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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 140 140 Browse Search
Frank Frost Abbott, Commentary on Selected Letters of Cicero 23 23 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, Letters to Atticus (ed. L. C. Purser) 20 20 Browse Search
Frank Frost Abbott, Commentary on Selected Letters of Cicero 9 9 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares (ed. L. C. Purser) 4 4 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition. 3 3 Browse Search
J. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War 3 3 Browse Search
Appian, The Civil Wars (ed. Horace White) 2 2 Browse Search
E. T. Merrill, Commentary on Catullus (ed. E. T. Merrill) 2 2 Browse Search
Pliny the Elder, The Natural History (ed. John Bostock, M.D., F.R.S., H.T. Riley, Esq., B.A.) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 49 BC or search for 49 BC in all documents.

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clination. In B. C. 59 Afranius had the province of Cisalpine Gaul (comp. Cic. Att. 1.19), and it may have been owing to some advantages he had gained over the Gauls, that he obtained the triumph, of which Cicero speaks in his oration against Piso. (c. 24.) When Pompey obtained the provinces of the two Spains in his second consulship (B. C. 55), he sent Afranius and Petreius to govern Spain in his name, while he himself remained in Rome. (Vell. 2.48.) On the breaking out of the civil war, B. C. 49, Afranius was still in Spain with three legions, and after uniting his forces with those of Petreius, he had to oppose Caesar in the same year, who had crossed over into Spain as soon as he had obtained possession of Italy. After a short campaign, in which Afranius and Petreius gained some advantages at first, they were reduced to such straits, that they were obliged to sue for the mercy of Caesar. This was granted, on condition that their troops should be disbanded, and that they should no
Ahenobarbus 8. Cn. Domitius Cn. N. Ahenobarbus, L. F., son of the preceding, was taken with his father at Corfinium (B. C. 49), and was present at the battle of Pharsalia (48), but did not take any further part in the war. He did not however return to Italy till 46, when he was pardoned by Caesar. He probably had no share in the murder of Caesar (44), though some writers expressly assert that he was one of the conspirators; but he followed Brutus into Macedonia after Caesar's death, and was condemned by the Lex Pedia in 43 as one of the murderers of Caesar. In 42 he commanded a fleet of fifty ships in the Ionian sea, and completely defeated Domitius Calvinus on the day of the first battle of Philippi, as the latter attempted to sail out of Brundusium. He was saluted Imperator in consequence, and a record of this victory is preserved in the annexed coin, which represents a trophy placed upon the prow of a vessel The head on the other side of the coin has a beard, in reference to the r
ted to depart, on condition of surrendering all the fortresses still in his power. In the following year, during the expedition of Gabinius into Egypt, Alexander again excited the Jews to revolt, and collected an army. He massacred all the Romans who fell in his way, and besieged the rest, who had taken refuge on Mount Gerizim. After rejecting the terms of peace which were offered to him by Gabinius, he was defeated near Mount Tabor with the loss of 10,000 men. The spirit of his adherents, however, was not entirely crushed, for in B. C. 53, on the death of Crassus, he again collected some forces, but was compelled to come to terms by Cassius. (B. C. 52.) In B. C. 49, on the breaking out of the civil war, Caesar set Aristobulus at liberty, and sent him to Judaea, to further his interests in that quarter. He was poisoned on the journey, and Alexander, who was preparing to support him, was seized at the command of Pompey, and beheaded at Antioch. (J. AJ 14.5-7; Bell. Jud. 1.8, 9.) [C.P.M]
A. Allie'nus 1. A friend of Cicero's, who is spoken of by him in high terms. He was the legate of Q. Cicero in Asia, B. C. 60 (Cic. ad Qu. Fr. 1.1.3), and praetor in B. C. 49. (Ad Att. 10.15.) In the following year, he had the province of Sicily, and sent to Caesar, who was then in Africa, a large body of troops. He continued in Sicily till B. C. 47, and received the title of proconsul. Two of Cicero's letters are addressed to him. (Hirt. Bell. Afr. 2, 34; Cic. Fam. 13.78, 79.) His name occurs on a coin, which has on one side C. CAES. IMP. COS. ITER., and on the other A. ALLIENVS PROCOS.
