constitutes a very efficient and available means of defence.
The abattis is referred to by Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon, and was a common military defence derived from savage life.
An abae peculiar aversion of the Egyptian priests.
Egypt was also visited about this time by Solon (Herodotus, I. 30), who came as a student, and afterwards introduced some of the Egyptian laws into his A
The earliest account of any aqueduct for conveying water is probably that which is given by Herodotus (who was born 484 B. C.). He describes the mode in which an ancient aqueduct was made by Eupalses of the arts and manufactures.
The notices of its uses among the ancients are numerous.
Herodotus refers to cloth made of it by the Egyptians.
Its uses for paper, napkins, socks, drawers, hanon was instructed in civil wisdom at Sais, whose patron deity being Minerva (as we are told by Herodotus and Strabo), shows polities to have been there in most request.
Warburton's Divine Legation o
tians, and Romans, being mentioned by Homer, Herodotus, and Virgil.
They are also used to the presiram procured his tin in Cornwall, England.
Herodotus called Britain the Cassiterides, or Tin Islaters along the shores of the Persian Gulf. — Herodotus.
The harbor of Rhodes and the Piraeus of of preparing fermented liquors from grain.
Herodotus, who wrote about 450 B. C., says that the Egd Calmuck cuisine are known as brick tea.
Herodotus (450 B. C.), who had heard of this species o into cakes, and eat them instead of meat. — Herodotus, IV.23.
Their descendants do the same to ck was erected by Asychis, who, according to Herodotus, preceded the king who was dispossessed by S city on the respective sides of the river. (Herodotus, 1. 186.)
The huge stones cramped togetheered by the Eginetans from the Epidaurians.
Herodotus, V. 87, says:—
When he came back to Athens, etc. We read of them in Homer, Euripides, Herodotus, and elsewhere.
cloths of Sidon are mentioned by Homer; and Herodotus speaks of the garments of the inhabitants ofong with the material; for the tree-wool, as Herodotus calls cotton, was known as an Indian productforget in what way his seat was cushioned. — Herodotus, V. 25.
The heroes of Homer sit at their (also known as the Trapiche ), is as old as Herodotus, at least.
It was used by the Phoenicians f for the emission of smoke is referred to in Herodotus, VIII. 137: — Now it happened that the sun wlands received the Greek name of the metal.
Herodotus makes the same statement as to the source ofthis plan your ox is made to boil himself. — Herodotus, IV. 61.
The Dacotah Indians sometimes bo has been entirely created since the days of Herodotus.
Ostia, the former port of Rome, is now many miles inland.
Herodotus referred (450 B. C.) to the action of the river Meander, and also p stone and used it for the latter purpose.
Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus also refer to sharp Eth[18 more...
Herodotus says that, in the practice of medicine and surgerye continent, or in far Cathay, by the Yellow Sea.
Herodotus, whose fame grows clearer and brighter as years wa I. 41, 9 (B. C. 1500).
Rhampsinitus is said by Herodotus to have played with the goddess Ceres, and Mercury colors.
While the statement of Herodotus possesses a certain historic interest, we cannot c of dinner during the siege of Troy, 1200 B. C.
Herodotus is mistaken when he says that these sports were inalmers were of an Ethiopic stone, probably flint.
Herodotus describes them.
A flint knife was also used by th
The battle-axe of the Scythians in the time of Herodotus was double-bitted.
It is the Sacan sagaris.
Seylax, an historian of an age preceding that of Herodotus, compared Egypt to a double-bitted axe, the neck which, 1355 B. C. He is supposed to be the Sesostris of Herodotus and Diodorus.
The sepulchral and palatial paintin
ime and the year 700 A. D., when the practice fell into disuse, besides an innumerable multitude of sacred animals, as dogs, cats, apes, ibises, bulls, rams, foxes, crocodiles, serpents, etc., which are found along with human mummies in the tombs.
The Egyptians, however, were not the only people who embalmed their dead.
The practice prevailed, though not so extensively, among the nations of Asia, and was, at a somewhat later period, in use to some extent among the Greeks and Romans.
Herodotus gives a long description of the different methods employed by the ancient Egyptians.
These varied according to the rank or wealth of the subject.
Drying the bodies in sand was a method chiefly practiced among the poorer classes; and it may be remarked that, in a warm dry climate like that of Egypt, decomposition does not take place so readily or speedily as in those which are favored with more moisture.
