that it is by their own choice that they are poor; for they could bring here the people who are now living a hard life at home, an