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ng of the campaign in Kentucky and Tennessee battle of Mill Spring, January first, 1862 General Zollicoffer and most of his staff killed surrender of Fort Donelson, February ninth strange conduct Thomas at Somerset, which was advancing against Crittenden's small force at Beech Grove. Zollicoffer, being but second in command to Crittenden at Beech Grove, had but little influence in the mao drive him from his fortified camps. On the morning of the nineteenth of January, (Sunday,) Zollicoffer's advance exchanged shots with the enemy, and the battle opened with great fury. ZollicofferZollicoffer's brigade pushed ahead, and drove the Federals some distance through the woods, and Were endeavoring to force their way to the summit of a hill which fully commanded the whole field. The Federals fwithstand the dashing onset of our troops. Misinformed as to their true position and number, Zollicoffer was rapidly advancing up-hill, but unexpectedly rode up to an Indiana regiment, mistaking it
Robert Lewis Dabney, Life and Commands of Lieutenand- General Thomas J. Jackson, Chapter 9: General view of the campaigns of 1862. (search)
The true strategic difficulties of the Confederates, have ever arisen more from their enemies' command of the water, than from their superior numbers. A review of the crowd of disasters with which the year 1862 opened, will be the best illustration of these reasonings. The first of these was the battle of Mill Spring, or of Somerset, in the southeastern part of Kentucky; where the Confederates, at first victorious, were struck with discouragement by the death of their beloved commander Gen. Zollicoffer, and suffered a defeat. This insulated event was without consequence, save as it showed improved spirit and drill in the Federal soldiery. February 8th, a Federal fleet and army, entering Albemarle Sound in North Carolina, overpowered the feeble armament on land and water, by which the Confederates sought to defend Roanoke Island, the key to all the inland waters of the region. The enemy established himself there; and this naval success was one of the causes, which led to the ev
Chapter 19: days of depression. Reverses on all lines Zollicoffer's death Mr. Benjamin, Secretary of war transportation dangers the Tennessee river forts Forrest, and Morgan gloom follows Nashville's fall Government blamed by people the permanent Government Mr. Davis' typical inaugural its effect and its Sequence Cabinet changes. The proverb that misfortunes never come singly soon became a painful verity in the South; and a terrible reaction began to still the high-beatingth stunning effect; opening wide the eyes of the whole country to the condition in which apathy, or mismanagement, had left it. As usual, too, in the popular estimate of a success, or a reverse, the public laid much stress on the death of Zollicoffer, who was a favorite both with them and the army. He was declared uselessly sacrificed, and his commanding general and the Government came in for an equal share of popular condemnation. Mr. Davis soon afterward relieved Secretary Walker fr
J. B. Jones, A Rebel War Clerk's Diary, V. August, 1861 (search)
purpose to give him no such commission. He never, for a moment, thought of making him more than a colonel. To this the major demurs, and furnishes a voluminous correspondence to prove that his claims for the position of brigadier-general had been recognized by the Secretary of War. August 13 The President sent to the department an interesting letter from Mr. Zollicoffer, in Tennessee, relating to the exposed condition of the country, and its capacities for defense. August 14 Zollicoffer has been appointed a brigadiergen-eral; and although not a military man by education, I think he will make a good officer. August 15 No clew yet to the spies in office who furnish the Northern press with information. The matter will pass uninvestigated. Such is our indifference to everything but desperate fighting. The enemy will make good use of this species of information. August 16 The President is sick, and goes to the country. I did not know until to-day that he is bl
invaded Kentucky, they stationed General Pillow at the strongly fortified town of Columbus on the Mississippi River, with about six thousand men; General Buckner at Bowling Green, on the railroad north of Nashville, with five thousand; and General Zollicoffer, with six regiments, in eastern Kentucky, fronting Cumberland Gap. Up to that time there were no Union troops in Kentucky, except a few regiments of Home Guards. Now, however, the State legislature called for active help; and General Anderson, exercising nominal command from Cincinnati, sent Brigadier-General Sherman to Nashville to confront Buckner, and Brigadier-General Thomas to Camp Dick Robinson, to confront Zollicoffer. Neither side was as yet in a condition of force and preparation to take the aggressive. When, a month later, Anderson, on account of ill health turned over the command to Sherman, the latter had gathered only about eighteen thousand men, and was greatly discouraged by the task of defending three hund
