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sisted only in the use of steam-boilers instead of air-heaters. The English writer is here incorrect, as she was supplied with steam-boilers and engines. The Ericsson made a trip from New York to Washington, and is said to have used an enormous quantity of tallow in lubricating her machinery. This difficulty is avoided in some of the smaller machines now built, by saturating the air with steam. See Aero-steam engine. In a paper read by Mr. Rankine before the British Association in Liverpool, September, 1854, is a succinct statement of the principles underlying this subject of invention; from it we derive the following: — Heat acts as a source of mechanical power by expanding bodies, and conversely, when mechanical power is expended in compressing bodies, or in producing friction, heat is evolved. This mutual convertibility of heat and mechanical power is expressed in the following law: That when mechanical power is produced by the expenditure of heat, a quantity of hea
been built into the ship, occupying positions on the floor, and at the stem and stern next to the dead-wood. Tanks made by two bulkheads across the vessel have also been used. These are made of such a size that they may be used for coals or cargo when the ballast is not required. The reservoir, whatever form it may have, must be quite full, to prevent the swashing of the water, and the bulkhead tank has been found difficult to fill and keep tight. The plan suggested by Grantham, of Liverpool, — a distinguished authority on the subject, — is specially adapted for ships carrying coal, where little or no back freight is to be had. See Grantham's Iron ships, Weale's Series. Ballast car (English form). Bal′last car or Wag′on. (Railroad-engineering.) A dumping-car for transporting ballast for the roadbed. In the illustration is seen the English form, having a capacity for dumping to the rear or towards either side. See dumping-car. Bal′last-en′gine. 1
ed a partial counterpoise for the load suspended from the end of the jib. Fairbairn's tubular crane (lower figure g) is made of wrought-iron plates riveted together, and arranged so as to give the convex back and upper sides a sufficient degree of strength to resist tension, while the concave side has a cellular structure to resist compression. Cranes were worked by hydraulic pressure as early as 1846, at Newcastle, England; subsequently the lock-gates and cranes of the Albert Dock, Liverpool, and those of the Grimsby Dock, were worked by water, derived either from the town-reservoirs or from elevated reservoirs into which it was pumped for that special purpose. These sources, being fluctuating or expensive, gave rise to the adaptation of machinery for the purpose. Armstrong's hydraulic crane, English, 1854 (h, Fig. 1506), consists of one or more hydraulic presses, with a set of sheaves used in the inverted order of blocks and pulleys, for the purpose of obtaining an exte
ound with him, and his gaze has no steadiness. This, as the idiom shows, is the French account, and is preferably given without impairing its graphic character. The conclusion arrived at on this occasion was, that it was impracticable to work for any length of time at a depth exceeding 130 feet. In 1869, however, the ship Hamilla Mitchell was lost on the Leuconia rocks, near Shanghai; and two English divers, provided with the apparatus of Siebe and Gorman, were subsequently sent from Liverpool to attempt the rescue of the treasure on board. One of these succeeded in remaining four consecutive hours under water at the depth of 23 fathoms upon one occasion, during which he recovered 64 boxes of specie. The engraving on the opposite page illustrates submarine operations at the anchorage off Gibraltar, as conducted with the diving-bell in conjunction with divers arrayed in the apparatus of Ronquayral and Denayrouze. In this, whether the man be naked or covered with impervious c
000. It is built of granite, and is furnished with iron gates and an iron caisson or floating gate. Other larger ones are now constructed at South Brooklyn. Many of the Liverpool docks have graving-docks, and some of the dock-entrances are arranged to be used as graving-docks. Two of the latter have the following dimensions: — Depth of Water at Sill. Feet. Length.Width. Canada dock-lock50010026 Huskisson dock-lock3968024.75 Birkenhead dock-lock5008530.25 16 graving-docks of Liverpool300-70040-7018-21 3 Birkenhead graving-docks75050-7025.75 10 private graving-docks, Birkenhead380-4080-8719.25-24 Grav′i-ty-bat′ter-y. Invented by Callaud or by C. F. Varley, London; English patent, December 5, 1854, no. 2555. A form of double-fluid battery, in which the fluids range themselves at different hights in a single jar by virtue of their different specific gravities. The copper or — element is in the bottom, and the zinc or + in the upper part of the cell. See Callau
