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μέσος , η, ον, also Arc. (v. ἰμέσος, μεσακόθεν); Ep. μέσσος (also Aeol., Sapph.1.12, IG11(4).1064b32, and Lyr., Pi.P.4.224, and sts. in Trag., E.HF403 (lyr.), S.OC1247 (lyr.), Tr.635 (lyr.), Ant.1223, 1236, Fr.255.5), Boeot., Cret. μέττος , IG7.2420.20 (iii B. C.), GDI 5000 ii
A.b 2 (v B. C.):—middle, in the middle,
I. of Space, esp. with Nouns, of the middle point or part, “μ. σάκοςIl.7.258; “ἱστίον1.481; οὐρανός zenith, Od.4.400; μ. ἀπήνης from mid chariot, S.OT812; ἐν αἰθέρι μ. in mid-air, Id.Ant.416; μ. μετώπῳ in the middle of the forehead, PRyl.128.30 (i A. D.): in Prose freq. preceding the Art., “κατὰ μέσον τὸν σταθμόνX.An.1.7.14; ἐν μ. τῇ χώρᾳ ib.2.1.11; ἐκ μ. τῆς νήσου, κατὰ μ. τὴν νῆσον, Pl.Criti.113d, 119d; ἐπὶ μέσου τοῦ τμάματος at the middle point of the segment, Archim.Aequil.1.6; ἐπὶ μέσαν τὰν βάσιν ἀγομένα (sc. εὐθεῖα) ib.12: sts. following the Noun, “ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ μέσῃD.29.12: less freq. midmost, central, of three or more objects, “μ. ὁδόςThgn.220, 331; μ. [δάκτυλος] Pl.R.523c; τὸ μ. στῖφος the central division of the army, X.An.1.8.13; μέσον, τό, centre, “ ἐπὶ τὸ μ. φοράIamb.Protr.21.
b. with a Verb, ἔχεται μ. by the middle, by the waist, prov. from the wrestling-ring, Ar.Eq.387 (lyr.), cf. Ach. 571 (lyr.), Nu.1047, Ra.469; “μέσην λαβόνταId.Ach.274, cf. Hdt.9.107, D.53.17; “ πέπλος ἐρράγη μ.Philippid.25.5.
3. metaph., impartial, Th.4.83, PLond.1.113(1).27 (vi A.D.).
b. inter-mediate, freq. c. gen., “μ. τις γέγονα χρηματιστὴς τοῦ τε πάππου καὶ τοῦ πατρόςPl.R.330b; “ψιλὸν μὲν τὸ π_, δασὺ δὲ τὸ φ_, μέσον δὲ ἀμφοῖν τὸ β_D.H.Comp.14 (v. infr. d); τρίτη καὶ μ. τῶν εἰρημένων δυεῖν ἁρμονιῶν ib.24; μ. χαρακτήρ ib.21; indeterminate, Luc.Par.28; τὰ μ. things indifferent (neither good nor bad), Stoic.3.135, al.; of words such as τύχη, EM626.38; ζῴδια (neither lucky nor unlucky) Vett.Val.93.9; “μ. δίαιταDiocl.Fr.141, cf.Sor.1.46.
c. Gramm., of Verbs, middle, Eust. 1846.30, etc.; μ. διάθεσις, σχήματα, A.D.Synt.226.10, 210.18; μ. ἐνεστώς present middle, ib.278.25.
d. Gramm., of consonants, Lat. mediae, i. e. β_γ_δ_, D.T.631.23: but also of semi-vowels, Pl.Phlb.18c: of accent, ὀξύτητι καὶ βαρύτητι καὶ τῷ μέσῳ, i. e. the circumflex, Arist. Po.1456b33.
II. middling, moderate,
1. of size, μέσοι ὀφθαλμοί, ὦτα, γλῶττα, Id.HA492a8,33,b31; μ. μεγέθει ib.496a21, PPetr.1p.37 (iii B. C.); μ. alone, of middle height, PGrenf.2.23a ii 3 (ii B. C.), POxy. 73.13 (i A. D.), etc.