After Pompey had deposed Antiochus Asiaticus, the last king of Syria, B. C. 65, he marched against Antiochus of Commagene, with whom he shortly afterwards concluded a peace. (B. C. 64.) Pompey added to his dominions Seleuceia and the conquests he had made in Mesopotamia. (Appian, App. Mith. 106, 114.) When Cicero was governor of Cilicia (B. C. 51), he received from Antiochus intelligence of the movements of the Parthians. (Cic. Fam. 15.1, 3, 4.) In the civil war between Caesar and Pompey (B. C. 49), Antiochus assisted the latter with troops. (Caesar, Caes. Civ. 3.5; Appian, App. BC 2.49.) In B. C. 38, Ventidius, the legate of M. Antonius, after conquering the Parthians, marched against Antiochus, attracted by the great treasures which this king possessed; and Antonius, arriving at the army just as the war was commencing, took it into his own hands, and laid siege to Samosata. He was, however, unable to take the place, and was glad to retire after making peace with Antiochus. (D. C. 4
n met him and made submission; but, his friends in the city refusing to perform the terms, Pompey besieged and took Jerusalem, and carried away Aristobulus and his children as prisoners. (J. AJ 14.3, 4; Bell. Jud. 1.6, 7; Plut. Pomp. cc. 39, 45; Strab. xvi. p.762; D. C. 37.15, 16.) Appian (Bell. Mith. 100.117) erroneously represents him as having been put to death immediately after Pompey's triumph. In B. C. 57, he escaped from his confinement at Rome with his son Antigonus, and, returning to Judaea, was joined by large numbers of his countrymen and renewed the war; but he was besieged and taken at Machaerus, the fortifications of which he was attempting to restore, and was sent back to Rome by Gabinius. (J. AJ 14.6.1; Bell. Jud. 1. 8.6; Plut. Ant. 100.3; D. C. 39.56.) In B. C. 49, he was again released by Julius Caesar, who sent him into Judaea to forward his interests there; he was, however, poisoned on the way by some of Pompey's party. (J. AJ 14.7.4; Bell. Jud. 1.9.1; D. C. 41.18.)
A'tius 2. C. Atius, the Pelignian, belonged to the Pompeian party, and had possession of Sulmo, when Caesar invaded Italy, B. C. 49. Caesar despatched M. Antony against the town, the inhabitants of which opened the gates as soon as they saw Antony's standards, while Atius cast himself down from the wall. At his own request he was sent to Caesar, who dismissed him unhurt. (Caes. Civ. 1.18.) Cicero writes (ad Att. 8.4) as if Atius himself had surrendered the town to Antony.
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Aure'lia Orestilla a beautiful but profligate woman, whom Catiline married. As Aurelia at first objected to marry him, because he had a grown-up son by a former marriage, Catiline is said to have killed his own offspring in order to remove this impediment to their union. (Sal. Cat. 15, 35 ; Appian, App. BC 2.2; comp. Cic. Fam. 9.22.) Her daughter was betrothed to the younger Corniticius in B. C. 49. (Caelius, apud Cic. ad Fam. 8.7.)
A'xius 2. Q. Axius, an intimate friend of Cicero and Varro, the latter of whom has introduced him as one of the speakers in the third book of his de Re Rustica. (Comp. Cic. Att. 3.15, 4.15.) Suetonius quotes (Caes. 9) from one of Cicero's letters to Axius, and Gellius speaks (7.3) of a letter which Tiro, the freedman of Cicero, wrote to Axius, the friend of his patron. Axius wasamanof wealth, and was accustomed to lend money, if at least the Axius to whom Cicero talked of applying in B. C. 61 (ad Att. 1.12), is the same as the above. In B. C. 49, however, we find that Axius was in Cicero's debt. (ad Att. 10.11, 13, 15.)
ctories, be allowed to wear a laurel-crown and all the insignia of a triumph in the Circensian games, and also a laurel crown and the praetexta in the scenic games. (Vell. 2.40.) He failed in his first attempt to obtain the aedileship, although he was supported by Pompey (Schol. Bob. pro Planc. p. 257, ed. Orelli); but he appears to have been praetor in B. C. 59), as we find that he was governor of Cilicia in the following year. (Comp. Cic. Fam. 1.3.) On the breaking out of the civil war in B. C. 49, he sided with the Pompeian party, and took an active part in the levy of troops at Capua. (Ad Att. 8.11, b.) He no doubt left Italy with the rest of his party, for we find him in the next year endeavouring to obtain money by plundering the temple of Diana in Ephesus, which he was prevented from doing only by the arrival of Caesar. (Caes. Civ. 3.105.) Balbus was one of those who was banished by Caesar; but he afterwards obtained his pardon through the intercession of his friend Cicero (comp
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