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and a companion named Romain were killed. They had employed, in conjunction with a hydrogen-balloon, a montgolfiere or fire-balloon below it, and on reaching a considerable hight, the expansion of the gas caused it to flow downward directly upon the fire, inflaming the whole apparatus, which was speedily consumed, precipitating the aeronauts to the earth. Balloons were introduced into the French armies at an early period during the wars of the Revolution, and were used at the battles of Liege, Fleurus, 1794, and at the sieges of Maintz (Mayence) and Ehrenbreitstein, where they were found particularly useful, as only by such means could operations in the elevated citadel be observed. The French armies are attended with a new species of reconnoitering engineers, whose duty it is to do everything relative to the preparation and use of balloons. The person who mounts in the balloon is furnished with paper and pencils of different colors. The marks are made according to a system
498, 747, 810, 871, 1,182, and 1,640 pounds. c is the basalt ball of Male — k-y-mydan (Indian). d is the granite ball of the great gun of Mohammed II. e, the stone ball of Dulle-Griete (Flemish). f, stone ball of Dhool-Dhance (East Indian). g, stone ball of Mons Meg (Scotch). h, granite ball of Michelette le Grand. i, granite ball of Michelette le Petite. j, Mallet's iron bomb (English). k, to s, English elongated iron projectiles. t, 68-pound ball (1841). u, Liege, French, 1,000-pound ball (1832). v, Beelzebub and Puritan, American, 1,100-pound ball (1866). w, Rodman, American, 450-pound ball (1866). Can′non-cast′ing. The molds for brass cannon are formed by wrapping a long taper rod of wood with a peculiar soft rope, over which is applied a coating of loam, which, as the work proceeds, is dried over a long fire, a templet being applied to form the proper outline. This model is made about one third longer than the gun is to be. It is n<
East. Stained-glass windows were in the basilica of St. Sophia and other churches in Constantinople, in the sixth century; painted glass windows not till two or three centuries later, notably in the reign of Charlemagne. Some windows executed in the tenth to the twelfth centuries are yet in existence in Europe. The fifteenth century (cinque cento), under Albrecht Durer and others, produced many beautiful specimens, some of which still remain; for instances, the Church of St. Jacques at Liege, and windows ornamented by the Crabeths at Gouda, in Holland. 2. The mosaic stain. In this mode the window is made up of detached pieces, as in the mosaic; but the shades are given by a stain of brown, which seems to have been the first color which the artists succeeded in firing on to the pieces of glass. 3. The enamel. By this all the required colors (see glass-coloring) are painted upon the same piece of glass and fired in the kiln, producing the effect of an oil-painting. William
ients. It is rendered so liquid in the molten state by the addition of the phosphorus, that it forms very clean castings. At the London International Exhibition it was shown in the form of bearings of machinery, cog-wheels, guns, cartridge-cases, wire, and tuyeres for blast-furnaces, hammers, knives, scissors, hinges, locks, keys, bells, netting, sieves, wire for pit-ropes, and plates for the sheathing of sea-going ships. Messrs. Levi and Kunzel, of the Val Benvit Nickel-Works, near Liege, Belgium, have, for a number of years past, been engaged in making experiments for the purpose of improving bronzes of this kind The results of their experiments are thus summed up by M. Dumas: — The color, when the proportion of phosphorus exceeds one half per cent, becomes warmer and like that of gold largely mixed with copper. The grain and fracture approximate to those of steel. The elasticity is considerably increased, the absolute resistance under a fixed strain becomes more than do
motine. That illustrated is mounted on two bogie frames, the front one supporting the locomotive and the rear one the part in which the tank and coal-bunkers are located. Engines of this kind have been employed on the Howland and Aspinwall road, overcoming gradients of 296 1/2 feet to the mile, and on various other roads of from 3 to 5 feet gage. French tank-locomotive. Fig. 6199 illustrates an engine constructed from the designs of M. Vaessen by the Societe de St. Leonard at Liege. This engine is intended for the ascent of steep inclines and traversing sharp curves with a train on what M Vaessen calls the universal system, patented by him. It was built for the Chemin de Fer Isabelle II, in Spain. The cylinders are 18.11 inches diameter and 24.16 inches stroke. The four driving-wheels are 6 feet 2 inches, and the truck-wheels 2 feet 11 1/2 inches, diameter. Direct-acting tank steam-pump. Tank-pump. A form of steam-pump for the specific use. Tank-valve.
ing carried off by the upcast shaft flows through the whole extent of the mine before arriving at the latter. Where a fire is inadequate to produce sufficient ventilation, other exhaust apparatus, generally the fan, is resorted to. In some cases but a single shaft is used, which is divided by a vertical partition, termed a brattice, one portion serving for the upcast, and the other for the downcast. The air-pump is also employed for ventilating mines as well as buildings; one of these, near Liege, is described as consisting of two wooden cylinders 11 feet 7 inches in diameter, open at top, and having valved bottoms. The pistons which were attached to the opposite ends of a beam were fitted with upwardly opening valves, were reciprocated by connection with the piston-rod of a 13-inch steam-cylinder fixed over one end of the beam, had a stroke of 6 feet 2 inches, and with a boiler pressure of 41 pounds per square inch discharged 17,000 cubic feet of air per minute. The form of air-