ern-post were of wood, the beams of elm planks. Her weight was 8 tons, capacity 32 tons; she drew 8 to 9 inches of water when light, and plied on the Birmingham Canal. An iron pleasure-boat was launched on the Mersey in 1815 by T. Jevous of Liverpool. It was scuttled by jealous shipbuilders, and an iron life-boat launched by the same person in 1817 experienced the same fate. The first iron steam-vessel launched and put to sea was projected and built for A. Manby of Staffordshire, for thused in the villainous Opium War of 1842. They were not the last vessels built on the Clyde for piratical expeditions. The Ironsides was the first iron sailing vessel of any magnitude employed for sea voyages. The Great Britain, built at Liverpool, was the boldest effort in iron shipbuilding in her time, but was eclipsed by the Leviathan, afterwards renamed the Great Eastern, which was built from the designs of Brunel, by Russell & Co., at Millwall, on the Thames. She was commenced in
urplus is returned from the pump when the regulating valves or cocks of the feed-pipe to the boiler are closed. See feed-pump. t, the lever-beam gudgeon. v, the beam. w, the connecting-rod. x, the crank. y, the side-frame, firmly secured to the bed-plate, and to strong flanges east on the cylinder. z, the guides in which the cross-head moves. Le′ver-es-cape′ment. The lever-escapement was invented by Mudge about 1780, and improved by Breguet of Paris and Roskell of Liverpool. In its first form, the end of the lever had a segment-rack which engaged a pinion on the arbor of the balance. The improved form consisted in substituting a fork for the rack, making what is called the detached lever, patented by Roskell. (See Fig. 2914.) The lever vibrates on a center and carries the pallets (or anchor), and its forked end alternately engages with and is engaged by a ruby pin attached to a disk on the balance-arbor. The lever or fork, having the impulse given to it
ank. Mean of three experiments61.7 Cambridge, Mass.; double-cylinder. (Mean)67.2 In considering the above, it must be recollected that the quality of coal varies, and the bushel may vary in weight; calculations have unfortunately been made at 94, 100, and 112 pounds. See also compound engine ; duplex engine ; draining-engine ; pumping-engine. Cost of raising Water by Steam-Power. Gallons.Hight in feet.Cost.Coal per 2,240 lbs. East London Water-Works1,000,000100$3.00$2.52 Liverpool1,000,0001004.08 Wolverhampton1,000,0001008.401.80 Southwark1,000,0001002.882.40 Grand Junction1,000,0001005.523.84 Of the pumps for mining purposes may be cited, (1) the common lift-pump, made on a scale proportionate to its work, but in no essential respects differing from that in ordinary use. Its piston is a valved bucket, being perforated for the passage of the water. See lift-pump ; Cornish engine. (2.) A lifting-pump with a plunger; that is, one not perforated, but acting
tion; if otherwise, it is gradually forced out of shape so that its surface becomes curved, impairing the tone of the instrument. To remedy this, Mr. Dreaper of Liverpool applied hollow chambers to the back of the sounding board, adjusted to any desired pressure by screws. Piano-Forte actions. M. Pape, for this purpose, plabe it intercepts the carrier. The time when a carrier may be expected to arrive is telegraphed to the receiving station. In the telegraph pneumatic dispatch at Liverpool the messages are placed in little round bags, accurately fitting the tube, and urged forward by compressed air under a pressure of eleven pounds to the square inof the pig-iron, its use was very limited in England until, in 1858, Mr. William Clay introduced the process on a large scale at the Mersey Steel and Iron Works, Liverpool. In Germany, about 100,000 tons of puddled steel are made every year, and it forms the principal material for Krupp's celebrated caststeel. Pud′dler. Mech
years later, even a majority of experts were in favor of the use of stationary engines on the Liverpool and Manchester road, and it was not until after George Stephenson with his Rocket had practicathe West of England a larger quantity falls than in Central and Eastern England; the amount at Liverpool exceeding that of London by about one half, while at Seathwaite, Borrowdale, in Cumberland, th To these may be added the following figures of foreign rainfall:— London, England24.4 Liverpool, England34.5 Manchester, England36.2 Bath, England30.0 Truro, England44.0 Cambridge, England24.nfederate States, but afterward purchased by the British government, is tans describe 1 by the Liverpool courier. : The iron hull has a coating of 19 inches of teak, and armor plates 4 1/2 inchence Magazine at Paris. It has 87 feet span. The roof of the railway station in Lime Street, Liverpool (23), has a span of 153 feet 6 inches. 24 is an ordinary freight-depot with iron roof and colu
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