Embalming was also performed by salting in natron and then drying; boiling in re
Among other paintings may be specially cited that of the triumph of Rameses III., the great Sesostris of Herodotus, about 1355 B. C. The flabellum is shown in the tombs of Beni-Hassan, Thebes, and Alabastron, of dates from 1706 to 135 of the people are yet, and have been since the first recorded times, felted fabrics.
The latticed huts referred to by Herodotus and Aeschylus are covered with felt, of which also the flapping screen which answers for a door is made.
See wagon. Ma Flax was used to the exclusion of wool for priestly garments and cerements.
Isaiah refers to the fine linen of Egypt; Herodotus refers to linen shirts as the ordinary dress of the people of the Nile land.
Flax rotting, braking, etc. (Beni Hassae paintings of Eleythya.
In one case the flute is apparently blown through the nostril, like the New Zealand flute.
Herodotus (450 B. C.) mentions the marching of the troops of Alyattes the Lydian to the sound of pipes and harps, and flutes masc
arious colors, imitation pearls, and two films of glass were made to inclose gold plates.
Glass-making in Egypt.
Athenaeus states that the glass of Egypt was famous.
Strabo says that one very perfect kind could only be made in Egypt.
Herodotus speaks of rings of melted stone (no doubt, glass) as decorating the ears of the sacred Egyptian crocodiles.
The manufactures of glass among the Egyptians were of bottles, vases, and other utensils, probably lamps; wine was brought to table i. —Psalm Ivi. 8.
These bottles are probably coeval with the sweet singer of Israel.
A record of the Phoenician trade on the western coast of Africa is still preserved in the peculiar glass beads found there.
The pillar of emerald seen by Herodotus in the temple of Hercules at Tyre (Book II. 44) was probably of glass.
Of all stones, says Pliny, the emerald is most easily imitated (xxvii.
The Tyrians erected the first glass-houses mentioned in history, and practiced the manufacture
immed hat is shown in the sculptures of Karnak.
Herodotus refers to the soft hats of the Persians.
They worof the Lycian contingent in the army of Xerxes.
Herodotus said that the skulls of the bareheaded Egyptians wheshonk or Shishak, with his cartouche upon it.
Herodotus states that the Carians were the inventors of threput devices on shields, and handles on shields.
Herodotus describes (Book VII.) the following head-dresses omake no mention of hemp.
It is first mentioned by Herodotus: —
Hemp grows in Scythia; it is very like flax;ke garments of it, which closely resemble linen. — Herodotus, IV.74.
He elsewhere states that they buy it of tme, carry it about with them wherever they ride. — Herodotus, IV. 64.
Cambyses killed and flayed a venal juding in the market-place of Celaenae in the time of Herodotus.
It was still shown there in Xenophon's time.
rliest mention of hose is the following passage in Herodotus (450 B. C.). It refers to the mode of watering the<
Salts ofVoltaic devices.
Leaves in variety.Wood-fiber.
A device for hatching eggs by artificial means.
The hatching of poultry by artificial heat is not mentioned by Herodotus, but is described by Diodorus Siculus as an ancient practice.
The ancients obtained the heat by the fermentation of manure; the modern Egyptians by the regulated heat of ovens.
The ordinary domestic fowl is a native of India, and is neithnserted within portions of groundwork which are sunken to receive them, thus forming a sort of mosaic.
We find specimens of inlaying of metals in the articles recovered from ancient Babylon.
Overlaying was practiced by the same people.
Herodotus states that Glaucus the Chian was the man who invented the art of inlaying steel.
The salver made by Glaucus was offered by Alyattes the Lydian at the oracle of Delphi.
It is described by Athenaeus as covered with representations of plants
s of clay in the biscuit condition.
A biscuit-kiln. See glaze-kiln.
Or for drying malt, hops, lumber, grain, fruit, starch, biscuit, etc.
Or for vitrifying articles of clay, such as pottery, porcelain, bricks.
See porcelain; brick.
Herodotus speaks of baking bricks in kilns.
The latter word may refer to a clamp, however.
They certainly used kilns of some kind for their pottery, which was made of many kinds.
Hoffman's annular kiln (A, Fig. 2750), patented June 13, 1865, consistretained for the performance of religious observances.
This is shown by the use of a sharp stone in performing the operation of circumcision, as recorded in Exodus IV. 25, where Zipporah operated upon her child in conformity to the Jewish law. Herodotus says that an Ethiopic stone was used for making the incision in the body of persons brought to be embalmed, in order to remove the intestines.
Diodorus Siculus says that it was not lawful to use metal.
In the Berlin Museum are two flint knive