A carriage used in imperial times, and first mentioned by Pliny (
Pliny H. N. xxxiii. 140
). Like the reda
(q. v.), it was a travelling-carriage on four wheels. Nero is said to have
travelled with 500 (Lamprid. Heliog.
31) or even 1000 carrucae (Suet. Ner. 30
). These carriages were sometimes used
in Rome by persons of distinction, like the carpentum
(q.v.), in which case they appear to have been covered with plates of bronze,
silver, and even gold, which were sometimes ornamented with embossed work. Martial speaks of
an aurea carruca
which cost the value of a farm; and Alexander Severus
allowed senators at Rome to use carrucae and redae plated with silver (Lamprid. Alex.
43). These are the carrucae argentatae
, the use of which
within Rome spread in the course of the third century from the high officials to private
persons. We have no representations of carriages in ancient works of art which can be safely
said to be carrucae; but there are several illustrations of carriages ornamented with plates
of metal. Carrucae were also used for carrying women, and were then, as well perhaps as in
other cases, drawn by mules; whence Ulpian (Dig.
21. tit. 1, s. 38.8) speaks of