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e. In Europe, the Arabs were the first to build observatories; the Giralda, or Tower of Seville, was erected under the superintendence of Geber the mathematician, about A. D. 1196, for that purpose. After the expulsion of the Moors it was turned into a belfry, the Spaniards not knowing what else to do with it. The same people mistook the vertical gnomons of Quito — beneath the line — for idols, and upset them, crossing themselves devoutly. Of the obelisks of Egypt, the round towers of Ireland, and the gnomons of Quito, the last is the least distinctly phallic. Native Observatory at Benares. The native observatory at Benares, India, is an elevated terrace, and will afford us a good idea of the probable appearance of the observatories of Ancient Chaldea; of the Caliph Almanza; of Uleg Beg, grandson of the great Tamerlane. The latter is said to have had a quadrant as high as the Church of Saneta Sophia at Constantinople. Sir Robert Barker's description of the observatory
e tenor or treble pipe the chanter. It is now considered a Scotch or Irish musical instrument, though Nero is reported to have solaced his gentle mind with its strains. Formerly common throughout Europe, it is now nearly restricted to Scotland, Ireland, parts of France, and Sicily. It is the common country instrument of the Punjaub. The Sikh instrument rather resembles the Italian pfiferari than the pipes of the Scottish Highlanders. After dinner we had a fellow play well upon the bagpiper, brass, and steel. From the aggregated pieces a matrix is obtained by electro-deposition, and from this a plate is obtained by the same means. When backed and mounted the plate is used for surface-printing. In America and in the Bank of Ireland, the plates are prepared according to Perkins's method. The separate designs forming the complete bank-note are first engraved by hand on separate steel blocks, which are afterwards hardened, and are preserved as permanent patterns not to be pr
d oil-finished. Kerseymere is probably a corruption. Kersey is a local name for a coarse worsted cloth of Scotland and Ireland. Cas′si-nette. (Fabric.) A cloth made of a cotton warp and a weft of fine wool or wool and silk. Cast. Warider-mills in England are also made with hollow iron fluted rollers, working in pairs and meshing into each other. In Ireland the apple is crushed between wooden cylinders studded with iron teeth; the pomace is afterwards pounded with wooden pestf its growth and how soon it recovered after mowing. In ten years it had spread through the kingdom and made its way to Ireland. Clover-Thresher. The clover-heads, previously separated from the straw by tramping or thrashing, after passing bable of being carried on the shoulders. The coracle is still in use in the West of England, Wales, and in some parts of Ireland. The same kind of boat is yet used upon the river BoTchou, in Thibet, as mentioned by the Abbe Huc, in his Travels in
modern languages. The rich work of the looms of Damascus opened the eyes of the rugged men of the West, who alternately won and lost the rocky mountain-road which led to Jerusalem, and the fabric has retained its name and substantially its character ever since. Silk and worsted damasks were favorite materials with our grandmothers for bed-hangings, curtains, and the upholstering of furniture. A bed of ancient damask. b. A woven fabric of linen, extensively made in Scotland and Ireland, and used for table-cloths, fine toweling, napkins, etc. By a particular management of the warp-threads in the loom, figures, fruits, and flowers are exhibited on the surface, as in the ancient damask. It is known as washing damask, or, when unbleached, as brown, damask. A small patterned toweling, known as diaper, has a figure produced in the same manner. c. Stuff with a wavy or watered appearance. Moire. 2. (Metallurgy.) A wavy pattern shown in articles forged from a combined
e is no appreciable current in the bridge a b, in which is inserted the galvanometer G. In use, the resistance of one of the members, say 4, being known, the unknown resistance is inserted in 2 and its resistance calculated from the deflections of the needle in the galvanometer, caused by the current thrown through the bridge. See Duplextelegraph. Electric cable. E-lec′tric Ca′ble. Various forms of telegraph cable for submarine uses have been proposed. That between England and Ireland is composed of a single copper wire covered with gutta-percha, surrounded by hempen yarn, and the whole protected by ten No. 8 iron wires twisted. That between Dover and Calais has four copper wires covered with gutta-percha twisted into a rope, and protected in similar manner. It weighs seven, and the Irish two, tons to the mile. The first Atlantic cable was composed of seven No. 22 copper wires, covered with gutta-percha, hempen yarn, and an outside coating of iron wire. This weighed