rant that a real movement in that direction was practicable, and he hastened to St. Louis to lay his plan personally before Halleck. At first that general would scarcely listen to it; but, returning to Cairo, Grant urged it again and again, and the rapidly changing military conditions soon caused Halleck to realize its importance. Within a few days, several items of interesting information reached Halleck: that General Thomas, in eastern Kentucky, had won a victory over the rebel General Zollicoffer, capturing his fortified camp on Cumberland River, annihilating his army of over ten regiments, and fully exposing Cumberland Gap; that the Confederates were about to throw strong reinforcements into Columbus; that seven formidable Union ironclad river gunboats were ready for service; and that a rise of fourteen feet had taken place in the Tennessee River, greatly weakening the rebel batteries on that stream and the Cumberland. The advantages on the one hand, and the dangers on the
John G. Nicolay, The Outbreak of Rebellion, Chapter 11: Kentucky. (search)
d of General Anderson, and since September 1st that officer had made Louisville his headquarters. On the other hand, Buckner had abandoned his professed neutrality and his militia command, and formally entered the rebel service as a brigadier-general. Stationing himself just within Tennessee, south of Middle Kentucky, he was collecting the rebel members of his State guard for a hostile expedition against the homes of his former friends and neighbors. Another rebel force gathering under Zollicoffer, in East Tennessee, was watching its opportunity to advance into Kentucky through Cumberland Gap. Under these threatening aspects Governor Magoffin communicated to the Legislature, then in session, General Polk's announcement of his arrival at Columbus. The altogether illogical and false role of Kentucky neutrality was necessarily at an end. The Legislature, by express resolutions under date of September 14th, instructed the Governor to demand the unconditional withdrawal of the rebe
John G. Nicolay, The Outbreak of Rebellion, Index. (search)
ance, 142 Virginia, West, 131, 133, 137, 141; vote on Secession Ordinance, 142; organized as separate State, 144 et seq.; map of West Virginia battles, 148; admitted into the Union, 154 Volunteers, first enlistment of, 75; new, called for, 106 W. Walker, Secretary, 57, 91 Walker, Robert J., 76 Ward, Capt., U. S. N., 38 Warrenton Turnpike, the, 176 Washington, 83; character of, 97; defence of, 98 et seq.; threatened, 101; arrival of the Massachusetts Sixth and New York Seventh regiments at, 103 et seq.; becomes a camp, 106 et seq. Washington, Fort, 102 West Union, W. Va, 151 Wheeling, 139, 142 et seq. Wigfall, Senator, 68 Willcox, General O. B., 174 Williamsport, Pa, 157 Williamsport, W. Va., 162 Winchester, Va., 157, 160 Wise, ex-Governor Henry A., 146, 154 Wood, Mayor, Fernando, 71, 76 Woodbury, Captain, cited, 195 Woodruff, Colonel, 131 Y. Young's Branch, 183 Z. Zollicoffer, General, 135 Zouaves, Ellsworth's, 110
Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 4. (ed. Reverend J. William Jones), Correspondence between General A. S. Johnston and Governor Isham (search)
here at my command does not exceed 17,000 men. In order to render these equal to the duty of preserving our frontier and protecting Nashville, I have used every precaution, and feel sanguine that by the dispositions of the last few months, they can be made to hold in check double their number. Bowling Green, naturally strong, has been well entrenched; Columbus Fort, with its garrison and troops on that front guarding the Mississippi, renders the Lower Valley comparatively secure, and General Zollicoffer, on the Cumberland, protects East Tennessee from invasion and possible revolt, which would destroy our communications between the Mississippi and Atlantic States and inflict great injury. These dispositions will foil the designs of the enemy on East Tennessee and defeat or retard his design to descend the Mississippi this winter. The vulnerable point is by the line from Louisville towards Nashville, and the Northern Generals are evidently aware of it. In order to obtain addition
in them. The result of the battle is as follows: Rebel loss fifteen killed, fifty wounded, and one hundred taken prisoners. Our loss was five killed and twenty-two wounded. Only one killed in the Fifth Indiana cavalry--John W. Johnson, saddler in company C. We camped on the ground occupied by the enemy that night and the next day, when we took up our line of march for this place. Since entering Knoxville, on the first of September, our regiment has been to Sevierville, nearly to the top of Smoky Mountains, N. C., to Greenville, to Bristol, Va., to Zollicoffer, where we had a sharp fight, killing fifty and wounding one hundred. We had a short skirmish also at Bristol, where we had five men wounded and none killed. We are now at Knoxville, waiting further orders. Our horses are jaded and our men tired, but at the sound of the bugle will all jump, give one whoop and start off to win new laurels, and hasten the time when we can all return to our homes again. Fifth cavalry.
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