to the larynx or otherwhere.
（Steam-engine.) The one which governs the entrance of water into the condenser from the sea, river, or well.
The area of the injection-valve of a marine steamengine is stated at one square inch for every 10-horse power. This is said to be ample allowance in all cases, and is more than necessary when the injection water has a temperature of 52° Fah. The average temperature of the Mediterranean is about 65°; the Atlantic Ocean, at 20° of latitude, about 75°; and at the equator, about 82° Fah.
A device for injecting a supply of feed-water into the body of a steam-boiler.
In Giffard's injector this is effected by the pressure and condensation of steam from the boiler itself.
Fig. 2679, A, illustrates the operation of this apparatus.
Steam escaping from the boiler through the pipe a is compelled to pass through the contracted nozzle c, by which its velocity is greatly increased.
n latitude 60° to the west of Hudson's Bay, proceeds southeast through the North American lakes, passes the Antilles and Cape St. Roque till it reaches the South Atlantic Ocean, where it cuts the meridian of Greenwich in about 65° south latitude.
The eastern line of no variation (1787) is extremely irregular, heaving curious cu
Aristotle had said, 100 years before, that it was possible that Spain and India were only separated by the sea. Eratosthenes said that only the extent of the Atlantic Ocean prevented sailing from Spain to India along the same parallel.
In the map of Ptolemy, the land grows toward sunrise, Burmah with the peninsula of Malacca come Phoenicians circumnavigated Africa in the seventh century B. C., as we learn from Herodotus.
Strabo (writing about A. D. 18) says:—
If the extent of the Atlantic Ocean were not an obstacle, we might easily pass by sea from Iberia [Spain] to India, still keeping in the same parallel.
So Christopher Colon reasoned.
ntensities of the electric currents developed was constructed by comparison with an air pyrometer, each division of the scale corresponding to 10° Centigrade.
11. Siemens invented a pyrometer of the eleventh class, depending on the increased resistance offered by an iron or platinum wire to the passage of electricity.
This may be adapted to measuring either high or low temperatures, and was used by Dr. Carpenter for ascertaining the temperature at great depths in the Atlantic Ocean.
That for high temperatures (B, Fig. 4058) consists of a coil of fine platinum wire, about 3 yards in length, wound around the circumference of a grooved clay cylinder.
The ends of the coil are connected with two thicker platinum wires, which are in turn connected with copper conducting-wires; the whole are protected by clay pipes and inclosed in an iron tube.
The end at which is the platinum spiral is closed, and the other end is provided with a wooden cap containing two contact scre
onius, about 1,000 fathoms. — Strabo, Book I. Chap 3.
The catapirater of the ancients differed in no respect from our sounding-lead and line.
Its use is mentioned by Herodotus, St. Paul, and others.
Previous to some 25 years ago few attempts had been made to obtain bottom at depths beyond 200 to 300 fathoms.
In 1849, the United States schooner Taney was fitted out for the purpose of looking up a number of the rocks, shoals, and vigias which had long disfigured the charts of the Atlantic Ocean, and for ascertaining, if practicable, its depth; for this purpose she was provided with a large quantity of wire, to be used in lieu of sounding line: this was to be cut when bottom had been reached, involving the loss of the wire and sinker.
A number of unsuccessful casts were made, the materials and methods employed proving unreliable.
In 1851, the United States brig Dolphin was fitted out for the same objects, under the command of Lieutenant (now Admiral) S. Phillips Lee, twine b
ged according to the state of the tide.
The former is the preferable arrangement.
See also tide-wheel.
A wheel turned by the ebb and flow of the tide, and employed as a motor for driving machinery, etc.
The most remarkable variations in the tide are at Chepstow, where the rise of spring tides is about 60 feet; at Bristol it is 40 feet: in Mount St. Michael's Bay it is 46 feet; in the Bay of Fundy and on the coast of Nova Scotia it is about 60 feet; whilst in the Northern Atlantic it is on the average from 10 to 12 feet; at St. Helena only 3 feet; and on the shores of the islands of the Pacific it is barely perceptible
Where the rise is so extreme, it is produced by the contraction of the sides of the river or estuary, as the Bristol Channel, for instance, or a convergence to one point of wide stretches of coast, as at the Bay of Fundy.
In some cases the phenomenon of the bore is produced, which is defined by Colonel Emery as being a peculiar undulation, w
Dr. Scoresby gives the following interesting facts with regard to the length and high of ocean waves.
The mean hight of waves in the Atlantic, driven by a westerly gale, is 18 feet. The greatest recorded hight of a wave in the North Atlantic, from the trough to the crest, is 43 feet. In northwest gales, waves 40 feet in hight have been measured off the Cape of Good Hope, while those off Cape Horn were 32 feet. The velocity of ocean storm-waves in the North Atlantic is about 32 miNorth Atlantic is about 32 miles an hour, and that recorded by Captain Wilkes for the Pacific Ocean is 26 1/3 miles. In an Atlantic storm the breadth of the waves, measured from crest to crest, is about 600 feet.
Some sixty years since a cotton-mill was built on a rocking barge, the machinery to be moved by the force of the waves.
See Buckner's patent, May 16, 1873.
One patent of March 30, 1869, has a reservoir which is filled by the waves dashing up a curved barrier wall, and the water thus raised beyond its nor