an car-saddles (from Wilkinson). In England and Ireland, horses were sometimes hitched to the plows by their tails, a barbarous custom that existed in Ireland, as late as 1634, for an act of the Irish Parliament, 11 ane. Donagh, the son of Brian Boiroimhe, a king of Ireland who was slain 1014, sought protection at Rome, carrpentry, and agriculture. b is a winged celt from Ireland, c a socketed celt from the same country. d e f ength. g is a stone celt. h is a celt-mold from Ireland. i is a decorated bronze celt from Ireland. kIreland. k l m are Danish celts of bronze. n is a stone axe from Ireland. o, a stone hatchet found in county MonaghIreland. o, a stone hatchet found in county Monaghan, Ireland, yet mounted in a pine handle 13 1/2 inches long. Almost none of these weapons are found with holeIreland, yet mounted in a pine handle 13 1/2 inches long. Almost none of these weapons are found with holes for the handles. See axe. p is an ancient stone hatchet found at the streamtin works, Morbihan. q is n at one hundred miles distance, from Cumberland to Ireland. Heliotrope. b. The heliotrope is used to il
es showed a similar corselet, worked with figures of animals. Pliny notices the corselet of Amasis, shown in the temple of Minerva at Rhodes. See flax. It was first manufactured in England by Flemish weavers, under the protection of Henry III., 1253. Before this, woolen shirts were generally worn. A company of linen-weavers was established in London, 1368. The Presbyterians, who left persecution in Scotland in the time of the Stuarts, planted the linen manufacture in the North of Ireland, and were encouraged by William III. and succeeding governments. Lin′en Paper. As with paper of cotton, bamboo, morus bark, and silk, it appears that the first manufacture of linen paper was in China. The Egyptians excelled in fine linen in very early times. About 1500 B. C., the Israelites left Egypt with stores of linen; and five hundred years afterward, Solomon imported linen yarn from thence. Yet, with all this, it does not appear that the people of any country bordering on th
n countries where the summer heat is so great as to cause rapid decomposition, and is largely found in such countries as Ireland, Holland, and North Germany, where the summer temperature is low and the air generally moist; the deposits frequently forming extensive bogs, called in Scotland and the North of England mosses. In Ireland it is popularly known as turf, and forms a principal source of fuel supply to the inhabitants, being merely cut into blocks which are dried in the air. The peat of Ireland is estimated at 4,000,000,000 tons, and is used for fuel and for the production of naphtha, paraffine, etc. The peat of Holland is deposited on the bottoms of ponds and lakes,—this may be equally true of peat-beds in general,—and ral operations of this posse. Hitching horses by the tails to plows, harrows, and other implements was forbidden in Ireland by law in 1634. See harrow. In the United States we generally prefer a plow without a wheel, in England called a sw
being in part discharged upon the eastern plains of that continent before reaching the Andes, which intercept the remainder. Proximity to the sea, when the prevailing winds are from that direction, also greatly increases the mean rainfall. In Ireland and the West of England a larger quantity falls than in Central and Eastern England; the amount at Liverpool exceeding that of London by about one half, while at Seathwaite, Borrowdale, in Cumberland, the annual fall reaches the, for that latituumber of rainy days is generally greater than in lower latitudes. There are six maximum points of rainfall in Europe, estimated in rainy days, not quantity, — Norway, Scotland, S. W. Ireland and England, Portugal, N. E. Spain, Lombardy. In Ireland it rains 208 days in the year. In England it rains 150 days in the year. In Kazan it rains 90 days in the year. In Siberia it rains 60 days in the year. On the Dofrefelds of Norway it rains and mists nearly continually an aggregate o
ever, found in Cornwall, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, and also on the Continent of Europe. Thosu extending from Newfoundland to the coast of Ireland, having a nearly uniform depth of somewhat ovrd of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland quarters the ensigns of England, Scotland, and Ireland. It lost the horse of Hanover when William IV. died; the horse has of late been quarterge in Scottish waters, and none in England or Ireland In 1820, England had 17; Scotland, 14; Irelante printing (see pages 618, 619). The Bank of Ireland adopted the Perkins method. Nowhere has thment of the Lough Foyle base in the survey of Ireland, nearly 8 miles in length, Colonel Colby empls constructed on the Great Western Railway of Ireland, to cross the entrance to Lough Atalia. It hm a Saxon tomb, England; b, bronze sword from Ireland; c, from Sweden; e, Switzerland: f, Neufchateparison are added: — l m, spear-heads from Ireland n o, Irish bronze daggers. p q, bronze
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