III. μέσον, τό, midst, intervening space, mostly with Preps.,
a. ἐν μέσσῳ, = ἐν μεταιχμίῳ, Il.3.69,90; “ἐν τῷ μ.in the midst, Ev.Matt.14.6; 'ν μέσῳ [μοῖρα] σῴζει πόλεις the middle class, E.Supp.244: without “ἐν, ἔμβαλε μέσσῳIl.4.444; “ἔνθορε μέσσῳ21.233; “μέσσῳ ἀμφοτέρων3.416, 7.277; “τῶνδέ τ᾽ ἐν μ. πεσεῖνE.Ph.583; “ἐν μ. λόγους ἔχεινId.Hel. 630; “μῆκος ἐν μ. χρόνουA.Supp.735; “χρόνος οὑν μ.E.Ph.589 (troch.); τὰ ἐν μ. what went between, S.OC583; οἱ ἐν μ. λόγοι the intervening words, Id.El.1364, E.Med.819; “κλίνης ἐν μ.Id.Hec.1150; ἐν μ. ἡμῶν καὶ βασιλέως between us and him, X.An.2.2.3; “σοφίας καὶ ἀμαθίας ἐν μ.Pl.Smp.203e; ἐν μ. νυκτῶν at midnight, X.Cyr.5.3.52; ἆθλα κείμεν᾽ ἐν μέσῳ offered for competition (cf. infr. b), D.4.5, cf. Thgn.994, X.An.3.1.21; τιμὴ ἐν τῷ μέσῳ ἔστω deposited with the court, Herod.2.90: without ἐν, καὶ μέσῳ πάντες καὶ χωρὶς ἕκαστος both collectively and severally, IG12(5).872.27,31,38, al. (Tenos): in pl., “κεῖτο δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἐν μέσσοισιIl.18.507; “ἐν μέσοισ᾽Xenoph.1.7; ἐν μέσῳ εἶναι τοῦ συμμεῖξαι to stand in the way of . . , X.Cyr.5.2.26; γὰρ θάλαττα ἐν τῷ μ. is an obstacle, Id.Ath.2.2; “οὐδεὶς ἐν μέσσῳ γείτων πέλενTheoc.21.17; “οὐδὲν ἂν ἦν ἐν μ. πολεμεῖν ἡμᾶςD.23.183; cf. ἰμέσος.
c. ἐκ τοῦ μέσου away, “ἐκ μ. ἀνελεῖνD.10.36, 18.294; [“χειρόγραφον] ἦρκεν ἐκ τοῦ μ.Ep.Col.2.14, cf. Arr.Epict.3.3.15; also ἐκ μ. a half, “ἔτη ὀκτὼ καὶ ἔνατον ἐκ μ.Th.4.133; also ἐκ μ. κατῆστο remained in the middle, i. e. neutral (cf. “ἐκ1.6 fin.), Hdt.3.83, cf. 4.118, 8.22,73.
d. διὰ μέσου between, “τὸ διὰ μ. ἔθνοςId.1.104; “διὰ μ. ποιεῖσθαιX.Cyr.6.3.3; διὰ μ. γενέσθαι intervene, of an event, Th.4.20: c. gen., “διὰ μέσου τῆς πόλεως ῥεῖ ποταμόςX. An.1.2.23; διὰ μ. ῥεῖ τούτων ποταμός ib.1.4.4, etc.; “τὸ τούτων διὰ μ.Pl.Lg.805e; also οἱ διὰ μέσου the middle party, the moderates, Th. 8.75, X.HG5.4.25; τὸ διὰ μ. the middle class, Arist.Pol.1296a8; of Time, “ διὰ μ. χρόνοςHdt.9.112; διὰ μ. ξύμβασις an interim agreement, Th.5.26; διὰ μέσου, as a figure of speech, use of parenthesis, Hdn.Fig.p.95S.
e. ἀνὀντὸ μ. in the midst, Alc.18.3, Xenoph.1.11, Thgn.839; ἀνὰ μέσον midway between, Arist.HA496a22, Antiph. 13, Theoc.22.21, etc.; “ἀνὰ μ. τοῦ ναοῦ καὶ τοῦ βωμοῦGDI2010 (Delph.), cf. PTeb.13.9 (ii B. C.), al.; “θρὶξ ἀνὰ μέσσονTheoc.14.9; “ἀνὰ μέσσαNic.Th.167; also ἀνὰ μέσον φέρε, = μετρίως, Men.531.18.
2. μέσον, τό, difference, τὸ μ. πρὸς τὰς μεγίστας καὶ ἐλαχίστας the average between . . , Th.1.10; πολλὸν τὸ μ., πολὺ τὸ μ., the difference is great, Hdt.1.126, E.Alc.914 (anap.); τὸ μ. οὐδὲν τῆς ἔχθρης ἐστί there is no middle course for our enmity, Hdt.7.11.
3. middle state, mean, “τὸ μ. καὶ τὸ εὖArist.EN1109b26; ποιήματα μέσα, opp. ὀγκώδη, in the (correct) mean, Phld.Po.5.5. Adv. -ως, ἀναστρέφεσθαιId.Rh.1.155S.
4. in Logic, τὸ μ. the middle term of a syllogism, opp. τὰ ἄκρα, Arist.APr.66a30; also μ. (sc. ὅρος) ib.25b33.
5. Math., middle terms in a proportion, Euc.6.16; μέση, or μέσημέσοςἀνάλογον a mean proportional (straight line or number), ib.13, 17, 8.11, 12, al.; “μέσης εὕρεσις An.413a19, Metaph.996b21; μέση medial, a specific kind of irrational (straight line), Euc.10.21, al.; μέσον ὀρθογώνιον χωρίον) medial rectangle (area), ib.24, al.
6. Astron., διὰ μέσων τῶν ζῳδίων κύκλος the ecliptic, Hipparch.1.9.3,4, Gem.2.21, Ptol.Alm.2.7: without κύκλος, Eudox. ap. Arist.Metaph.1073b20, Hipparch.1.9.12; simply, “ διὰ μέσωνD.L.7.146; but, μέσος [κύκλος] the equator of a rotating sphere, Arist.Metaph.1073b30.
7. μέσα, τά, = μέζεα, Blaes.p.191 K.
b. = κοιλία 1.3, Herod.Med. ap. Orib.5.27.3, Gal.14.732: sg., Heph.Astr.1.1 (v.l. τὰ μέσα Cat.Cod.Astr.8(2).45).
8. Μέσον, τό, one of the law-courts at Athens, Phot., Sch.Ar.V.120.
9. οὐ τοῖς μέσοις τῆς βίας χρωμένη no ordinary force, Hierocl.p.15 A.
IV. μέση, , as Subst., v. μέση.
V. Adv. μέσον, Ep. μέσσον, in the middle, Il.12.167, Od.14.300: c. gen., between, “οὐρανοῦ μ. χθονός <τε>E.Or.983 (lyr.), cf. Arr.Epict.2.22.10; in the midst of, “μ. τῆς θαλάσσηςLXX Ex.14.27; “μ. γενεᾶς σκολιᾶςEp.Phil.2.15: also in pl., “μέσα αἰετὸς οὐρανοῦ ποτᾶταιE.Rh.530 (lyr.), cf. Nic.Fr.74.26.
2. regul. Adv. “μέσως, πόλεώς τ᾽ οὐ μ. εὐδαίμονοςE.Andr.873, cf. Hec.1113, Isoc.9.23; καὶ μ. even in a moderate degree, even a little, Th.2.60; μ. ἔχειν πρός or περί τι to be in the mean . . , Arist.EN1105b28, 1119a11; “θερμότερον κραυρότερον μ. ἔχονEub.7.1, cf. Sosip. 1.53; μ. βεβιωκέναι in a middle way, i. e. neither well nor ill, Pl.Phd. 113d; “μ. μεθύωνMen.226; μ. διατιθέναι in an intermediate way, D.H. Comp.14.
b. Gramm., in the middle voice, A.D. Synt.276.21.
VI. irreg. Comp. “μεσαίτεροςPl.Prm.165b: Sup. “μεσαίτατοςHdt.4.17, Arist.Mu.392b33, Gem.9.3, etc.; poet. “μεσσότατοςA.R.4.649, Man. 6.373. (Cf. Skt.mádhyas 'middle', Lat. medius, etc.)
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